DNA Transcription, Translation, Replication

Uploaded by lkedu on 11.03.2012

Welcome to Protein & Co. !
Here we are the lead producer of quality proteins
of the finest grade.
We can guarantee that no matter how big
or small
ninety-nine point eight nine percent accuracy of every protein's amino acid sequence

Or your money back!
Our efficient assemblage
broad protein selection & outstanding customer service allows us to be ranked
#1 in protein production.
Out of breath lately?
Feeling sick?
Something not right? No need to fret! All you need
is a protein!
We'll match you up with the perfect protein allowing you to live a full & vigorous life.
Most importantly, we want to see you cherish what matters most... That's right!
We here at protein & co. are dedicated to satisfying our customers.
This short presentation will allow you a brief glimpse into our production & assembly line.
We start with a basic strand of DNA
officially known as Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Which is housed in the
We simply build upon what is already written. That's right. DNA carries all the genetic information
making it an instruction book for building proteins.
We simply follow the instructions,
add the ingredients, process,
& PRESTO a protein!
The twisted ladder shape of DNA is called a Double Helix.
The outside is a sugar phosphate backbone. Inside are the rungs of the ladder
These nucleotides are
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, & Thymine.
These can be represented by
A, C, G, & T.
Like magnets only certain parts can pair.
Adenine always pairs with Thymine & Guanine always pairs with Cytosine.
First we'll show you how we produce DNA
To provide for our growing worldwide customers we need thousands of strands of DNA.
The demand is ever increasing! So, how do we get more of this macromolecule?
Through a process called replication. When we replicate
a strand of DNA, we require an existing strand. Copying DNA requires DNA & a mixture
of enzymes.
DNA can not be replicated by scratch.
To start the process we release a special enzyme called Helicase.
This enzyme unwinds the DNA into two separate strands. Time to get to work!
The first strand of the DNA is called the leading strand.
We introduce another enzyme called DNA Polymerase which adds matching
nucleotides to this leading strand.
The other strand is called a lagging strand.
This strand requires more help.
RNA Primase comes in & adds short segments of RNA Primer.
These segments are called okazaki fragments.
DNA Polymerase III lays nucleotides in between the pieces of RNA
DNA Polymerase I then replaces the RNA Primers with nucleotides.
DNA Ligase finishes the process up by fusing the broken segments
forming a Phosphodiester Bond.
Thus, this whole process creates two new strands of DNA from only one.
With our new DNA strand, it is our job to produce your protein.
For that, we need some more help from Enzymes.
DNA, is as you know, made of letters.
Every three letters is called a codon.
One codon codes for one amino acid.
A chain of amino acids makes one protein.
One whole section of DNA capable of coding for one protein is what we call
a Gene. You see how important DNA is to us? Without it we can't produce proteins.
Without proteins there is no "YOU"... Or life for that matter.
It all begins with transcription.
To kick-start our protein production we need RNA.
Think of RNA as a copycat DNA,
a prototype, so to speak.
A mold.
Into this mold, we pour amino acids which form a protein.
Let's introduce RNA Polymerase.
This helpful enzyme finds a specific sequence in DNA called a Promoter.
It then binds to it.
The promoter identifies, the start of a Gene, which strand is to be copied,
& the direction that it is to be copied.
The RNA Polymerase unwinds & rewinds the DNA & produces
bases that are matching to one of the strands. In place of Thymine is Uracil.
A special termination code in the DNA indicates
where transcription will stop.
The mRNA produces is called an mRNA Transcript. "M" stands for messenger.
This mRNA will need to be processed. Introns are regions of the Gene that not
translated into proteins. Therefore, they are removed, leaving only Exons which sre
the protein instructions.
The Exons are spliced together to form a Mature mRNA Transcript.
This mRNA travels outside the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Now starts
The finished product is now to be made.
A special cullular organelle called the Ribosome attaches to the mRNA
and then moves along it, adding Amino Acids to a chain called a Polypeptide Chain.
As the Ribosome
moves along the mRNA,
it requires specific Amino Acids.
tRNA or Transfer RNA deliver the required Amino Acid as it is
attached to them.
There's a specific tRNA name for each of the twenty different amino acids.
The three letter bases attached to the tRNA
are called Anticodon. The tRNA line up with the mRNA in the
Ribosome due to matching bases.
The amino acids then bind.
The tRNA then drops off to be reused later.
The Ribosome continuously processes the mRNA,
the tRNA continuously binding & delivering their Amino Acids.
As production continues, the Amino Acids assemble outside the Ribosome,
twisting into conformation.
When finished, the Amino Acids due to bonds between each other have the shape and function
of a new protein.
Congratulations on the creation of a new MASTERPIECE!
Every protein produced here is created with only the highest of standards
guarenteed by our monthly USDS inspections
& daily facility maintenance.
From here, your protein will be inspected,
& shipped worldwide right to your front door, hassle free.
If your considering the purchase of a protein, you can be assured of total functionality
& confirmation
with the purchase of a protein from Protein & Co.
With a 30 day warranty & many positive reviews, we urge you
to call now
for a free interview with one of our quality health officials. But wait... THERE'S MORE :P
Call now in the next hour & you'll receive a 250$ reduction on
all globular proteins!
What are "YOU" waiting for?