Education@Google: Class Size = 1 Billion, MIT OpenCourseWare's Goal for the Next Decade

Uploaded by AtGoogleTalks on 24.02.2012

>>Scott Morrison: Hi, everyone. I'm Scott Morrison. I'm the President of the MIT Club
of New York. And to begin with, I'd like to thank Stu and also Graham Wharton from Google,
who helped us make the arrangements for this facility tonight, and for all of the networking
activity and so forth. So, could I have a round of applause please for Stu and Graham?
Thanks. So, to continue with tonight's program, I'd just like to introduce our speakers. First,
Cecilia D'Oliveira served as Technology Director for MIT's OpenCourseWare since 2002 and was
responsible for planning and support of the initiative's technical infrastructure, including
software, hardware, networks and technical standards used in the production and delivery
of MIT course materials to users around the world.
She was named Executive Director of OCW in September of 2008, with responsibility for
overall online courseware leadership. Prior to her work with OCW, she co-founded and served
as Vice President of Operations for SupplyWorks, a service provider for internet-based manufacturing
and procurement.
And before that, she spent 13 years in a variety of technology leadership positions at MIT,
including Director of Information Technology Support and Director of Distributive Computing
and Network Services. She is an MIT alum, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and
Engineering, Class of '77, and Master of Science in Management, Class of '79.
And then, I would like to introduce Shigeru Miyagawa. He's been at MIT since 1991, where
he is Professor of Linguistics and holds the endowed chair Kochi-Manjiro Professor of Japanese
Language and Culture. He runs a laboratory that creates interactive educational programs.
And in line with this, he's also Chair of MIT OpenCourseWare's Faculty Advisory Committee.
One of his innovations that I was quite interested in is JP NET, which actually pre-dated OpenCourseWare
and the entire MIT Japanese program on the web.
It was one of the first online projects in the world to place an entire academic program
on the internet. This was done from 1993 to 1994. He received his Ph.D. in Linguistics
from the University of Arizona in 1980 and a BA from the International Christian University
in Tokyo in 1975.
Please join me in welcoming both of our speakers this evening.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Thank you. Thanks. Thank you very much, Scott. Shigeru and I
talked about which one of us would do the presentation and we could've flipped a coin
and he could've ended up up here. But I'm gonna do the presentation part of tonight,
which should take about 30 minutes, if everything goes according to plan.
And then, we'll do a shared kind of Q and A session, which we hope to leave you like,
30 minutes or something for--. So, I'm sure you all have lots and lots of questions. And
that'll be a lot more fun than sitting there and listening to me. Let me start, first of
all, by thanking people who helped make this event happen.
The MIT Club of New York folks, for example, many of whom are in the audience here, Greg
Martin, from Google, who's in the club, Yu-Hui Lin, Scott, who just introduced me and several
others. And I'd like to thank the club very much for hosting us here. I also wanna thank
This is an amazing facility. This room itself is amazing, but I got a quick tour from Greg
beforehand and what a wonderful place to work. I'm very jealous. And I'd like to thank Stu
Feldman, who's back there, for his nice introduction. And the MIT staff who helped put it on, too.
Wherever you are, Yvonne, I hope you're up here now. And Tom. So, and thank all of you
who are here tonight. We have an interesting mixed audience. I wanna start by saying that
if you're an MIT alum, can you raise your hand so we see? If you are a Google employee,
could you raise your hand?
So, there's some overlap there. If you're an OCW donor, you don't have to raise your
hand, but you can if you want to.
Terrific. Welcome all of you tonight and thank you for being here. So, what I wanted to do
before I get into my actual presentation, is start with my own personal thoughts on
why this is important, why I think MIT's commitment to openness, which has been expressed in a
very specific way through OpenCourseWare, is more important than ever in terms of what's
going on with education.
And it's what makes my job at OpenCourseWare so fulfilling. And I'll start by just a couple
of facts. First thing is, worldwide demand for higher education has been accelerating
for the last 20 years. Between 2001, when we announced OCW, and 2010, enrollments in
higher education grew by 60 percent, from about 100 million to about 160 million, driven
largely by growth in the developing world.
In China, for example, growth in higher education has been in the neighborhood of about 20 percent
per year every year for the last decade. Access, though, to quality higher education is severely
limited in developing countries where we're seeing so much growth.
