Our Campus History

Uploaded by calpolypomona on 08.02.2012

>> Danette Cook-Adamson: Well good afternoon everyone. Welcome. I am
Danette Cook-Adamson the Special Collections librarian here at Cal
Poly Pomona and today we are going to be learning about our campus
history. In the Special Collections room which is located on the
fourth floor of the library we have the university
archives. And it has lots of historic photographs of our campus lots
of artifacts and other documents that chronicle our campus history.
And each year our history classes visit Special Collections and we
take that opportunity to also teach them about our campus history.
Those of us that work in Special Collections happen to think it's the
most fun place in the library to visit and so we do invite you to come
visit us sometime in the Special Collections room.
Well -- [ background announcement ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: Well, Cal
Poly Pomona's history is really the tale of three different campuses
and three key men. There they are up there. All braided together to
create the Cal Poly Pomona that we think of today. Two of the men were
real-life rich philanthropists. They are Charles Voorhis. That's him
over here in the left corner. And of course we're all familiar with W.
K. Kellogg. Of course yes we all recognize W.K.Kellogg because of his
great success in developing Kellogg's Corn Flakes. And
then the third man that you may not be that familiar with is right up
here in the center is Julian McPhee and he started everything off up
at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. So we'll be talking more about him
later. And 3 campuses that I'm going to be referencing of course we
know the Kellogg Campus. But and there's also the original. It's the
mother campus at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. And then
there's 1 that you may not have ever heard of. It was called the
Voorhis Campus and it was originally the site of the philanthropic
organization called the Voorhis School for Boys. And so actually our
founding our school's founding date of 1938 is based on when that
facility was given to the State of California to function as the
southern branch for Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo. Now the reason
that Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo wanted a southern branch was because
during California's you know most of the 20th century probably
starting in the 1920's citrus was a main crop. And San Luis Obispo was
a little too far north for them to be able to grow citrus
successfully. And so they were looking for a location
in southern California where they could teach citrus crops. And so
since they couldn't do it in San Luis Obispo they ended up learning
about the availability of the Voorhis School for Boys campus and they
were able to then successfully be able to teach citrus at that
location. Well the earliest date that in our history at Cal Poly goes
all the way back to 1901 when the very first state-supported school in
California came into being and that was up at San Luis
Obispo. And from the very beginning this Polytechnic school had the
concept of learn by doing. And not surprisingly they promoted a very
practical hands-on curricula which at least initially it focused on
agriculture and the sciences.And you can see here an example of their
hands-on curricula. This is in the machine shop there dating back to
the 1910s. Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo was really hard hit during the
Depression. And in 1933 it was actually in quite a
bit of danger of being disbanded due to lack of funds. There was also
the threat that the campus might be converted into a prison. So as a
last resort the astute educational administrator by the name of Julian
McPhee, we saw his picture earlier, he was sent down from the state
legislature to become the president of Cal Poly. And to save the
campus he instituted some severe fiscal policies.
Essentially he had to change Cal Poly into a 2 year technical school
in order for it to survive during the Depression. However by 1940 they
were able once again to offer the 4 year course of study and in 1942
the first bachelor's degrees were awarded. In the meantime back in
southern California there is Mr.Kellogg in his test kitchen in Battle
Creek, Michigan. Of course Mr. Kellogg's name is one we all recognize
from the Kellogg's Corn Flakes fame. William Keith
Kellogg was the younger brother of the very flamboyant Dr. John
Kellogg who ran a highly successful health spa for the rich and famous
in Michigan. W.K. worked under his older brother in the sanitarium. It
was sometimes referred to as the San. And the tale is that W.K.
Kellogg made many unsuccessful attempts at trying
to create a quick healthy breakfast food in that test kitchen of the
sanitarium.He wanted to address the fact that the American diet was
changing away from the traditional heavier eggs bacon sausage type of
fare to something that was quicker lighter healthier. Then in a
classic case of serendipity a batch of corn meal was accidentally
allowed to sit out and it was then later a few days later
it was turned through some processing rollers and voila the very first
corn flakes were born. Of course they first needed to get rid of the
mold problem on the flakes. [ Laughter ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: But
they were able, W.K.Kellogg was a very savvy promoter and he was able
to deal with the mold problem and with his new invention of corn
flakes, he was well on his way to becoming a millionaire. And here are
some of the employees at the Kellogg mostly ladies.
