Российская Империя: Александр III. [13/16] [Eng Sub]


Uploaded by TheComradeRussia on 26.04.2012

Transcript:
NTV presents
300th Anniversary of the Russian Empire
300th Anniversary of St. Petersburg
Unveiling the monument to Alexander lll in Petersburg in 1909.
Fifteen years after the demise of the Emperor.
The subsequent epoch immortalizes the previous one
with a magnificent modernistic monument.
To everyone's amazement, the project of sculptor Paolo Trubetskoy
was chosen by Alexander lll's widow, Empress - Mother, Maria Fyodorova.
lnstead of an official monument - a monumentalized grotesque.
Contemporaries and descendants see a portrait of the epoch in that monument.
On an elephant - like horse, with fist jabbed to his side,
there is a huge rider with a thick beard
and a round fur hat on his head.
Nothing but a yardman.
He was considered the most Russian, the most austere, the most serene Czar.
The only ruler in whose reign there was not a single big war.
Alexander lll - The Peacemaker.
Afterthe assassination of Alexander ll, the first case of new Czar
concerns murder.
They ask the new Emperor to be merciful.
He says he has no right to spare his father's murderers.
Just lick Nicholas l, his reign begins with 5 hangings.
Zhelyabov, Perovskaya, Kibalchich, Mikhailov, Risakov.
How many conspirators are still at large is unknown.
ln case he is killed
Alexander lll appoints his younger brother, Vladimir Alexandrovich
prince regent, having a 13 - year - old son as the heir, Nicholas.
From Petersburg, the royal family moves to the country palace in Gatchina.
Chief Prosecutor Pobedonostsev - to Alexander lll:
' When you go to sleep, please close the door
not only of your bedroom, but all other rooms as well.
Atrusted person must look underthe furniture every evening.'
Uncrowned Alexander lives in Gatchina 2 years.
The palace was used in rare official cases.
The royal family lived in a side tower.
ln Soviet times, the Gatchina Palace served as a military school
then it was a ' secret' institute and is now being restored.
The so - called Tower study of Alexander lll.
The sternest power at the peak of the Russian Empire's might,
when it became 1 6 of the Earth.
Later, that concept would be frequently used.
The monarch's study was not more that 25 square meters.
Alexander lll did not have a secretary,
just like Nicholas ll.
Alexander, the second child in the family, became the heir
to the throne when his elder brother suddenly died.
As the heir, Alexander also received a bride,
daughter of the Danish King when they selected subsequent Russian empresses.
The marriage to Dagmar, in Orthodoxy, Maria Fyodorovna,
was a happy marriage.
Alexander lll was the first Russian Emperor - an exemplary family man.
The first Emperorto wear a beard.
lntelligent look, open face, straightforward strongman,
sincere in his sympathies and errors, workaholic and thrifty.
At home he wore patched up trousers.
Outside the royal bedroom was his personal garden,
that was the official name.
His appeal to the Russian nobility:
'l myself am the first landowner in each of your provinces.'
The garden of Gatchina landowner Alexander Romanov.
They always had household pets. The Czar walked the dogs.
The royal pets were buried in the courtyard.
Pusha. Popochka.
Parrot Popochka. Bull - bom.
Black.
Tip, the doggy, lived 13 years, died a natural death.
Shaggy Kamchatka was the family's favorite dog.
lt is seen in many royal photos. All Russia knew it.
They took Kamchatka south with them
and it perished in the crash of the royal train near Kharkov.
The killing of the reform emperor proved the reforms baneful.
Policy changed even before Alexander ll's funeral.
The ' convocation of rural and urban representatives' approved
by the late Czar was shelved for good
as it was seen as the first step to alien parliament and constitution.
Regretfully, all thoughts about parliament and constitution
were branded by Podedonostsev as the devil's schemes.
ln a letter of Pobedonostsev, Alexander lll writes about parliaments:
' As long as l live, l will not allow that lie in holy Russia,
the electoral choice is nothing but a sham
as it exists in Europe.'
ln childhood, Alexander's teacher,
currently - chief prosecutor, relentless fighter against liberalism,
Konstantin Pobedonostsev - ideological co - author of the epoch.
Repin's famous canvas 'State Council session.'
Pobedonostsev was in it for 35 years.
The chief prosecutor's Synod was called a ' stuffy tomb.'
''Wizard of Orthodoxy,' Grand lnquisitor.'
ln the Soviet empire, ideologist Pobedonostsev
was comparable to chief ideologist Suslov.
ln a separate Repin sketch Pobedonostsev really is horrible.
A live mummy.
At the start of Alexander lll's reign, Alexander Blok wrote:
''ln those awful years our hearts were filled with gloom,
over Russia, Pobedonostsev spread out owl's wings.'
Alexander lll's anti - liberalism is a faith not a conviction.
Just as he believed in God, he sacredly believed in Russia special destiny,
for which there was no place for Western reforms.
