Office Hours: Children and Advertising


Uploaded by uwmadison on 16.02.2011

Transcript:
cc >> THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM IS A SPECIAL PRESENTATION OF THE BIG TEN NETWORK,
PRODUCED IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN.
>> RESEARCHERS HAVE FOUND CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 2 AND 11 SEE MORE THAN 25,000 ADVERTISEMENTS
ON TELEVISION PER YEAR. WHAT EXACTLY ARE AMERICA'S CHILDREN BEING EXPOSED TO, AND WHAT IS THE SHORT-TERM
AND LONG-TERM IMPACT OF THIS COMMERCIAL BOMBARDMENT? WE'LL EXPLORE THE INTERACTION OF MARKETING, CONSUMER SCIENCE,
AND DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY WHEN IT COMES TO COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING TARGETED AT CHILDREN NEXT, DURING "OFFICE HOURS."
HI, I'M KEN GOLDSTEIN, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON.
IN TODAY'S WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY OVERLOAD, YOUNGER AND YOUNGER CHILDREN ARE BEING EXPOSED TO PRODUCT BRANDING AND MARKETING.
TOY COMPANIES, LEARNING PROGRAMS AND RESTAURANTS ARE ALL VYING FOR A PREMIER SPOT IN TODDLER AND PARENT MINDS.
JOINING US TODAY TO TALK ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN IS UW CONSUMER SCIENCE LECTURER, ANNA McALISTER.
PROFESSOR McALISTER IS AN EXPERT ON THE CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN, AND RESEARCHES THE INTERSECTION OF DEVELOPMENT
AND PERSUASION. ANNA, WELCOME TO "OFFICE HOURS." >> THANK YOU. >> THANKS FOR JOINING US TODAY.
LET ME FIRST HAVE YOU EXPLAIN EXACTLY THE DIFFERENT WAYS THAT KIDS ARE TARGETED BY ADVERTISERS, WHETHER IT BE
TELEVISION, WHETHER IT BE GAMES, WHETHER IT BE THE INTERNET. >> MM-HMM, SURE. I THINK SOME OF THE TRADITIONAL
THINGS WE THINK ABOUT ARE TRADITIONAL FORMS OF MEDIA LIKE TV, RADIO, THAT SORT OF THING.
CHILDREN THESE DAYS ARE RECEIVING A LOT OF BRAND MESSAGES FOR THINGS LIKE PRODUCT PLACEMENT, AS WELL.
FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN THEY ARE WATCHING A TV SHOW OR A MOVIE, THE CAMERA MAY ZOOM IN PAST A SCENE WHERE A FAMILY
IS EATING BREAKFAST, AND THERE'S THE CEREAL BOX. WE ALL NOTICE THE BRAND THAT'S ON IT, OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT,
ALSO, THROUGH GAMING, AS WELL. THE CONCEPT WE TEACH A LOT IN OUR CLASSES ABOUT THIS IS ADVER-GAMING, WHERE CHILDREN
ARE PLAYING GAMES THAT THEY MAY THINK ARE JUST SORT OF FUN AND ENTERTAINING, BUT IN THE BACKGROUND, THERE MAY BE
BILLBOARDS. MAYBE THEY'RE PLAYING A SHOOTING GAME, AND THEY'RE RUNNING DOWN AN ALLEY, AND THERE'S
A BRAND IN THE BACKGROUND. THE IDEA IS THAT THEY'RE PICKING THAT UP SORT OF SUBCONSCIOUSLY. SOMETIMES ALSO WITH
ADVER-GAMING, WE MAY HAVE CHILDREN INVOLVED IN A GAME THAT'S VERY, VERY CLEARLY RELATED TO THE BRAND.
SO, FOR EXAMPLE, I WAS SHOWING MY STUDENTS ONE YESTERDAY WITH M&Ms. IT WAS KIND OF LIKE
A TETRIS GAME, BUT ALL THE PIECES YOU'RE MOVING ARE DIFFERENT COLORED M&Ms. SO AGAIN, JUST FILLING THAT
FAMILIARITY WITH A BRAND, DURING A TIME WHEN YOU'RE FUN AND EXCITED. SO, OBVIOUSLY, THERE'S THAT
PAIRING OF THE BRAND WITH THE POSITIVE EMOTION. >> I REMEMBER WHEN MY KIDS WERE YOUNGER, THERE WAS LIKE
A CHEERIO GAME, AND YOU HAVE TO COUNT WITH CHEERIOS, A SIMILAR SORT OF THING. >> RIGHT.