There's just this 1 young man in the back row. But they were the ones
that packed these boxes of the toasted corn flakes. >> Today's
breakfast for millions of children. >> Danette Cook-Adamson: Yes,
it -- and here is early vintage ad from the Kellogg Toasted Corn
Flakes company. Well such a wide open spaces very
pastural looking. Winters in Michigan of course are very long and hard
and cold so it was not a surprise that once Kellogg became a wealthy
man he would want a winter home in a more warmer milder climate of
southern California. Since childhood Kellogg had the interest in
Arabian horses a breed that at that time was considered rare and
exotic. As a boy he had owned a horse that was supposedly part
Arabian. So he decided to own and breed Arabian horses on his
new property. In 1926 after a long search for the perfect location the
choice finally came down to just 2 locations. One was up in Santa
Barbara and the other possibility was in Pomona. And legend has it
that Kellogg stopped his car and he flipped a coin in the air and he
said heads it's Pomona; tails it's Santa Barbara. And heads it was and
so the choice of the ranch site was decided. The Pomona property was
originally 377 acres and at the time costing near $250,000
to purchase. Kellogg immediately set to work to build his dream ranch
and being a millionaire he was able to hire one of the notable
architects of the day a man by the name of Myron Hunt. Myron Hunt also
designed the Rose Bowl; some of the buildings at Cal Tech and the
Pasadena Public Library. Some of the buildings at
the Claremont Colleges also. In the years 1926 to '27 were filled with
building activity here at the Kellogg ranch. And Myron Hunt designed
some of the buildings that you're familiar with on campus. And let me
just see whether --okay. Here was the original horse stables back in
1931. There's Mr. Kellogg with Jadaan. Let me just -- okay. I want to
point out that this mechanism right here I believe that was used to
convey the hay for all the different horse stalls
that was like a conveyer system. Yes. Okay. Here is Mr. Kellogg with
one of his favorite stallions, Jadaan. Over the next few years Mr.
Kellogg continued to purchase and to breed more Arabian horses to add
to the original 11 horses that were first brought on to the ranch. And
the Kellogg ranch soon became a very popular destination spot for
visitors. Many of whom would drive from Los Angeles
out to what they regarded as the country to see these exotic rare
Arabian horses and informal Sunday horse shows as you saw back at that
historic postcard. They were held in the courtyard of the stables and
soon drew large crowds and quickly became a tradition. The ranch was
also a popular in spot for many Hollywood celebrities who liked to
come out and have their photographs taken with the
horses. Some of the biggest names of their day. I think Tom Mix was a
cowboy star. And here we have some starlets. There's a young Loretta
Young 1927; Lois Wilson 1926. Here is -- he was the sex symbol heart
throb of his era Rudolph Valentino. And he very tragically died right
after this last film was Son of the Sheik. And I mean women were
fainting over him. He was just quite impressive to
the ladies and but he died of a burst appendix right after his film
and this was too early for antibiotics and so you know it was very
tragic that he died right after the film Son of the Sheik. So many
other stars had visited our campus over the years including Elizabeth
Taylor, Richard Burton, Charles Bronson, Robert Culp and Bill Cosby.
And some of the movies that have been filmed at our campus
include Stalag 17, Impostor, Gattaca, Tip on a Dead Jockey, The
Sandpiper, and I Spy. Well by 1932 W.K. Kellogg who was 72 years old
at that time and he was suffering from failing eyesight. He was going
blind. He decided to donate his ranch and its 87 horses to the
University of California and it was stipulated that the Arabian horses
must be kept and bred that the Sunday horse shows would
continue and the transfer ceremony and this is a photograph of that
transfer ceremony was broadcast live on NBC radio with the popular
humorist Will Rogers as the master of ceremonies and several newspaper
journalists also covered the event. And if you look out on that crowd
that's a pretty impressive crowd and it's estimated that there were
22,000 people at that event. But it seemed as though the University of
California never really knew how to properly care for
the ranch. Just a few years later when Kellogg visited the ranch he
was not happy with the upkeep and it is quoted that he found that the
weeds were up and the fences were down. So through political channels
and Mr. Kellogg was a very patriotic man he was able to have the ranch
transferred in 1943 to the United States Army where it became a
cavalry remount station for the duration of World
War II. And I might make the note that it's interesting that they
thought that World War II would be possibly won on horseback but I
don't think that happened.Anyway it was a remount station for a while
and we have a couple of photographs of the remount station. There it
is when it was the administrative headquarters for the
army. >> [ Inaudible ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: Yes. And there are a
couple of officers loading an Arabian horse into that carrier.