The Emperor of Russia is a sovereign with unlimited powers.
Although Alexander ll's doings are still called great,
the 25th anniversary of the abolition of serfdom is not celebrated.
The peasants are still not allowed to leave the rural community.
For 20 years, till Stolypin's reform, the formation of the kulak class was delayed.
Kostroma region and the village of Domnino,
the inherited family lands of Romanov boyars.
ln 1613 lvan Susanin led the enemy to the swamps.
The enemy perished and he did too.
ln this way, he saved Mikhail Romanov, founder of the dynasty.
The people's exploit ' Life for the Czar' was played out here.
Since then, the Czar gives his life forthe people.
Herein lies the great truth, coarse truth, hempen truth,
lt is rock - bottom truth like that lowest log.
lf it is pulled out, everything will crash and you will be killed.
How can Alexander lll and the Russian emperor himself
dissolve the peasant community?
The sacred unity of the Czar, peasant and land rests on it.
lf it disappears what of Russian will be left?
How can one disband this state farm called ' Susaninsky?'
lt could be called ' 300 anniversary of the House of Romanovs.'
So instead of public property there would be privately owned land?
So as to sell Russian land?
To sell Russian - style, means to betray. You know the punishment fortreason?
Once again - the triad ' Orthodoxy. Autocracy. National character.'
The Synod works as Ministry of Faith and Truth.
Forthe people, the Czar is God!
God!
The liberties of western semi - autonomies are quashed.
The Finns are deprived of troops, post offices. The Poles lose their currency.
The Latin alphabet of Lithuanians is changed to Cyrillics.
But they are Lutherans and Catholics.
The worst national minorities in the empire are unbelievers and Jews.
Four million Jews live in Poland and western provinces.
Those with higher education, merchants of the first guild,
and other elite are allowed to live in capital cities, but if any, the rules change.
The second and quite different half of his reign
Golden autumn in Saltykovka just like in Levitan's famous canvas.
The great Russian painter, lsaac Levitan.
He was not a specially religious Jew,
because of Jewish faith, he could not make the sign of the cross.
That is why he was twice ordered to leave Moscow.
His resettlement to the dacha town of Saltykovka
suited the authorities.
When he was first ordered to leave,
in Saltykovka, Levitan even tried suicide.
He could not have then painted his pictures full of Orthodox feeling:
''Eternal rest' and ' Evening chimes.'
A matter of denomination. Cross yourself and all doors are open to you.
Jews are restricted in trade, not allowed to assemblies, etc.
But very few change faith for rights and careers.
Solzhenitsyn ' 200 years together:'
''Pogroms, restrictive laws of Alexander lll
stirred a large part of Jewish you to struggle.'
The Russian word ' pogrom' entered world languages.
Of course, there were cases earlier, but from Alexander lll and on,
from Kiev and on, Jewish pogroms flow in regular waves.
Yelizavetgrad, today Kremenchug,
Yekaterinoslav province, today Dnepropetrovsk region,
Poltava province, Moldavia, Odessa province and Odessa itself.
Police try to check pogroms, but in vain.
Not only Jewish revolutionaries, self - defense units in Jewish settlements
but peaceful Jews are no less dangerous.
State commission on the Jewish question:
''Poorly developed peasantry, lacking enterprising drive and funds
must be protected from business contacts with Jews.'
NeitherJews nor authorities believe the Jewish question in Russia can be solved.
Under Alexander lll, the empire previously accepting newcomers,
mass exodus of Jews for the first time.
Annually, 15,000 Jews leave Russia, first of all, to America.
There, their descendants make up the cream of the banking and publishing business,
the future of Hollywood and show business.
Authorities do not obstruct the exodus.
Only on one condition: don't come back.
The West's notion of Russia and its Czar as a huge bear
is confirmed by Alexander lll betterthan anyone else.
But the bear did not come out of its den for a fight a single time.
For more than 100 years fishing with a rod did not change much.
Float, sinker and worm on the hook.
What progress is there to speak of?
Alexander lll was fond of fishing in the Gatchina ponds.
When they tried to distract him,
with some urgent report from London or Vienna,
he would usually reply:
''Europe can wait until the Russian Czar catches perches for himself.' .
And Europe waited.
But it resorted to a sharp foreign political turn.
The short reign of Alexander lll
ended for Russia as France's ally against Germany,
whereas it began as Germany's ally against England.
A direct clash of the No.1 British colonial empire and
the No. 2 Russian colonial empire was always considered impossible.
After all, a whale and elephant do not fight.
Heading south from Central Asia,
Russia takes overthe whole of Turkmenia.
Moving north from lndia, the British
establish a protectorate in Afghanistan.
The two empires meet.
Alexander lll's resolution on a dispatch from the Russian
ambassador in London: ''Nothing to negotiate with them.'
Under British leadership,
Afghans take over Pentin oases in south Turkmenia.
They are routed by General Komarov's brigade.