>> SO, THERE ARE THESE DIFFERENT WAYS, THE ADVER-GAMES. I WANT TO TALK ABOUT THAT A LITTLE BIT MORE LATER ON.
BUT IN TERMS OF THE TRADITIONAL WAY WE'VE THOUGHT ABOUT IT, DIRECT TELEVISION ADVERTISING. WE KEEP HEARING KIDS
ARE WATCHING MORE AND MORE TELEVISION. ARE THEY STILL WATCHING MORE AND MORE TELEVISION, OR ARE THEY
WATCHING MORE TELEVISION THAT'S AIMED MORE TOWARDS CHILDREN, SO THEN CREATES THE ABILITY FOR ADVERTISERS TO TARGET CHILDREN
BETTER? ANOTHER WAY OF PUTTING IT IS, I'LL COP TO WATCHING QUITE A LOT OF TV WHEN I WAS A KID,
BUT THERE WASN'T NICKELODEON, THERE WASN'T THE DISNEY CHANNEL. WE JUST HAD SATURDAY MORNING CARTOONS.
>> MM-HMM. I THINK THERE'S SOME EVIDENCE SUGGESTING THAT CHILDREN ARE WATCHING MORE HOURS
OF TELEVISION. AND PART OF THAT HAS BEEN WITH A MOVE TOWARDS A MORE COMMON MODEL OF A TWO-INCOME FAMILY.
SO, WITH TWO PARENTS WORKING, THERE'S A LOT, IT'S A LOT HARDER TO, FOR EXAMPLE, FIND THE TIME
TO COOK DINNER WHEN YOU'VE GOT KIDS RUNNING AROUND THE HOUSE. YOU MAY SIT THEM IN FRONT OF THE TV, THAT SORT OF THING.
SO, CHILDREN ARE SPENDING A LOT OF TIME IN FRONT OF THE TV. THEN WE NEED TO ASK, WELL, IS IT COMMERCIAL TV THEY'RE WATCHING,
OR IS IT OTHER THINGS? IS IT DVDs, WHERE MAYBE THERE'S VERY LIMITED ADVERTISING, ALTHOUGH, OF COURSE, THERE MAY
BE THE PRODUCT PLACEMENT THEN. BUT YOU KNOW, SO YES, CHILDREN ARE WATCHING TV, OFTENTIMES A FEW HOURS A DAY.
WE'VE DONE SOME RESEARCH ON THAT, AND FOUND QUITE A BIT OF VARIANCE. SOME CHILDREN ARE WATCHING ZERO,
OR HALF AN HOUR A DAY, AND OTHERS, I HAD ON ONE SURVEY RESPONSE RECENTLY, THAT ONE CHILD WAS WATCHING
UP TO SIX HOURS PER DAY. AND THAT WAS A PRESCHOOL CHILD. SO, DIFFERENCES IN DIFFERENT HOUSEHOLDS, I SUPPOSE.
>> WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HOW KIDS CONSUME ADVERTISING? MY KIDS ALWAYS HATE IT WHEN I TALK ABOUT THEM.
BUT THE OTHER NIGHT I WAS WATCHING A SHOW WITH MY SON, AND I SEE HIM GOING LIKE THIS ON THE REMOTE CONTROL.
I'M GOING, "WHAT ARE YOU DOING?" HE'S GOING, "I WANT TO TiVO THROUGH THE AD," AND WE WERE ACTUALLY WATCHING SOMETHING
LIVE, SO HE COULDN'T TiVO THROUGH THE AD. HE'S SO USED TO AUTOMATICALLY NOT WATCHING AN ADVERTISEMENT.