Interestingly some of the upkeep of the ranch and the renovations that
you could still see today such as there's a low stone retainer wall
that lines the road that goes up to the Kellogg house Pomona. That
wall that retaining wall was actually built by Italian prisoners of
war who were being housed at the Los Angeles County
fairgrounds. At the end of World War II however the ranch and its
horses were in imminent danger of being auctioned off to the public.
And although quite elderly by this time and now completely blind
Kellogg did have enough political powerful connections in Washington
to halt the sale of the ranch and the horses at the
11th hour. And instead transfer papers signed in 1947 by President
Truman himself turned the ranch into the Kellogg unit of the
California State Polytechnic College San Luis Obispo. Again with the
stipulation that the Arabian horses must be kept, that the breeding of
the horses and the Sunday horse show tradition continued. And I might
say that that breeding program has been phenomenally successful
because today over 70 percent of all Arabian horses in
the United States -- they're much grown now in both popularity and
numbers --they can trace their lineage back to Kellogg bloodstock so
Mr. Kellogg's dream of promoting and multiplying the Arabian horse
really did come to fruition. Now I need to backtrack a little bit in
time and discuss a third thread in the story of the history of our
campus. This third thread also deals with a rich philanthropist by the
name of Charles Voorhis. Mr. Voorhis made his money in the
early automobile industry and also had various oil company investments
and he wisely got most of his money out before the stock market
crashed in 1929. In 1927 Mr. Voorhis purchased a beautiful site called
the Oak Knoll Ranch and this site still exists -- it is in San Dimas.
It's now owned by another organization the Tzu Chi Foundation. And so
he built a boys' residential school and this was a charitable
institution. The school was designed for boys who were of, quote,
good character but in unfortunate circumstances, and these conditions
were not hard to find during the depression. The school encompassed
several beautiful Spanish style buildings including cottages and each
cottage had a housemother.They really wanted to make it as homelike
for these boys as possible. There's a beautiful chapel classrooms
fruit orchards workshops where the boys could have
the experience of learning practical hands-on skills where they could
then be able to get a job after they graduated. And here are some of
the boys that were educated at the Voorhis School for Boys. And I
might point out this is Jerry Voorhis right here. And Jerry Voorhis
was the one who functioned as the father figure to all of these boys
who attended the Voorhis School for Boys. He served
tirelessly as the headmaster until 1937 when he was elected to
Congress. He also served as I said as a father figure to these boys
who in many cases they had been abandoned by their real fathers. From
its inception -- and the Voorhis School for Boys was really the effort
of Jerry Voorhis and the Voorhis School for Boys ran from 1927 until
1938 when he was elected to Congress. And during its existence the
Voorhis School for Boys housed and educated approximately 300
needy boys. The emphasis was always on learning practical hands-on
skills and would often include agriculture and horticulture and any
boy who could get admitted into college would have his tuition paid by
Charles Voorhis. And I might point out that we had the opportunity to
interview this person right here.His name is Ben O'Brien. When we met
him he was probably in his 80s and he -- we interviewed him and his
brother Earl O'Brien. And they had -- they had been
abandoned by their father. He had hopped a freight train to Mexico and
just left the family behind, a family of four boys. And so Ben O'Brien
went on to become a judge and his brother Earl became an administrator
in the San Francisco juvenile division and so the -- what they were
exposed to at the Voorhis School for Boys under the direction of Jerry
Voorhis really transformed their life and just opened up the realm of
possibilities to them. And so they will always be
grateful to what they experienced at the Voorhis School for Boys. And
here is a photograph of the chapel that still stands over on the
Voorhis campus now owned by the Tzu Chi Foundation. And you can see
some of the beautiful Spanish style structures that are on that
campus. And this chapel had just a perfect view of
Mt. Baldy out its back window. And here is a young picture of Jerry
Voorhis around 1935. And we do have on our Special Collections website
in the gallery section you can find a lot of information about the
Voorhis School for Boys and about Charles Voorhis and Jerry Voorhis
and a lot of background on this. Also Jerry Voorhis' son Jerry
Livingston Voorhis has written a couple of books about
his father, An Idealist in Congress, and An Idealist in the Private
Sector. And those are available and you can take a look at those if
you have interest on our Special Collections website in the gallery
section. We also have made available some digitized oral history
recordings. You can see here some of our past campus
presidents and also the interview with the O'Brien brothers. They're
on this --again it's in the gallery section of the Special Collections
home page and it's called "Voices from our Past." And so if you have
an interest in listening to any of these oral history interviews
you're welcome to do so. Well by 1937 Jerry Voorhis had been elected
to Congress and so that drew his time and his efforts
elsewhere. And also the money to run the Voorhis School was getting
tighter. So the Voorhis family started to look for another institution
which would take and carry on the same principles and goals that they
had had at the Voorhis School for Boys. Through a San Dimas neighbor
of the Voorhis property this gentleman over here Julian McPhee was
alerted to the possibility of acquiring this as a
southern branch campus. Again he was wanting to offer his students the
opportunity to learn how to grow citrus since citrus was such a huge
part of California's economy and so he was looking for a site where
they could grow citrus. [ Pause ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: And so
there Julian McPhee is talking with Charles Voorhis and they're kind
of working out a deal of how the campus there at the Voorhis School
for Boys might be donated to and become the southern
branch or the Voorhis Unit of Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo. And this is
why the year 1938 is considered our founding date. In the fall of 1938
there was an --it was an all male campus all male enrollment at that
time. And so there were 110 students from San Luis Obispo and their
studies focused on agriculture and the subtropical horticulture, the
citrus products. However the students were required to take all of
their senior year classes back up at San Luis Obispo and
this was not really popular with the students and it was considered a
hardship by many. Here you see a sign that reflects all the different
locations for California State Polytechnic College. You've got your
San Luis Obispo location.You've got the Voorhis campus in San Dimas
and then you've got the Kellogg campus in Pomona. And this is -- these
are some of the buildings at the Voorhis School for Boys at the time.