Britain declares mobilization, planning to attack Russia from the Black Sea.
Whitehall, the famous London street,
in which the Foreign Office is situated.
Previously, these buildings housed
an office with the remarkable name of ' Ministry for lndian Affairs.'
During the Russo - British clash in southern Turkmenia
it was headed by Randolph Churchill.
His son, Winston, the future great premier was 10 at that time.
All that is left from the former grandeur here is lndian tea in a nearby cafe,
which incidentally is named 'Churchill.'
The British view Russia as a glacier heading towards lndia.
As something huge prehistoric
heading from the north to lndia and ready to gobble it up,
the main gem in the crown of the British empire.
Randolph Churchill is ready even to waive the results of
the previous war with Russia.
The Crimean War it won.
Randolph Churchill declares:
he would give Russians Constantinople and the straits on condition
that they move their border in Central Asia 300 miles to the north.
Forthe first and last victory of the Russians against the Afghans
Alexander lll decorates General Komarov with a golden sword.
Russians did not fight the British.
Russia's allies, Germany and Austria - Hungary put pressure on Turkey
and the Sultan closed the Black Sea straits to British warships.
The ' London Protocol' is signed in this building in Whitehall
on Russia's border with Afghanistan.
All the disputed territory won by General Komarov,
Pendin oases goes to Russia.
According to the Protocol, Russia's border with Afghanistan,
is the future border of the USSR with Afghanistan,
now it is the border of former Soviet republics with Afghanistan.
''The town of Kushka is the southernmost point of the country.'
For a century, Russian and then Soviet pupils would memorize that.
The maximal advance of the Russian empire southwards,
Kushka is even further south than Tunis.
But Russia's union with Germany and Austria - Hungary
that ensured that southward thrust is short - lived.
Russians rival with Austrians in the Balkans,
in any dispute, the Austrians are closerto the Germans than Russians.
Russia leaves that union and comes closerto France.
At first, this looked practically unnatural.
Russian Foreign Minister Geers:
''How can the French think that emperor
Alexander would go against his uncle!'
Alexander lll is German emperor Wilhelm l's
grand nephew, and Wilhelm ll's second cousin.
The Russian Czar is a God anointed sovereign, France is a republic.
A new president is elected every 7 years.
But Alexander needs a new ally.
He steps over monarchial traditions.
ln 1891 Kronstadt is officially visited by
a French naval squadron.
Demonstratively, Alexander lll himself goes out to meet it.
On the even, a ticklish protocol problem is discussed,
but the emperor only shrugs his shoulders:
''Nothing terrible, let them play it once the French have such an anthem.
Boarding the flagship, he removes his cap and listens
to the revolutionary Marseillaise, France's anthem.
The first public performance of Marseillaise in Russia.
St. Petersburg Vedomosti:
''The two powers wield such powerful bayonets
that the Triple Alliance must 'stop and think'.
The Triple Alliance is Germany, Austria - Hungary and ltaly.
Two enemy camps of World War l shape out.
Starting with Alexander - father,
Russian capitalism under Alexander - son approaches its apogee.
The government consists of indisputable professionals:
Nikolai Bunge, lvan Vyshnegradsky, Sergei Witte.
Russia's state budget has a profit forthe first time.
Revenues exceed expenditures.
Forthe first time, the finance minister ratherthan the interior minister
is the key figure in the czarist government. Exchanges and
banks are not yet developed, products and capital move through fairs.
The largest one, Makaryevskaya in Nizhni Novgorod where the Oka flows into the Volga.
Every year on July 15, the flag was raised at the opening of the fair.
ln Alexander lll's reign, the white - blue - red banner,
previously, Russia's merchant flag became the state flag.
Perhaps, the only instance in history of nobility of the Russian empire
when the merchant symbol
became the national flag.
The popular belief was that if the flag fluttered in the wind
the trading would be brisk.
But it does not flutter.
ln that form, the fair has not been held since 1917.
The main fair house - in a truly Russian style.
Nizhni Novgorod, the third city in the empire, leading trade center,
Russia's pocket. The fair was the Czar's national exhibition.
lts pavilions are the pride of Russian produces.
Young Chaliapin sings at the fair opera house.
The fair's circus moves into a stationary building.
Every year sees more colorful catalogues of prostitutes
catering to the businessmen.
Money from the fair is used to build the city historical center, including
the main shopping pedestrian thoroughfare of the city.
lt was precisely this fairthat taught Russia to drink tea.
Forthe 17th, 18th,19th centuries, right up to the great reforms
tea, mainly Chinese, was the main product here.
The domestic market becomes more important than the foreign market.
The purchasing power of the public grows.
At the turn of the century Russia drinks tea on a large scale.
For Russian merchants, having tea with a business partner
is the main business lunch.
Tea is downed in whole samovars.
A good deal is called
''A Grand Tea Party.'
Sergei Witte:
''Russia can become great only
when the country is industrial as well as agrarian.'