And India's a prime example of that. I mean, of the population in India today, there's
1.2 billion or something like that. Half of them are under the age of 25. And if you look
into--. You think about the economy in India, which is growing, there's a lot of people
in the middle coming into the middle class.
But the universities there--the traditional universities there--can only handle about
ten percent of the people who could potentially go. Many of those institutions are facing
the inability to teach subjects that people wanna take 'cause they don't have qualified
Within the comparable universities in India to MIT are the IITs, the Indian Institutes
of Technology. Fantastic institutions that are spread across the country. Their acceptance
rate is less than two percent. MIT's acceptance rate is more like--. What is it, Shigeru?
Six percent?
The Ivy's are six to eight percent. And the pool that that is going against is a pool
of a half a million kids who have taken the exam and passed it. So, it's not just anybody.
It's these kids who have studied for a couple of years and they take the exam. And still,
only two percent of them can get into the best institutes.
So, what can we be doing to help all of these capable young students get access to quality
education? Even in the US today, where we have significant access to education, we have
to do things better. I mean, we know that the percentages of students who are not graduating
from college are amazingly high.
And we have a severe and growing shortage of students who are majoring in engineering
and other STEM fields. And then finally, lifelong learning has become something that's really
important to all of us. And in mature economies, more important, certainly essential, I would
Whether you're trying to maintain your skills, you're trying to change careers, you're trying
to get back in the workforce after being unemployed, you just want to explore new areas of interest.
Whatever it is, I mean, and I'll give you--. We have a number of examples of folks who
are fairly well-known, who have used OpenCourseWare to come back and study energy because it's
a hot field and they wanna know about it.
And the person I'm talking about is Bill Gates.
Most of the people in these situations don't have the time to go back and get formal education.
So again, what can we do to better serve that population? These are some of the opportunities
that we have before us now where open sharing, I think, can make a difference.
And this is what, to me, makes OCW such a fulfilling project to be part of. So, tonight
what I wanna do is just review with you OCW's first decade. What are the major things we
think we've accomplished? And then, move into a little bit of an overview of what's going
on now in different places to try to take, to go from open content to what I'll call
open learning, to actually create quality online learning experiences that are openly
available to people at the level of magnitude that OCW has been.
We're learning about what it's gonna take to do that. And that's quite exciting. And
then I'll close by talking about what the future of open education is at MIT, at least
as far as we know today, including a few words about the announcement about a month ago about
MITx and what OCW's plans are for the next decade.
And as far as all that goes, Shigeru and I had scheduled this event before the announcement.
And so, this wasn't intended to be like, some big announcement about MITx today. And we,
in fact, are not really the MITx people at MIT. But we can tell you what we know and
if you have specific questions, we can figure out how to answer those.
So, moving along quickly here, you're all familiar with the idea that MIT came up with
back in the year 2000, and Shigeru was part of a very small committee, that looked at
what MIT could do to put itself on the internet. They concluded that doing some kind of an
MIT dot com was not the way to go.
That putting our courses online in a way that would be consistent with MIT quality was just
too, it would be too expensive. And at that point in time, we had no idea how to do it.
But we did wanna have a presence on the net.
And so, the idea that they came up with was, "Let's just give all the materials from our
existing courses away. Let's not do anything special. Let's just put them all up." And
that was the very simple idea. But it was pretty revolutionary. A lot of people felt
as though it was crazy for an academic institution to give away intellectual assets.
But in fact, it's very consistent with what the mission is of MIT. And for those of you
who are MIT grads, MIT's mission has been consistent for the entire time I've been there.
And that's been a number of years. I have a lot of grey hair that I didn't have when
I first came to MIT.
But the mission is to advance knowledge and to educate students to serve the nation in
the world. And so, doing something like OpenCourseWare is just absolutely consistent with the mission.
And I think the committee that came up with the idea drew heavily on the MIT mission in
terms of the idea.
And as Susan Hockfield, our current President, says, "OCW expresses MIT's goal of advancing
education through a global community." And so, if we look at the goals of OCW, number
one it was to help educators and learners by sharing our materials. But the second thing
was to encourage other universities to do this.
Our idea at the beginning wasn't that people would just take MIT courses and adopt them
everywhere. I think some people initially had that misinterpretation that somehow, we
were trying to take over the world of education by enforcing our approach. But our idea was
basically to set a model.