ARE KIDS AS YOUNG AS WHO YOU'RE RESEARCHING DOING THAT? OR ARE THEY WATCHING THESE THINGS LIVE, WHERE THEY'RE
PASSIVELY TAKING IN ADVERTISEMENTS. >> I THINK WHAT YOU'RE DESCRIBING THERE IS VERY MUCH
A LEARNED BEHAVIOR. SO, YOUR CHILD HAS PROBABLY WATCHED YOU DOING THAT YOURSELF, AND HAS LEARNED TO SORT OF
FLICK THROUGH THE COMMERCIALS. YOUNGER CHILDREN MAY NOT HAVE PICKED UP THAT BEHAVIOR YET, THEY MAY HAVE NOT WITNESSED
THEIR PARENTS DOING IT, OR MIGHT NOT QUITE KNOW HOW TO USE THE REMOTE. SOME PARENTS WILL SIT THEIR
CHILD IN FRONT OF THE TV, PUT ON A CHILD-FRIENDLY CHANNEL, AND TAKE THE REMOTE WITH THEM, SO THE CHILD COULDN'T POSSIBLY
FLICK THROUGH THE COMMERCIALS, EVEN IF THEY WERE SORT OF ABLE TO. SO, SOME CHILDREN WON'T BE DOING
THAT. THE OTHER THING, ALSO, IS THAT VERY, VERY YOUNG CHILDREN HAVE SOME TROUBLE TELLING
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COMMERCIAL CONTENT AND THE SHOW THAT THEY ARE WATCHING, YOU KNOW, PARTICULARLY BECAUSE
ADS TARGETED FOR YOUNG KIDS, ARE USUALLY FUN AND ENTERTAINING. SO, SOME YOUNG CHILDREN
WILL ACTUALLY ENJOY WATCHING THE COMMERCIALS. THEY'RE FUN. YOU KNOW, THEY MIGHT HAVE
CARTOON CHARACTERS IN THEM, SO THAT MAKES IT ENTERTAINING. CERTAINLY, VERY YOUNG CHILDREN, I WOULD SAY ARE ACTUALLY BEING
EXPOSED TO THE COMMERCIALS. >> THAT LAST POINT YOU MADE IS SORT OF THE KEY POINT. THESE ADVERTISEMENTS ARE MADE
TO BE ENTERTAINING, THEY'RE MADE TO BE SO THESE YOUNGER KIDS WILL PAY ATTENTION TO THEM AND REMEMBER THEM.
>> MM-HMM. >> LET ME INTERRUPT US HERE. WE'LL COME RIGHT BACK. PLEASE STAY WITH US.
WE'RE WITH ANNA McALISTER, TALKING ABOUT ADVERTISING, AND ADVERTISING SPECIFICALLY TARGETED TOWARD CHILDREN
AND YOUNG CHILDREN. STAY WITH US ON "OFFICE HOURS."
>> THIS PROGRAM IS A PRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON. IF YOU HAVE COMMENTS
ABOUT THIS BROADCAST, PLEASE EMAIL THEM TO: PROGRAMMING@UC.WISC.EDU
>> WHERE OTHERS SAW LUMBER, WE RECOGNIZED A TREASURE. WHERE OTHERS SAW THE NIGHT, WE CHOSE THE STARS.
WHERE OTHERS SAW PIECES, WE UNLOCKED THE PUZZLE THAT COULD BRING THE END TO PARALYSIS AND CANCER.
SINCE 1848, THINKERS AND ACHIEVERS AT WISCONSIN HAVE FEARLESSLY SOUGHT IDEAS THAT TRANSFORMED THE WORLD.
KEEP ON, WISCONSIN, KEEP ON.
>> WELCOME BACK TO "OFFICE HOURS." WE'RE HERE WITH ANNA McALISTER, TALKING WITH ADVERTISING
AND ADVERTISING TARGETED TOWARDS CHILDREN. ANNA, SO WE ARE IN A POST SUPER BOWL TIME HERE, AND LOTS
OF TALK ABOUT ADVERTISEMENTS. HOW DO CHILDREN'S ADVERTISEMENT DIFFER FROM ADULT ADVERTISEMENTS?
OBVIOUSLY, ON THE PRODUCTS THEY'RE ADVERTISING, BUT DO THEY DIFFER IN THE BASIC GOALS AND STYLES OF TRYING
TO BRAND A PARTICULAR PRODUCT? >> CERTAINLY, I MEAN, OBVIOUSLY, THEY'RE MADE TO BE ENTERTAINING, AND WE DEFINITELY SEE THAT
WITH MORE ADULT-ORIENTED ADVERTISING SOMETIMES, BUT SOMETIMES ADS FOR ADULTS ARE MORE CLEAR IN THEIR MESSAGES
AND I GUESS LESS ENTERTAINING. FOR CHILDREN, YOU KNOW, THEY'RE CREATED AND INTENDED TO BE ENTERTAINING, FUN,
EXCITING. GENERALLY, SORT OF CREATING A HYPE, I THINK, A LOT OF THE TIME.
ALSO PART OF THE PURPOSE WHEN YOUNG CHILDREN ARE TARGETED IS NOT JUST TO SELL A PRODUCT, BUT KIND OF TO SELL AN IDEA,
AND TO GENERATE THAT INTEREST IN A BRAND, SO THAT YOU'LL CAPTURE THE BRAND LOYALTY FROM CHILDREN AT A YOUNG AGE.