Private capitalism is still young,
it alone cannot develop industry.
The country opens the doors to foreign capital.
ln Alexander lll's reign, they are not afraid of accusations of selling out.
Lands on the border are not sold to foreigners.
They are not allowed to the gun powder business and gold mining.
At the end of the century, half of the world oil production is in Baku.
On the oil pipeline are Swede Nobel and French Jew Rothschild.
Donbass surpassed the Urals in coal output forthe first time.
lt is in the hands of Englishman John Youze. He founded his capital
Youzovka - present - day Donetsk.
Enterprises of foreign investors of first Russian capitalism
are easily recognized by their names.
And right after October, they were renamed very revolutionarily.
The ' Hammer & Sickle' Plant was the former Gujon Plant.
''Red Proletariat' was the plant of the Bromley Brothers.
''Red October'' was the Einam Company, ' New Dawn'' - Brokar & Co.,
''Red Dawn' - the former Ericsson.
The ' Kirov Electrosila Association'
All these factory buildings
also nearthe ' Electrosila' Metro station,
were it not for expropriation and renaming would be ' Siemens.'
Perhaps, even ' Siemens' Metro station.
The epoch of saving and savings as such.
Private deposits in state banks increased 33 times in Alexander lll's reign.
Gas lamps in town are replaced by electric lamps.
New apartment buildings have running water
and even telephones.
A decision of the Council of Ministers:
''lnstallation of telephone lines is given to private businessmen
to be chosen by the lnterior Minister.'
Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Warsaw and Riga are telephonized by
the company of inventor, American Alexander Bell.
This building in Moscow's Kuznetsky Bridge Street
housed Russia's first telephone exchange.
Just like mobile phones more than 100 years later.
At first, telephones are very expensive. Only banks could afford them.
But in 20 years, the rates diminish 5 times.
By that time, Ericsson replaces Alexander Bell in Russia.
The first inter - urban line is stretched from Petersburg to Gatchina.
Alexander lll is the first Russian leader with a hotline,
a government telephone system.
lt is forbidden to take engage in business and politics.
The Russian idea of the '80s is to go into the mass with small matters.
ln the epoch of reforms, the provinces get
local bodies of self - government.
Their rights are few, but the most difficult duty
to raise the level of civilization of Russian life.
Simbirsk, Moskovskaya Street, the home of the Ulyanov family.
Russia's largest preserved memorial of the '80s in the 19th century.
The creators of epoch of small matters, the townspeople lived here.
Here in the middle of the street, in wooden houses
in his own home, together with wife and six children,
lived inspector and then director of public schools, lived llya Ulyanov.
During 10 years of his work 434 schools were opened in Simbrisk province.
Mass primary education in the illiterate country
was started by thousands of such 3 - year local schools.
The ' zemstvo' organizes district health aid, a system that still remains today.
Forthe first time, local doctors examine most of Russia's population,
free of charge.
Private practice forfees also existed,
but work in the ' zemstvo' was regarded a civic duty.
' Zemsky' doctor Kapustin:
' Doctor's aid is not a personal service at the patient's expense,
nor is it an act of charity, it is a public service.'
Never would a doctor orteacher be valued so highly,
in all respects of that notion.
ln public education, llya Ulyanov
rose to the level of state counselor, the rank of a general.
And is awarded a hereditary gentry title.
llya Ulyanov was farfrom the landlords of stone mansions in Simbirsk,
but the prosperity of the Ulyanov family was unbelievable
for example, for Soviet employees.
On the salary of a then head of a regional educational department
llya Ulyanov has a home: 10 rooms and 2 terraces,
a cook, a nanny, a messenger, seasonal garden workers.
Atown estate: 2 hectares of buildings and another 3 hectares of orchards.
ln the yard - a coach - house, woodshed, hayloft and steam bathhouse.
Here they played croquet and other games,
and the favorite children's game then - giant steps.
This game is for4 children.
You put yourfoot into a strap and you run and push off,
and due to centrifugal force you rise higher with each push.
So you make giant steps.
At the expense of local budgets, life and work in the empire,
were finally registered and analyzed.
Russian ' zemstvo' statistics were regarded the best in the world.
They reflected the development of capitalism in Russia.
Journalists of the Petersburg 'Weekly' paper, authors of the theory of little matters,
also worked as statisticians in the ' zemstvos' so as to study life.
The rule of the ' zemstvo' imposed restrictions,
but more than others improved life in Russia.
Road repairs and insurance, savings banks and orphanages,
did small things everywhere and systemically.
The ' zemsky' worker is the best type of Russian liberal,
believing in progress through labor and moderation.
Like in today's ads, then too:
the unique style was passed on to the next generation with
with a watch and fur coat.
lt too was often passed from fatherto son.
And the raccoon coat of llya Ulyanov, 130 years old,
went to his son, Vladimir Ulyanov.
He will wear it in Siberian exile, in the village of Shushenskoye,
and will also wear it afterthe revolution.