And the model would be based on this idea of openness and advancement through sharing
of ideas, sharing of knowledge. And what we didn't say at the time, but what was certainly
very much discussed behind the scenes, was that by encouraging our faculty to put their
materials online, that it would--I won't say force them--but it would encourage them to
take things and dust them off and update them and make them look better because it was gonna
have their name on it.
So, you all know OCW doesn't provide online courses. We provide the material that comes
out of classes. And that repository, if you want to think of it as a virtual library of
course materials, has grown and grown and grown. We have materials of all different
We started with largely tech/space content. And over time, as it became clear that video
was really, really popular and helped people really understand the content better, we've
put resources in to video lecture capture. But we basically take whatever the faculty
gives us.
There's a lot of variety in the course materials we provide. Some courses have very little.
Some courses are extremely rich with material. And that's really a function of several different
things. Intellectual property issues is one of the big things that we face.
If it's property that isn't owned by MIT or the faculty member, we really can't publish
it. But there are also faculty references that come into play. Some faculty want to
publish everything. Others don't. And the type of course. We found in the Humanities
areas, it's very difficult, especially in seminar-type courses, to really put those
online without any interaction.
The materials themselves really aren't that useful. But we do what we can do. Everything's
available and this is a critical part of what we do. We're not just putting stuff up for
people to look at for free. We're putting it up with an open, what has now become known
as Creative Commons license, which allows for the legal reuse, redistribution, copying,
basically do what you want, with a few restrictions.
And one of the major ones is non-commercial. We were one of the first major institutions
to adopt the Creative Commons license. It's now widely used, not just in education, but
in a variety of fields. So, we began publishing our courses in 2002.
As Stu said, this is an ongoing operation. We have people that are back in the offices
as we speak, who are working on publishing our next set of courses. We now have 21 hundred
courses online. We have hundreds that we've taken offline and archived. And this is something
that MIT has committed to keep running into the future permanently.
OK. The costs of OCW have always been an issue. People have said, "How does MIT pay for this?"
The operation costs about four million dollars a year. It's paid for through these various
revenue streams--individual donors. We have an amazing annual fund with the kind of program
where people make online donations.
Last year, we got nearly 25 hundred donations that way. And they range from a dollar a month
to--. Somebody actually did an online donation of like, 50 thousand dollars one time. That
was pretty amazing. We also have corporate sponsors. We have foundations that give us
money, typically for projects to do enhancements to the site.
We have a small amount, we're trying to grow this, of revenue from places like Amazon,
referrals, ad revenues, and that sort. And then, MIT sort of makes up everything else,
which right now is about half of our costs. So, we have a global audience.
I think the MIT community continues to be amazed at the numbers of people that come
to our website. We're the most visited website at the institute. We now have between 1.5
and 2 million visits a month. A lot of those are repeat visitors. Probably about 50 percent
of the people are people coming back.
So, people are finding a lot of value. Our traffic has grown year by year. Last year,
we reached almost 19 million in visits total. And as you can see from the chart up there,
there's an awful lot of traffic that comes outside of North America. The MIT traffic
is a very small part of traffic to our site.
Areas like East Asia, China, Korea, end up being about 20 percent of our overall traffic.
That's been pretty consistent. Now, these numbers don't include offline ways that we
distribute our content. We have a mirror site program where we take content and distribute
it on hard drives.
We have about 300 sites around the world that run OpenCourseWare on a local server that
way because of internet bandwidth issues. We also have sites--translation sites--that
have translated our content in different languages. They run their own servers.
They have their own users that come there. Those aren't included in our numbers. We also
put our content up on places like YouTube. And thank you very much Google. That has saved
us a huge amount of money in terms of bandwidth over the last few years.
That was--. One of my major concerns as Technology Director in 2005 was how are we gonna keep
up with all this video traffic? And then YouTube came along. And that was a wonderful solution.
Traffic through YouTube and iTunes and places like that where we put our video is also not
included here in terms of visits.
So, this is a minimal picture in terms of things. As we added all this stuff up in terms
of who has access and how do they have access, we think that between 2001 and the end of
2011, we got about 100 million people who access the content and used it in one shape
or form or another.
And so at MIT, that is something that we are truly humbled by and certainly never expected.
Now, the impact of OCW has been both in the formal learning side of things--.
And what I mean by that is where you teachers and students and maybe the teachers are using
the content to expand their own knowledge, students are using some of OCW for supplementing
their courses. In some cases, teachers adopt our materials and integrate it in their class.