THAT'S IMPORTANT FOR ADULTS AS WELL, BUT I THINK ADVERTISERS GENERALLY ACCEPT THAT SOME ADULTS HAVE ALREADY ESTABLISHED
THEIR PREFERENCES AND PURCHASING HABITS, AND THAT SORT OF THING. BUT FOR YOUNG CHILDREN THERE'S THAT DESIRE TO CREATE
AN INTEREST IN THE BRAND AS WELL AS THE SPECIFIC PRODUCT THAT IS FOR SALE. >> SAY MORE ABOUT THAT,
WHAT THE GOALS ARE. SO, IF A GOAL OF AN ADULT ADVERTISEMENT IS BUY THIS CAR, BUY THIS BEER, BUY THIS SODA,
IS THE GOAL OF THAT CHILD ADVERTISEMENT, TELL MOM AND DAD TO GO OUT AND BUY YOU THIS TOY, THIS CEREAL,
OR WE DON'T CARE WHAT YOU DO NEXT WEEK OR NEXT MONTH, BUT WE WANT YOU TO BE A LIFELONG PURCHASER
OF A PARTICULAR PRODUCT? >> I THINK IT DEPENDS VERY MUCH ON THE PRODUCT CATEGORY THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT.
FOR EXAMPLE, WITH A BREAKFAST CEREAL, THE DESIRE MAY BE VERY MUCH TO HAVE YOU GO AND REQUEST THAT YOUR PARENT
PURCHASES THIS NEXT WEEK. WHEN WE'RE TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING LIKE AN AIRLINE, FOR EXAMPLE, CHILDREN
ARE TARGETED BY THEM, AS WELL, AND IN MORE SUBTLE WAYS. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE GIFT SHOP WHERE YOU MIGHT BE ABLE
TO PURCHASE, OF COURSE, I'M THINKING OF QUANTAS, BEING AUSTRALIAN, BUT A QUANTAS MODEL AIRPLANE
OR AMERICAN AIRLINES, I'M SURE, HAS COLORING-IN BOOKS, AND THINGS LIKE THAT FOR CHILDREN. THAT'S AGAIN, ANOTHER WAY OF
HOPING TO GET THAT BRAND TO BE PROMINENT IN THE CHILD'S MIND, THAT IT'S SOMETHING THAT WHEN THEY ARE A TEENAGER OR
YOUNG ADULT PAYING FOR THEIR OWN AIRFARES FOR THE FIRST TIME, THAT THEY'LL HAVE THAT BRAND IN MIND.
IT'S ONE THAT THEY REMEMBER FEELING COMFORTABLE WITH WHEN THEY WERE YOUNGER. SO DEPENDING ON THE PRODUCT
CATEGORY, I THINK SOMETIMES REALLY WHAT THEY ARE LOOKING FOR IS THAT LOYALTY, AND OTHER TIMES IT MAY BE SORT OF A DIRECT
PURCHASE RESPONSE THAT THEY'RE TRYING TO ELICIT. >> WHAT'S WRONG WITH THAT? (LAUGHS)
>> INTERESTING. WELL, CERTAINLY WITH THE MORE SUBTLE FORMS, IT'S VERY EASY TO TAKE THE MESSAGE
AND NOT BE AT ALL CRITICAL, OR SKEPTICAL, OR QUESTIONING OF WHAT YOU ARE RECEIVING. SO FOR EXAMPLE, AS I'VE
MENTIONED ALREADY, PRODUCT PLACEMENTS IN MOVIES. WHEN YOU ARE WATCHING A MOVIE, YOU THINK YOU ARE BEING
ENTERTAINED, AND THERE'S NO AD BREAK, SO YOU DON'T THINK THAT YOU'RE A TARGET OF ADVERTISING
WHILE YOU'RE JUST RELAXING AND KICKING BACK, YOU KNOW, MEANT TO BE HAVING A GOOD TIME. SO, MAYBE YOU DON'T HAVE
YOUR FILTER SWITCHED ON. THAT HAPPENS TO US, EVEN AS ADULTS. BUT FOR VERY YOUNG CHILDREN,
WE'VE GOT TO REMEMBER, THEIR FILTER MAY BE WEAK OR NONEXISTENT AT A YOUNG AGE. SO WHEN YOU'RE GETTING THOSE
VERY SUBTLE FORMS, VERY, VERY HARD FOR A CHILD TO BE WANTING TO QUESTION, OR BE AT ALL SKEPTICAL ABOUT
THE MESSAGE THEY'RE RECEIVING. OTHER THINGS, I MEAN, I GAVE THE EXAMPLE OF AN AIRLINE, BUT CERTAINLY WE HAVE SEEN
IN THE PAST WITH JOE CAMEL AND CIGARETTES, AND SOME OF THOSE OTHER AREAS WHERE I THINK YOU WOULD ARGUE IT WAS JUST, NO ONE
COULD SAY IT WAS APPROPRIATE THAT, YOU KNOW, CIGARETTES MIGHT BE TARGETED TO CHILDREN. YOU KNOW, SO, YES, DEFINITELY
THERE ARE SOME "ADULT" PRODUCTS THAT ARE BEING MARKETED TO YOUNG CHILDREN BEFORE THEY HAVE HAD A CHANCE TO DECIDE FOR THEMSELVES
WHAT BRANDS THEY MIGHT LIKE. >> SOME PRETTY STRONG CLAIMS HAVE BEEN MADE BY CRITICS IN THE FOOD ADVERTISING AREA
SPECIFICALLY, AND CLAIMS THAT IS HAVING A CAUSAL IMPACT ON THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC THAT WE'RE SEEING IN THIS COUNTRY.
WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON THAT? >> CERTAINLY, IN SOME OF THE RESEARCH I'VE CONDUCTED RECENTLY WITH MY CO-WORKER BETTINA
CORNWALL, SHE'S AT UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, WE'VE LOOKED AT SOME THINGS RECENTLY WITH PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, AND HAVE
FOUND THINGS LIKE CHILDREN WHO HAVE EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS, WHEN IT COMES TO LOOKING AT PARTICULAR BRANDS
OF, SAY, FAST FOOD AND SODA, FOR EXAMPLE, HIGHLY SUGARED BREAKFAST CEREALS, AS WELL, A CHILD WHO KNOWS A LOT ABOUT
THOSE BRANDS IS ALSO A CHILD WHO HAS VERY STRONG PREFERENCES IN GENERAL FOR HIGHLY FLAVORFUL FOODS.
SO, WHAT WE FOUND, IS A CHILD WHO KNOWS A LOT ABOUT SOFT DRINK, FAST FOOD, SUGARED BREAKFAST CEREALS,
WHEN WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT BRANDED PRODUCTS, THESE CHILDREN WANT TO ADD SALT TO THEIR FOOD, THEY WANT TO ADD KETCHUP
TO THINGS. THEY'RE LOOKING FOR THE FLAVOR THAT THEY FEEL SO FAMILIAR WITH, WITH THE BRANDS THAT THEY ENJOY.
>> LET ME JUMP IN HERE. WE ARE GOING TO QUICK TAKE A BREAK AND THEN COME BACK WITH ANNA McALISTER TALKING
ABOUT ADVERTISING AND CHILDREN. PLEASE, STAY WITH US ON "OFFICE HOURS."
>> GREAT PEOPLE IS OUR CAMPAIGN FOR NEED-BASED SCHOLARSHIP AID. IT'S THE KEY TO THE LONG-TERM WELL-BEING OF THE UNIVERSITY
AS A WHOLE. >> IN 1970, TUITION COSTS ABOUT $500. >> TODAY, IT'S ABOUT $9,000.
>> WE DON'T WANT UW-MADISON TO BE A UNIVERSITY THAT IS DEEMED TO BE OUT OF REACH. >> THE GREAT PEOPLE SCHOLARSHIP
GIVES STUDENTS A CHANCE TO SUCCEED IN LIFE. >> SUPPORT THE GREAT PEOPLE SCHOLARSHIP.