They -- this was the library. And here is the inside of the library,
very cozy, fireplace. [ Laughter ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: And of
course an all male student population. Well during World
War II this is 1943 to 1946 literally every able bodied male was
drafted and so that waylaid -- the Voorhis unit actually had to shut
down because everybody had been drafted. So they were off fighting the
war and when it reopened in 1946 at the war's end 90 percent of the
returning students and they were then able to get their college
education through the GI bill they were much older because
they had had that time, you know, serving in World War II. And so you
can see that some of them are younger looking but a lot of them you
could tell they're older students and they're returning
GIs. [ Pause ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson:Well you can see here this is
the picture of Elephant Hill. This is taken around
1950. By 1948 both the Kellogg unit and -- on the old Kellogg ranch
site and the Voorhis unit in San Dimas they were both functioning as
southern units of Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo. Students were housed on
the Voorhis campus and they also took classes on the Kellogg campus.
Only one bus left in the morning to take a winding road through the
hills to the Kellogg campus and these were the days before freeways
so -- so they were -- they had just to take this meandering
road through the hills and if a student missed the bus in the
morning, he missed all of his classes. [ Pause ] >> Danette
Cook-Adamson: Well, 1949 marked the very first year that our campus
entered a Rose float in the Rose Parade. And seated on this little
horse here was the son of the -- his name was Jolly
Batcheller. He was the head of ornamental horticulture and these were
his children. They were riding on the float. And this little guy's
name is Chip and this horse actually rocked back and forth. Yes. It
was quite something to see that. And so and he got so enthusiastic
with the excitement of it that he would just grab flowers off of the
float and he would throw them back at the audience
and he -- by the time, by the end of the parade the horse was totally
denuded of all flowers within his arm's reach. But he was excited and
he had a good time riding on that float. [ Pause ] >> Danette
Cook-Adamson: In 1949 Cal Poly as I said started the tradition of
entering the Rose float in the Rose Parade. And every year since then
we've had a student built float in the parade and they
keep winning awards. In 1948 a Cal Poly student who was a Pasadena
resident made an informal boast to a member of the Rose Parade
committee that he thought that his campus could build a float. And
later he received a surprise phone call just a few weeks before the
parade from a committee member and he was asked if what
he said was true. And although he had no formal campus approval, there
was no budget, there was no design, there was no committee, his answer
was an immediate sure. Sure we can build a float. And so he and his
classmates were able to raise $250 so a shoestring budget and somehow
worked to get a float built in time. Now rumor has it that the one
night just before the parade the front yards in his
Pasadena neighborhood became mysteriously devoid of all flowers. But
this float,Childhood Memories, featured a moving rocking horse with a
real little boy in the saddle and it won an award of merit. And as I
said during the parade the little boy got so enthused that he grabbed
all the flowers and threw them back at the audience at the crowd. And
anyway. And we do invite you to -- we've made a website about the Cal
Poly Rose float collection. It does include a photograph
of all the floats. It includes film clips of them so that you can
actually see how they move, how they were animated. And so if you're
interested in that we invite you to take a closer look. [ Pause ] >>
Danette Cook-Adamson: Well this is the very first state built
building, Science Building Number 3. And it literally housed
everything. So it had the all of the administrative offices. It
had the library. It had the bookstore. It had the classrooms. The late
1950s and the early 1960s on the Kellogg campus was just continuous
building -- building activity that was taking place here. And pictures
of the campus at this time show parking lots that look amazingly close
to the classes and yet it is funny to read and we have all of the --
in the university archives, we have all of the Poly posts that have
ever been published and it's funny to read the contemporary
accounts of the students complaining about the lack of good parking.