But a lot of times, they're just looking at what we have and how we teach to let that
inform how they're gonna teach their course. So, there's a wide variety of ways that informal
teaching and learning, OCW gets used.
What has been most amazing, though, in terms of use, is the informal learning side of OCW.
We had no concept when we started the project that this site would be as heavily used as
it is by people who aren't formally taking a course anywhere. These were just raw materials.
These weren't materials that were prepared for online use. And yet, people found value
in them. Forty-three percent of our users--the largest segment of our user base--it turns
out are informal users. Absolutely amazing. And this is a statistic that has been replicated
as new OCW sites opened up at other schools, which I'll talk about in a minute.
This is a statistic that's been replicated. So, informal learning, there's a huge demand
out there. And I think over the last ten years as the internet has grown, people have become
familiar with things like Wikipedia. It's just the first place people go for information.
And for lifelong learners, OCW kinds of scenarios fit in very well. So, one of our goals, I
think I mentioned early on, was that we would not be the only institution adopting this
idea of openness and sharing. And in fact, very quickly, we had institutions that MIT
had close relationships with that came and said, "What are you doing? How do you do it?
We wanna do this, too. We think it's a great idea."
And we started working together and figuring out how to do things better and sharing best
practices. And this eventually turned into something that we call the OCW Consortium.
It's an independent organization now-- its own board of directors, its own staff. It
has about 250 member institutions that pay dues.
And if you look across those sites, MIT was the model, but we have sites doing all kinds
of different, really amazing things. And there are about 15 thousand courses up there in
different languages. One of the things Shigeru was very involved in was one of the first
regional consortiums that set up schools within Japan, came together, I don't know what year
it was.
Maybe 2005, 2006. Ten of the leading institutions there formed a Japanese Consortium. There's
now regional OCW consortia in Korea and Taiwan as well. And the consortium has been great
'cause it's provided a collaborative way for various schools to get together and work on
An example of that right now is happening in Europe. They have this thing called the
Bologna Process, where the EU is trying to integrate some of the educational stuff going
on in higher education. And one of the things they're trying to do is something called "student
mobility," so it's easier for students to move across borders and from school to school.
A bunch of the OCW universities in Europe have come together to try to figure out, "How
can we use our OCW curriculum to actually make this happen?" And that's a very exciting
project. Now, one of the things that happened along the way. We were doing OpenCourseWare
and then, all kinds of things started happening that we didn't anticipate.
And we became the spark for something that became known as the Open Educational Resources
movement. This is a broader movement than OCW. It includes organizations that aren't
even academic institutions. It includes individuals. It's a term that was first adopted in 2002
They held a forum to look at what the impact of OpenCourseWare would be in higher education.
They came up with this term. It includes all kinds of materials. It includes software,
services. It includes things like the licensing framework from Creative Commons.
And it has really been nurtured and grown through the Hewlett Foundation, grants, and
targeted programs. So, if you look at the OER Movement, I just went out and collected
a bunch of the logos from some of the most well-known institutions that are part of OER,
and you'll see it includes both educational institutions and it includes some educational
institutions that aren't even part of the OCW Movement, formally, like Yale and Stanford,
where they're sharing stuff, but they're really not part of the Consortium.
It includes groups that formed specifically to translate the content. It includes groups
that have funded a lot of this work. It includes--. Some are strictly policy-making institutions,
like UNESCO. It includes some for-profit companies.
I mean, I consider YouTube and iTunes and OpenStudy and Flat World, all of these for-profit
companies that are helping us make this movement happen to be part of--and they're providing
free services to do it--they're part of the movement. There's NGOs like the African Health
OER Network.
There are small entrepreneurial start-ups, like Peer-to-Peer University. And it goes
on and on and on. It's a very fertile time. Within the US, a lot of this OER energy has
been focused on things like the cost of textbooks and what can we do with open resources to
drive down the cost of textbooks?
And so, we have Flat World Knowledge and we have an initiative in California to develop
free and open textbooks. The State of Washington invested in the development of 80 open courses,
which are largely trying to do away with textbooks. And finally, in terms of the movement, there's
national governments like India, like the Netherlands, like Korea, who are actually
incorporating the idea of open educational resources in their national education policy.