Later it is passed on to his younger brother, Dmitri Ulyanov.
ln the fall of 1888, Alexander lll and his family tour of the empire.
ln the Caucasus, they reach Batumi, return by steamship to Sevastopol,
and immediately board a train.
The next day, the first stop in Kharkov,
where a gala meeting is expected.
Less than an hour before Kharkov. Dessert for breakfast
Alexander's favorite - cream of wheat with shredded nuts.
Awaiter comes up to the emperorto add more cream,
suddenly an awful crash and everything is lost.
The royal train is derailed.
On the 277th km of the Kursk - Kharkov - Azov Railway,
the Taranovka - Borki stage is where the royal train crashed.
The coaches fly down from a high embankment.
The walls of the dining coach were damaged,
it was crushed under its own roof.
23 people perished, but none of the Romanovs were even injured,
just minor bruises. A real miracle:
the waiter adding cream next to the Czar was killed.
The silver cigarette case in the Czar's pocked was flattened,
but Alexander did not even feel the blow.
The train crash in Borki astounded Russia.
All newspapers carry the details.
Some say the Czar lifted the edge of the coach roof on his shoulders,
to allow his close one to get out of the wreck.
The ' Niva' Journal:
''God did not permit misfortune for Russia:
Czar, Czarina and the august children were preserved forthe Fatherland.'
Prayers were held that day forthe miraculous salvation of the royal family,
and a requiem forthe dead.
Later a church was built at the site of the catastrophe.
Only a half - ruined chapel remains there.
The Czar always mentioned God
and the supervisor of the Southwest Railway.
Several weeks before the accident at Borki
the supervisor demanded that the royal train
should lower its speed on his section.
Amazed by this, the Czar even wished to hear his explanation.
The railroad engineer explained ardently
that the heavy Pullman coaches could not travel that fast,
that an accident was inevitable.
Now that brazen provincial
is appointed by Alexanderto head the Railways Department.
The name of that engineer was Witte.
The ' star' of that statesmen at the turn of the century rises.
Sergei Witte will be the Railways Minister,
Finance Minister and Prime Minister of Russia.
Coming from the Russified Dutch, smart, sarcastic and extremely
vain Witte acted economically.
He regulated tariffs and earned won the nickname ' tariff - master.'
by '91, railways were making a 40% profit.
A railway worker is a prestigious profession of a half - a - million people.
Engineers and conductors, telegraph operators and inspectors
bring progress to roadless Russia.
The simplest coaches on Russian railways -
are 3rd class commuter coaches.
ln Chekhov's story ' Book of Complaints'
all of Russia travels by rail, leaving their entries in books
of complaints, such as:
''Approaching this station and looking at nature, my hat flew off.'
The railroad boom of the '90s turns Russia into a great railway power.
On the average, 12,500 km of railways were built annually.
And once an even absolute record was set,
unbeaten even by Soviet labor camps:
Five thousand 200 km of track in one year.
The main class difference in the country was the class of travelling:
3rd class - green coaches, 2nd class - yellow,
and 1st class - blue.
Alexander Block writes:
''The coaches traveled customarily, shaking and squeaking,
The yellow and blue were silent. ln the green - there was crying and singing.'
At the peak of the railway boom, they decide to link the whole empire by rail.
The Trans - Siberian route, will enable the authorities to reach the most remote points,
so as not to lose Vladivostok like Sevastopol was lost.
At that time, the railroad from the center reached Chelyabinsk.
From the Urals to Primorye, another 7,500 km through the taiga,
blasting tunnels through mountains, spanning bridges over great Siberian rivers.
Sergei Witte:
''Trans - Sib will give the Russian Navy all it needs
and give it a firm base in our ports.'
To his heir, the future Nicholas ll,
the Czar entrusts laying the ground for Trans - Sib in Vladivostok.
On the edge of the Pacific in a valley near Kuperova,
the heir shovels in the first batch of gravel.
On May 19, 1891
the heirto the throne, Nicholas with shovel and wheelbarrow
begins building the Trans - Siberian Railway.
The last Romanov became the hoop of railroads uniting Russian lands.
Laterthe track was moved higher and further.
lnitially, the track was too close to the ocean.
For over a century, Trans - Sib is Russia's main transport artery.
And the longest railroad in the world.
The billions of gold rubles swelled.
ln today's terms, this is more than the country's annual budget.
Forthe second time, after Yermak, Siberia was conquered.
Where Trans - Sib crosses the Ob , a new capital was founded,
Novo - Nikolayevsk station, today - Novosibirsk.
The reform epoch in Russia is called ' a thaw.'
Correspondingly, counter - reforms are ' frosts.'
Counter - reformists keep on warning:
Thaw brings on high - water, spring floods that will destroy everything.
Konstantin Leontiev's phrase: 'Russia must be frozen'
for over a century is the motto of radical Russian conservatives.
ln his article ' Literacy and National Character,' Leontiev urges
''not to hurry with education'',
so that the liberal West does not spoil the national soul.'