VISIT UWGREATPEOPLE.ORG
>> WELCOME BACK TO "OFFICE HOURS." WE ARE HERE WITH ANNA McALISTER TALKING ABOUT ADVERTISING,
AND ADVERTISING TARGETED TOWARDS CHILDREN. ANNA, I WANT YOU TO TELL ME A LITTLE BIT ABOUT SOME OF YOUR
RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS. ONE MAJOR STUDY, YOU DID IN BRISBANE, AND FOLKS CAN TELL YOU DON'T REALLY HAVE
A WISCONSIN ACCENT. SO, THAT WAS IN YOUR HOME COUNTRY OF AUSTRALIA. TELL ME A LITTLE ABOUT
WHAT YOU FOUND THERE. >> MM-HMM, SO, ONE OF THE STUDIES WE CONDUCTED WITH CHILDREN IN BRISBANE WAS LOOKING
AT THEIR PERSUASION KNOWLEDGE, AND HOW THEY-- BASICALLY ASKING THE QUESTION, DO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERSTAND
THAT THEY'RE THE TARGETS OF ADVERTISING. AND SO IN THAT STUDY, WE SHOWED CHILDREN SOME ADVERTISEMENTS,
AND ESSENTIALLY ASKED THEM THE QUESTION LIKE, WHAT DO THEY WANT YOU TO DO NOW? BUT CHILDREN, WE WERE LOOKING AT
3- TO 5-YEAR-OLDS, AND KIDS THAT YOUNG DON'T REALLY HAVE THE LANGUAGE SKILLS TO BE INTERVIEWED EASILY.
SO, WE LIKE TO GIVE THEM SORT OF PICTURE RESPONSE OPTIONS. AND SO, WE WOULD ALWAYS HAVE THREE PICTURE POSSIBLE RESPONSES
FOR THE CHILDREN TO CHOOSE FROM. ONE WAS SOMETHING REGARDING PURCHASING THE PRODUCT THEY HAD SEEN, OR ASKING SOMEONE
TO BUY IT, OR WHATEVER. WE ALWAYS HAD ANOTHER ONE THAT WAS SOMEHOW CONNECTED TO THE AD, LIKE WE HAD AN AD FOR KFC,
AND THIS OPTION OVER HERE WAS THAT THEY, MAYBE SOMEONE WANTS YOU TO WASH THE DISHES AFTER YOU EAT THE KFC.
WE HAD THE KFC LOGO IN THAT ONE, AS WELL. AND THEN WE HAD A THIRD OPTION, WHICH WAS ALWAYS SOMETHING
A LITTLE BIT SILLY, BUT WE THOUGHT WELL, THAT MIGHT TEMPT KIDS IF THEY HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THE CORRECT ANSWER IS.
BUT WE FOUND THAT A FAIR NUMBER OF CHILDREN WERE ACTUALLY ABLE TO PICK OUT THAT, I'M MEANT TO THE BUY THIS NOW.
OF COURSE, WE HAD ALL THE APPROPRIATE CONTROLS IN THERE TO MAKE SURE. >> THESE ARE KIDS WHO HAD BEEN
EXPOSED TO THE SAME PRODUCTS AND COMPANIES ALREADY? >> THEY WERE FAMILIAR BRANDS THAT THEY HAD ALREADY PURCHASED.
WE KNEW THAT THESE KIDS KNEW KFC. >> IT WASN'T YOU LIKE TO CHOSE TO DO IT IN AUSTRALIA BECAUSE
THEY NEVER WOULD'VE HEARD OF KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN? >> NO, NO, NO. THEY KNEW THE BRAND, BUT THE AD
WAS NOVEL, IN THE SENSE THAT WE HAD SORT OF PHOTOSHOPPED SOME IMAGES, AND PUT IT TOGETHER SO IT COULDN'T POSSIBLY BE ONE
THAT THEIR PARENTS MIGHT HAVE ALREADY TALKED ABOUT THEM WITH AFTER SEEING IT IN A MAGAZINE, OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.
BUT LOOKED VERY MUCH LIKE A REGULAR KFC AD. SO, ANYWAY, WE FOUND THAT A FAIR PORTION OF THE CHILDREN
WERE ABLE TO PICK OUT THAT THEY KNEW THAT THEY WERE MEANT TO BUY SOMETHING NOW. AND I FEEL LIKE THIS IS
AN IMPORTANT FINDING, BECAUSE IT TELLS US THAT CHILDREN DEFINITELY HAVE THE SENSE THAT AFTER I SEE THIS AD, I'M MEANT
TO GO OUT AND BUY SOMETHING. THAT'S IMPORTANT. >> AND THAT'S A GOOD THING, RIGHT?
>> WELL, YES AND NO. DOES IT MEAN THAT THE CHILD IS ABLE TO THEN SAY, OH, WELL BECAUSE THEY ARE TRYING
TO FORCE ME TO BUY THINGS, I SHOULD START REALLY QUESTIONING WHAT I'M SEEING, AND THAT SORT OF THING.
NO, WE DIDN'T FIND-- WE WEREN'T LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE OF WHETHER THEY HAD THAT CRITICAL THINKING
AND SKEPTICISM. BUT ONE THING I'LL SAY IS THAT WE'RE NOT CONCLUDING THAT CHILDREN ARE APPROPRIATE TARGETS
OF ADVERTISING, BECAUSE THEY KNOW WHAT IT'S ALL ABOUT. THAT'S CERTAINLY NOT WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO SAY HERE.