So, we've accomplished a lot in the last ten years. I mean, if you step back and you look
at where we've been, we've helped millions and millions of learners. And as I said, in
an environment where a large portion of the world's population doesn't have access to
quality higher education, and when lifelong learning has become in larger and larger demand,
OCW has been an answer in some ways.
We've supported educators. We've helped high school educators develop better understanding
of math. We've helped other educators who are trying to figure out, they've got to teach
a course for the first time, how should they do it? This was our primary target and that
is absolutely one of the things that we have fulfilled.
We've supported flexible lifelong learning, whether it's a working professional, it's
a non-traditional student like a homeschooler, it's someone who has had a lot of trouble
working in a formal classroom, but finds it a lot easier to work online at their own pace.
We've had entrepreneurs who are trying to look for reference material. One of my favorite
cases is a guy from Haiti who's developing some solar panels and needed some information
on integrated circuits. And he didn't have a library in Haiti, but he did have OpenCourseWare.
And the final two things. I think we have created a model for government, for institutions,
for individuals in terms of open sharing. So much is underway. And I've talked about
a lot of that already, so I won't go into that now.
And finally, and I think this is really where we get most exciting, is that through having
open content out there, we've inspired a lot of experiments in open education to try to
figure out how to take the content and turn it into a quality online experience. And we'll
talk about some of these experiments in a minute.
So, we've done this thing with OpenCourseWare. It's been ten years. So, what's the next big
opportunity for open education? And I would say these projects, which I've had to go through
and pick out just a handful of them that I could fit on a slide, these projects are some
of the projects I think that have done the most to try to take open content into open
Khan Academy you're all familiar with. Something that went online in 2006, is now serving about
four million visitors a month, a couple thousand video tutorials, has really established a
model for how you can effectively teach online in a modular kind of way. Integrated exercises
to help people check whether or not they know what they're doing.
So, that's been an extremely interesting project that we've been watching and I think we've
learned a lot from that about how you could adapt content to make the whole experience
better. The CMU Open Learning Initiative is another amazing one, was founded actually
in 2001, right around the same time as OCW.
It's a group of learning scientists who work with experts to put together online courses
that have been designed with all the best learning in science. It's expensive, but what
they've done is modeled for us how do you really create an effective online experience,
something that can be as effective as in class.
And that means what we've learned from them is assessment--continual assessment, continual
feedback--to people online is really important. OpenStudy is a very small group that started
a couple years ago that is providing free student study groups online where students
who maybe are using OpenCourseWare can ask each other questions, answer other questions,
basically interact with people.
And they're experimenting with things like badges to inspire people and to recognize
people for their contributions in an open learning kind of environment. We've hooked
up a number of our courses to OpenStudy. Peer-to-Peer University is a bunch of people--volunteers--who
take open content and teach courses to anyone who wants to take it.
And it's on a variety of topics. A lot of them are web-based kinds of things. But that's
been interesting because it's really peer-to-peer. It's not necessarily expert-led. What we've
learned there is that moderated peer groups can actually be quite effective in learning.
They're doing a lot with badges right now to try to figure out, again, how those can
be used to certify mastery in an online setting. And then the final one I'll talk about briefly.
I'm sure most of you heard about the Stanford courses that went online in the fall. Yes?
Got announced [chuckles] last August or something that they were gonna open up some courses
that they had been teaching at Stanford with Stanford students. They were gonna redesign
them, open them up for free online use to anybody who wanted. They had 160 thousand
people register for the AI-Lab course, for the AI course, in a very quick period of time--several
It turns out about 20 thousand students actually finished that course successfully, from what
I understand. And the most amazing thing is that there were 200 students in the course
that scored perfectly on the exams. And I don't know if that includes the homework.
Whatever it was, 200 students had perfect scores. All of them were online learners,
not the students at Stanford who were taking the class simultaneously. That is amazing.
And I think what it is is a lot of the content they have--short video tutorials online--students
can go back and do them again and again and again, until they get it.
A Stanford student doesn't have time to do that, I don't think. So, what we learned is
there's a huge interest there for this kind of course, especially when it's being taught
by fairly well-known experts in the field with a name like Stanford associated with
We also learned that the, again, having the ability to take tests and get your stuff graded
was really important. And they got a certificate, although it wasn't signed by Stanford, I don't
think. But I think people like that as well. The only question I have about this is, and
I just need to have a conversation with folks at Stanford to confirm this, it's a free course,
but it wasn't clear to me the content was open.