The harm of public education was understood by many regimes,
but Russian conservatives were not shy to admit this openly.
Alexander lll's remark on testimony of peasant woman Ananina,
preparing her son for grammar school:
''lt's terrible - a peasant trying to enter grammar school!'
The odious circular about ' A Cook's children' is adopted in 1887.
Russia whose first academic came to Moscow with a fisherman's convoy
forbids not only peasant children to enter grammar school,
but ordinary urban children as well.
From a circular of the Education Department:
''Grammar school shall get rid of children of coachmen, cooks, petty retailers
that must not be let out of the medium to which they belong in general.'
' Public talent' of the previous epoch
as the main driving force of the huge country,
no longer has access even to secondary education.
The memorial class of the former Simbirsk classical grammar school.
''The circular about cook's children was adopted so as not to allow them to enter school,
and from here, not to allow potential revolutionaries to enter university.
But the main functionary of the October Revolution
will be the graduate of that school when the circular was adopted in 1887,
hereditary nobleman Vladimir Ulyanov.
The main figure between the February and October revolutions
is the son of the principal of that high school, Alexander Kerensky.
On the basis of the ' Circular,' the son of a laundry woman, Nikolai
is expelled from high school in Odessa.
Later he becomes the famous writer Kornei Chukovsky.
He writes about that in 'Silver Coat of Arms.'
Kornei Chukovsky, ' Silver Coat of Arms' :
''Taking off my cap, the school inspector did a horrible thing:
he rips off the school coat of arms and hands me my cap without it.'
The expelled pupil works as a painter's helper.
He masters English by himself.
Translator and literary critic Chukovsky
will later be elected Professor Emeritus of Oxford University.
An honorthat was first bestowed on Alexander l and Alexander ll.
But was not bestowed on Alexander lll.
The empire has 7 universities with 25,000 students.
The most decisive and swift reforms are carried out here.
Educational fees increase fivefold, student uniforms are returned,
curricula are standard, the old charter is annulled.
The rector is now appointed, not elected.
Failing students are drafted into the army in Russia in 1884.
The hallway in the main building of St. Petersburg University,
it is also called ' Second Nevsky.'
Right on Nevsky Avenue,
three years afterthe new university Charter was adopted
police arrest those plotting to assassinate Alexander lll.
All are students.
The most well - known is Alexander Ulyanov,
eldest son in the family of the Simbirsk school principal.
Student organizations are prohibited
and force underground, they only become more radical.
Through student circles and university corridors,
Marxism enters Russia.
ln the Case of Alexander Ulyanov, 15 revolutionaries are involved.
They are all sentenced to death. The Czar endorses the hanging
of 5 that did not repent. Ulyanov among them.
From the appeal of the state counselor's widow, M. Ulyanova,
to pardon her son:
''lf l could imagine my son a scoundrel,
l would find the courage to turn my back on him...
My son always hated terrorism.'
Remark of Alexander lll:
''She doesn't know her son!'
The press is regarded as the vector spreading disease.
ln pre - reform Russia it is easy to open a media outlet.
The authorities close one newspaper,
a unique group of journalists begins publishing another.
Chief Prosecutor Pobedonostsev:
''The most worthless people - some former money - lender of Jew - factor
can found a newspaper, recruit talented employees
and release their publication as mouthpiece of public opinion.'
ln the reign of Alexander lll, 7 newspapers are closed,
another 8 are forced to close,
80,000 rubles a year are allocated forthe conservative paper ' Citizen.'
Criticism of any action of any authorities
publication of articles against government establishments
are officially banned.
The same bans exist in literary fiction.
All the literature banned in the 19th century now fits into one computer,
all the books banned by Alexander can be reproduced by the click of a mouse.
in 1884 133 titles were banned.
Ten years later - another 165 titles.
Of all the Russian authors, the most that suffered were: Dobrolyubov,
Korolenko, Pisarev, Garshin
the past was cleaned out: the files of 8 journals were removed from libraries
those printed in the epoch of great reforms.
lncluding Nekrasov's 'Contemporary'
and Saltykov - Shchedrin's 'Homeland Notes.'
The most problematic author was Leo Tolstoy.
His confession ' ln what do l believe,'
''Folk tales' are banned in manuscript.
His play ' Rule of Darkness' is allowed in print but not on stage.
' Kreutzer Sonata' is banned,
afterthe Czar's meeting with the author's wife, publication
was permitted, but removed from libraries.
The main author about conflicts of the epoch,
lvan Turgenev went to Europe long ago,
and only rarely visited Russia from his estate near Paris.
This road around the field and these weeping willows
are described in by Turgenev in his last novel ' New.' .
He finished here at his estate near Paris.
All revolutionaries attacked Turgenev forthat novel.
Only, he described that not as an estate in France,
but as a Russian estate.
There is not much new in the novel ' New.'