WE DID FIND THAT CHILDREN HAVE LEARNED THAT THE RESPONSE TO ADVERTISING IS THAT YOU'RE MEANT TO GO OUT
AND BUY SOMETHING. BUT I'M NOT READY TO CONCLUDE THAT THEY HAVE THE SOPHISTICATED LEVEL OF THINKING, WHERE THEY
WOULD ACTUALLY BECOME CRITICAL THINKERS ABOUT IT. >> AND THEY'RE ALSO EVEN AT A VERY YOUNG AGE TO TAKE IN,
AND THEN HAVE PRETTY STRONG OPINIONS ON THE DIFFERENT PRODUCTS THEY WERE SEEING ADVERTISED, CORRECT?
>> MM-HMM. IN ONE OF THE OTHER STUDIES, WE HAD ALSO LOOKED AT CHILDREN'S BRAND KNOWLEDGE, WE FOUND THAT,
AGAIN 3- TO 5-YEAR-OLDS, THIS WAS IN A DIFFERENT STUDY, BUT WE FOUND THAT 3- TO 5-YEAR-OLDS HAD QUITE
COHERENT, COHESIVE, I GUESS, UNDERSTANDINGS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS. WE GOT THEM TO DO A COLLAGE
TASK WHERE THEY HAD TO SEPARATE OUT PICTURES OF, FOR EXAMPLE, McDONALD'S VERSUS BURGER KING, VERSUS SOME OTHER PICTURES THAT
DON'T BELONG TO EITHER BRAND. AND SOME OF THE CHILDREN COULD PERFECTLY LAY THEM OUT. THESE THINGS ARE MCDONALD'S.
THESE FRENCH FRIES, NO, THOSE ARE BURGER KING FRENCH FRIES. IT'S LIKE, WOW, HOW DO YOU EVEN KNOW THE DIFFERENCE, RIGHT?
AND WE SOMETIMES TRIED TO MAKE IT A LITTLE CHALLENGING BY SHOWING OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS. FOR EXAMPLE, WE HAD KFC CHICKEN,
AND SOME CHILDREN PUT IT OVER THERE, AND SAY, NO, THAT'S NOT MCDONALD'S. IT'S NOT BURGER KING.
THAT'S SOMETHING ELSE. >> WHEN WE COME BACK I WANT TO TALK A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT THE IMPACT OF BRANDING
ON CHILDREN. SO, PLEASE STAY WITH US ON "OFFICE HOURS," HERE WITH ANNA McALISTER.
>> THIS PROGRAM IS A PRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON. IF YOU HAVE COMMENTS
ABOUT THIS BROADCAST, PLEASE EMAIL THEM TO: PROGRAMMING@UC.WISC.EDU
>> WELCOME BACK TO "OFFICE HOURS." WE'RE HERE WITH ANNA McALISTER FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER SCIENCE. WE'RE TALKING ABOUT ADVERTISING AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN. YOU WERE DESCRIBING THIS STUDY
AND THE ABILITY OF KIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF DIFFERENT FOOD COMPANIES.
I THINK THE MADISON AVENUE LINGO IS THEY THEN HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN BRANDING THEIR COMPANIES IN PARTICULAR WAYS.
WHAT EXACTLY DOES THAT MEAN WHEN YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT BRANDING SOMETHING, AND WHAT THEY'RE TRYING TO DO THERE?
>> WHAT THEY ARE DOING IS REALLY SAYING THAT WE REPRESENT SOMETHING. AND SO, WHILE MCDONALD'S AND
BURGER KING MAY BE VERY SIMILAR, THEY BOTH SELL THE SANDWICHES THEY BOTH SELL THE FRIES. THERE IS SOMETHING
THAT MAKES THESE ONES DIFFERENT TO THOSE ONES. AND SO, WHAT I WAS ALMOST READY TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTION
BEFORE WITH THE CHILDREN, WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO THEM? THEN, ONCE WE LEARN, YOU KNOW, FOR THE CHILDREN WHO WERE ABLE
TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT BRANDS, AND SOME CHILDREN WERE BETTER AT THAT THAN OTHERS.