You know,and you just can't believe it because they were just
parking, you know, right next to buildings. It was just amazing but
they were not satisfied. [ Pause ] >>Danette Cook-Adamson: Well 1957
was the very first year that students were no longer forced to take
their senior year classes back up at Cal Poly San Luis
Obispo. And the very first graduation took place here at Cal Poly
Pomona and it existed entirely of agriculture majors. And it was held
there in the Kellogg Rose Garden. 1957 was also the first time that
nonagriculture majors were offered. Engineering and biology and
physical education, those were some of the three earliest additions to
the curricula. [ Pause ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson:
Well 1961 is an absolute landmark year for Cal Poly Pomona because
that was the year that women were first admitted and that was when 329
brave women joined male student population of approximately 2500. And
it is interesting, as I said we have all of the Poly posts. The entire
archive of the Poly posts going back to the beginning. It is
interesting to see the concerns and the comments about
the addition of women at this time. And there was a planning
committee's investigation report and we have that in the Special
Collections room. In the beginning women were not treated equally at
all. They were literally kept under lock and key. There were onerous
curfews and dorm key rules that the men did not at all have to contend
with. And it's also interesting to read comments in the
old Poly post about -- by the male students and not all of them were
happy about the idea of women coming to their campus. They had worries
over now they won't be able to concentrate on their studies. Now they
might have to groom themselves a little bit better. They're going to
have to watch their language. Anyway, it was a mixed reaction and not
everybody was happy about this change. And just to
show you what the women had to contend with, they talk about being
prescriptive.They were told when they had to wear high heels, when
they could wear flats.They -- when they were to wear a hat. Yes, if
they were to attend a tea and Mrs.Kramer did have teas, then they were
to wear a hat. And yes, they did have to wear gloves if they were to
attend a tea. So it -- very, very prescriptive. Of
course, they were not permitted to wear curlers outside the residence
hall and-- now during finals week, it was relaxed a bit. They could
wear Bermudas or capris. They were permitted on campus in the
classrooms. But very, very prescriptive. And here we have another
example again women kept under lock and key daily. They had to contend
with daily sign-outs, weekend sign-outs, and then
the men just had this one sentence here, you know, that the men's hall
is always open. The residence halls, you know, there was just a total
inequity with how men and women were being treated. Now, here we have
a coed who is following the dress code. There she is. And now we have
a coed -- this is 1971. We have a coed who is not following the dress
code and nobody seems to care at all. So -- and this picture is in
here just to show the Kellogg unit was added to the sign over
the stables late 1950s. And finally in 1972 we were granted our
university status. Here we have a picture from a dance. This was from
the 1967 Bronco handbook and I think he's probably doing the Twist and
that, of course, that was very popular during the '60s. And I think
she may be doing the Jerk which was another very important dance
during the '60s. So anyway -- yes. Here we have our
students that were getting ready to build the CP on Colt Hill. This is
around 1958. Look at that. Look at how close that parking is. And they
were still complaining. Again parking everywhere. >> [ Inaudible ] >>
Danette Cook-Adamson:And here are some views taken from the late
1970s. You can see here, Building 94, the office building has not yet
been built. Now the library used to be a lot shorter. Yes. Just 3
stories there and now the -- it was in the late '80s that
the top 2 floors were added to the library building. Again, parking
very close.Now you can all be very, very grateful that you belong to
the computer age now because our poor students -- they had to wait in
endlessly long lines to try to get their classes. This was before
computers. And so it was a very tedious process. This was the original
bookstore which was underneath the current campus
center. And you can tell people are not particularly happy, seems
like, in their line. [ Pause ] >> Danette Cook-Adamson: So in
conclusion I just want to say that Cal Poly Pomona has grown. It's
evolved greatly over the years and encompasses the efforts and the
contributions of so many different individuals,some of whom lived both
miles and years apart. Yet woven together, it creates
this unique and dynamic campus that you see around us today. And
again, I want to thank my wonderful colleague Kimberley Erickson who
created this power point presentation I used today. And I thank for
your attention today. [ Applause ][ Pause ] [ Music ]