A loving couple goes to the people, but loses their love and belief in their cause,
the peasants turn the rebels into the police.
ln the disputes about Russia's ' way'
Turgenev was seen as the leader of ' Western' liberals.
Dostoyevsky was the leader of ' Slavophils' conservatives.
Now the disputes have ended.
The authorities opted for the ' Slavophils.'
ln front of his desk in the estate,
Turgenev mounted a replica made for him
Polenev's ' Moscow Yard.'
ln this yard, it always seems that Gerasim is taking Mu - Mu to drown it.
This is where he wrote the famous poem in prose,
including that which was memorized by Soviet pupils:
''Oh, the great and mighty Russian language!
How can one not fall in despair to see what is going on at home.'
At the request of compilers of the dictionary of the French language,
Turgenev introduces Russian loan - words.
For example, ' la troika' - ' troika.'
ln general, this is sooner the study of a ' Slavophil.'
That Turgenev was a ' westerner' as Dostoyevsky was a ' Slavophil.'
They were authorities of those doctrines, rulers of other people's minds.
But they themselves were free from those doctrines.
But they were not free from their own minds.
The most famous Russian writer in Europe,
together with Victor Hugo,
Turgenev, heads the lnternational Literary Congress.
Still the heirto the throne, future Alexander lll,
arriving in Paris, has a special meeting with Turgenev.
They did not impress each other.
Right after Alexander ascends the throne
Turgenev writes an anonymous article
forthe main French political journal.
At his request, the article is slightly edited by Guy de Mopassant.
From Turgenev's anonymous letter ' Alexander lll'
in ' La Revue politique et Literaire' :
''Perhaps. Liberals will able to prove to the emperor
that liberal reforms will by no means shake the throne,
but would only make it stronger.'
Not the first northe last time in favor of Russian liberalism
do they write from abroad and for abroad,
but also that Russia's authorities would take heed of this.
Turgenev died at his estate. Before he died, he dictated his story ' The End.'
ln the story, peasants kill their landlord because of land.
Every Russian reign had its own style
every Russian style was part of world style.
''Baroque' of Yelizaveta, 'classicism' of Yekaterina,
''Empire'' of Alexander l - always competing with Europe.
losing here, winning there.
Only the style of Alexander lll has no analogues in the world.
A church at the place where his father emperor was assassinated.
The end of the 19th century, the emperor - son builds as if the mid - 16th century
''Savior on Blood' as if St Basil's Cathedral,
but much larger and not quite suitable for Petersburg.
Huge ancient Russian chambers were quite right in downtown Moscow.
The opening of the History Museum coincides with the crowning of Alexander lll.
And is named in his honor.
Here is a Gothic castle and a Russian tower.
But the tower is higher with roofs and turrets.
Russian inside and outside.
At the same level with the History Museum is the Moscow Duma.
lt looks like a gingerbread.
An edible cake that everyone will like later.
ln this monument of Alexander's epoch, they will open the Lenin Museum,
and a writer of children's stories will write about
''a big, beautiful red building like a palace.'
From the rules of the Moscow Duma contest:
''The facades must be in the
style of Russian architecture of the 16th, 17th centuries.'
They could not even find a name for such architecture.
A century passed and they became accustomed to this ancient fake,
without the newcomers that vie for contemporaries of the Kremlin,
it is impossible to imagine these places any other way.
Opposite the Kremlin, always determining the width of Red Square,
the Upper Shopping Malls are placed.
lnside is a European glass - covered arcade
and a fountain in the center as a meeting place.
Outside there are also colorful towers.
Pot - belly towers are made of wood - resembling granite.
The History Museum and present GUM have formed Red Square.
The royal collection of Russian paintings forms the ' Russian Museum of Alexander lll.'
ln Mikhailovsky Palace, present - day the ' State Russian Museum.'
The Court was especially fond of historical paintings.
Vasily Surikov paints real people in real events.
Victor Vasnetsov mixes reality with fables and fairy tales.
And among the 3 strongmen, people recognize Alexander lll in llya Muromets.
All Russian emperors loved music,
but Alexander lll was also a musician.
According to him, he played the piano ' not bad.'
and played the piano in 4 hands with his wife.
He played all wind instruments.
As a boy, he played the cornet, a small copper horn.
As emperor, he played the waldhorn,
but rarely, not enough time.
But at times, still the heir,
every week in the brass band he played the helicon.
Here is the helicon.
lt is behind the whole orchestra, but its sound is heard by all.
The lowest bass.
Specially enlarged helicons were ordered for Alexander.
A usual one was too tight for him.
The heavy instrument pressed so hard on the shoulder - straps
that Alexander always wore civvies when he played in the orchestra.
He played 4 hours every Thursday for 9 years.
That's how much he loved music!
Performances in the lmperial Theater begin with Alexander lll.
The main evening performance.
ln honor of date, jubilee or visit of a foreign statesman.
Subsidies for actors grew sharply, choirs and orchestras grew.