THE ONES WHO WERE QUITE GOOD AT THAT, WE THEN ASKED THEM A SERIES OF QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW THEY FELT ABOUT EACH BRAND,
WHICH IS WHAT WE WOULD CALL BRAND SYMBOLISM. WHAT DOES THIS BRAND MEAN TO YOU?
SO, FOR OUR POPULARITY QUESTION, A CHILD DOESN'T KNOW WHAT POPULARITY IS, SO WE SIMPLY ASK THEM IF THIS OTHER CHILD
HAS BURGER KING ON HIS BIRTHDAY, DOES HE HAVE NO FRIENDS, OR LOTS OF FRIENDS, OR SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN?
ESSENTIALLY SAYING, HOW POPULAR IS THE TYPE OF PERSON WHO USES THIS BRAND? AND SOME OF THE CHILDREN
HAD REALLY STRONG RESPONSES TO THOSE QUESTIONS. >> THERE WAS A COOL CHEESEBURGER AND UNCOOL CHEESEBURGER?
>> YEP. >> DON'T SAY WHICH. >> WELL, IT VARIED BETWEEN CHILDREN.
WE REALLY DIDN'T MIND WHETHER THEY SAID THIS IS REALLY COOL, OR THIS BRAND. >> BUT THE FACT THEY HAD
A STRONG OPINION. >> THE FACT THAT THEY HAD AN OPINION, YEAH. SO THESE BRANDS REALLY MEANT
SOMETHING TO THE CHILDREN. AND I THINK THAT'S WHEN YOU'VE GOT SUCCESSFUL BRANDING. WHEN YOU'VE GOT AN ADULT
WHO SAYS I WANT AN iPHONE, AND THIS OTHER SMART PHONE IS NO GOOD, EVEN THOUGH IT HAS ALL THE SAME FUNCTIONS, THEN
YOU HAVE A SUCCESSFUL BRAND. >> WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT THIS? YOU BELIEVE THAT SOME OF YOUR
RESEARCH HAS POLICY IMPLICATIONS. SO TAKE ME THROUGH A LITTLE BIT, IF YOU WERE IN CHARGE OF
REGULATING ADVERTISING, WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS YOU WOULD DO, AND WHY WOULD YOU DO IT? WHY DO YOU FEEL STRONGLY
ABOUT THAT? >> I THINK ONE OF THE MOST OBVIOUS THINGS TO ME AT THE MOMENT IS THE BRANDS
THAT CHILDREN, THAT I HAVE WORKED WITH, BOTH IN AUSTRALIA AND HERE, THE BRANDS THAT THE CHILDREN
KNOW ARE THE ONES THAT ARE FULL OF SALT, FAT AND SUGAR, WHEN WE LOOK AT FOOD PRODUCTS, AND DRINKS AS WELL.
SO I THINK THAT PART OF THE ISSUE IS THOSE COMPANIES GET BIGGER AND BIGGER AND BIGGER, AND THEY HAVE THE FUNDING
FOR THE BEST AD CAMPAIGNS. WHEN WE LOOK AT TIE-INS TO MOVIES AND THINGS LIKE THAT, THE TYPES OF TOYS THAT ARE
SOMETIMES PAIRED AS PREMIUMS WITH THESE FOOD PRODUCTS, YOU KNOW, IT'S ALWAYS THE BIG COMPANIES WITH TYPICALLY
THE LEAST NUTRITIOUS FOODS THAT ARE ABLE TO AFFORD TO HAVE THE MOST POPULAR TIE-INS. AND SO, IT'S CREATING THIS CYCLE
WHERE A COMPANY THAT IS OFFERING NUTRITIOUS FOODS, OR SOMETHING A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT, IT'S VERY HARD FOR THEM
TO COMPETE IN THE MARKET. THAT'S WHY I THINK THIS IS A REAL POLICY ISSUE. ONE OF MY BIGGEST CONCERNS
IS LOOKING AT HOW SUCCESSFUL BRANDING AND TARGETING OF KIDS LEADS INTO OBESITY ISSUES. >> ANNA, GREAT, THANKS SO MUCH
FOR JOINING US TODAY. THANKS TO ALL OF YOU FOR JOINING US TODAY. DON'T FORGET, "OFFICE HOURS"
IS ON THE WEB, VIA OUR UNIVERSITY WEBSITE, FACEBOOK OR TWITTER. TAKE A LOOK AND LET US KNOW
YOUR THOUGHTS. FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON, THIS HAS BEEN "OFFICE HOURS."
THANKS FOR STOPPING BY.
>> THE PRECEDING PROGRAM WAS PRODUCED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE BIG TEN NETWORK.