The emperor personally endorses opera and ballet repertories.
ln the Mariinsky Theater, he is actually the artistic director.
He doesn't miss a single general rehearsal.
From now on, the Russian empire sparkles with its special stars
appearing on its shining and luxurious musical stage.
The classic acclaimed during his life, Pyotr Chaikovsky.
Pyotr Chaikovsky:
''One cannot be endlessly grateful to the Czar
who attaches importance to artistic activity.'
From Glinka under Nicholas l to Chaikovsky under Alexander lll is 50 years.
ln that period, Russian beauty became more refined, richer and more melancholy.
The best spiritual movements that were viewed as strictly private,
now enjoy generous state support.
Glinka's main creation is a heroic - patriotic opera
Only a standard apartment with firewood.
''Life forthe Czar' and what does he get forthat?
Chaikovsky composed only one state epic composition:
The ' 1812' Overture, but he bears the Order of St. Vladimir.
He also has the Emperor's pensions of 3,000 rubles in silver peryear.
lt does not mean he is a pensioner of imperial significance,
it means he is a People's Artist of the Russian Empire.
At the end of his life, Chaikovskky rents this mansion in Crimea.
After he dies, the state pays for his funeral.
Forthe first time, after Pushkin.
After world Russian literature,
world Russian music begins after Chaikovsky.
ln the '80s his music is acclaimed equally abroad and at home.
On the conductor's podium
Chaikovsky represents Russia in the best theaters of Europe.
After his concerts, he is carried in arms to the hotel or station.
Chaikovsky about his concerts in Prague:
''l was received as if l was not a representative of Russian music,
but as of the whole of Russia.'
ln 1891 Chaikovsky tours almost unattainable America.
ln New York he opens the main philharmonic hall ' Carnegie Hall.'
This super - star will never wane.
Together with Mozart, Chaikovsky is biggest box - office attraction in history.
Repertory records: ' Queen of Spades,' ' Onegin,'
''1st Piano Concerto' and 'Last Symphony'
''Swan Lake'' - the world's greatest ballet.
' Nutcracker Suite' the main music for Christmas.
This is known even by the world's dumbest characters - Beavis and Butthead.
Russia's 13th emperor ruled 13years.
Half as much as his father or grandfather rule.
Death at the middle of his reign
He died of kidney insufficiency.
Soviet historians hold that alcoholism cause his death.
But this has not been officially confirmed.
ln the summer of 1894, an effort to cure by climate,
the Czar is taken from one place to another.
On Sept. 21 the royal family arrives at the Livadiya Palace in Crimea.
Here, the strong Czar, only 50, wanes in a month.
A huge giant, Alexander deteriorates quickly due to disease..
He cannot practically eat anything; he can neither walk nor lay on the bed.
and he practically cannot sleep.
When it was clearthe emperor was hopeless,
from Germany, they urgently summons the bride of the heirto the throne,
with the parents' blessings
to the dying monarch, for the last time in parade uniform
Princes of Hessen - Drmshatskaya
quickly takes on the role of ' Empress in 5 minutes.'
appointing her indecisive intended bridegroom ' emperor within 5 minutes.'
Princess Alice writes in the diary of Tsareviich Nicholas:
''Make so the doctor comes every day
and reports how he feels, so that you always know first about that...
be firm and don't let others forget who you are.'
The emperor died in an armchair in his study in Lyvadia Palace.
Already after 1.5 hours afterthe death of Alexander lll,
here are the local Church,
the oath of faithfully serving the throne is taken by Nicholas ll.
No one could imagine that
On the next day in the same church, a requiem forthe deceased,
and a request to Orthodoxy from Lutheran Princess Alice.
She became Alexandra Fyodorovna.
Here she could have become the Czarina,
but the wedding ceremony was moved to Petersburg.
The last Czarist wedding.
Proved to be part of the last Czarist funeral in the Russian empire.
The most pompous in its history.
Through the whole of Russia, Alexander lll moved in a funeral squadron.
ln Petersburg, the whole of Nevsky Avenue was coated in black.
As well as the Peter and Paul Cathedral.
as if at the funeral of a knight, the caisson is followed
by his favorite horse, Lord, covered with a black cape.
Representatives from all governments reigning houses of Europe are in the cathedral.
Together with the Romanovs are all Orthodox monarchs
and the most august close relatives -
Danish and English.
Sergei Witte:
''lf Alexander lll resigned as long as he should,
by his own conviction, he would have
advanced Russia to the road of quiet liberalism.'
is only a supposition.
The road of quiet liberalism.
During his life, there was much quiet, but very little liberalism.
But there was the conviction that any liberalism will disturb quiet life.
lndeed, not a single sovereign here
left his empire in such a quiet state.
But even underthe reign of Alexander lll, they realized:
the Russian pot had been patched up, but one day it may explode.
Only 10 years afterthe most tranquil Russian Czar
the first Russian revolution will break out.