It wasn't clear to me that people could take the content, maybe put it on their own server,
teach their own course with it. That would be the optimal. That would be where we would
like to have things go. But it was a fantastic effort. So, finishing up here. So, the question
that I have before us now is the issue of scaling.
Publishing of OpenCourseWare has been a very scalable thing. We take course materials from
MIT. We prep them for the web. We put them online. It costs us about ten to 15 thousand
dollars. Sounds like a lot, but when millions of people use the resources, it's actually
very cost effective.
The problem is how do you teach and how do you really get the learning to scale like
that? Really, two questions. How do you construct a quality online learning experience? And
two, how do you scale it so the costs don't just go out of the ceiling? And what, I think,
we found from these experiments and others is that you need content design for online.
You need it to be modular. You need interactive resources. In the case of the Open Learning
Initiative at CMU, they actually have an online tutor that guides people, navigates them,
gives them frequent feedback. Very helpful to learners online. You wanna have interactive
You wanna have, from an MIT perspective, you wanna have online labs. The interactive components
are really important. And that also includes interactive online communities. That was one
thing, I think, about the Stanford Project that was really good. They had all kinds of
ways for people to interact with each other and work through the material.
That'll be essential in building scaled learning environments. You need a delivery platform
that's gonna scale to millions, or at least to thousands and hundreds of thousands of
simultaneous users. And optimally, from a learner's point of view, you wanna have some
kind of credential that's gonna recognize all the work they did.
So, where does that lead us to? So, December 19th. MIT announced something called MITx.
And the announcement said we're gonna offer free online courses and make learning tools
freely available. This is an initiative that's been under discussion in different forms for
a couple of years.
The announcement was made at the end of the year for a number of different reasons. Work
is underway now. There will be some initial pilot courses launched this spring at some
point. The project is being led by our provost. The development of the learning platform that's
gonna be part of this is being done by the director of our Computer Science and Artificial
Intelligence Lab, Professor Agarwal.
Many of you know him. The components of this that have been announced are very much in
line with what I went through when I said, "What would it take to really scale and create
a quality online experience?" It's gonna have self-paced materials, very modularized.
There's gonna be interactivity built in, both in terms of the learning resources as well
as a virtual community. There's gonna be some automated assessment of the work, so you don't
have to have TAs grade things. You're gonna have automated ways of doing that.
And it's gonna be based on an Open Source platform. And I think the idea here is to
have a platform that can be developed by people around the world and enhanced in a continuous
development way. Very much of an Open Source mentality. And then the big thing was they're
gonna offer something that's called an MITx Certificate.
It won't be an MIT credit. It won't be an MIT certificate. But it will be something
that is accredible, verified in some way, certificate that says you learned what the
course taught or what the subject taught. So, the next decade, just to make clear, there's
gonna be three things going on at MIT.
They're education-focused at a global level. There's regular MIT, selective admissions,
tuition, degrees, access to all of our wonderful facilities. Maybe we'll have online courses
as part of that. We'll see. Number two, OCW will continue as it is today, which is providing
MIT course materials openly for people to use.
Free and open access. Continuing to update. And then finally, MITx, which is gonna be
really experimenting with what it means to offer online courses for thousands of people
at a time, providing quality learning experiences. So, those three things will exist going forward.
OCWs next decade I can talk about because I'm responsible for that.
I'm not responsible for MITx. And what I can tell you is we're gonna continue to enhance
our content. Video is gonna become more and more of what we do. As faculty adopt different
kinds of video formats, those will be incorporated within our publication. We wanna grow our
learning communities.
We have learning communities set up through OpenStudy. We wanna figure out ways to really
grow those and make those work. We'll be sharing OCW more widely. We've done it through YouTube
and iTunes and other places before. We think there's a big opportunity, say, with Wikipedia
taking some of our content in short form, integrating into Wikipedia articles to get
it out there.
We've gotta figure out what our mobile strategy is. And then, we'll continue to do what we've
done for the last several years, which is targeting groups, user groups, within OCW
that we think are really important whether it's high school students or teachers or self-learners
and trying to figure out how can we adapt ever so slightly what we do to present the
materials in a way that's more accessible and easy to use for those specific groups?
So, that's basically my presentation. Let me close by saying that they say that a journey
of a thousand miles starts with a single step. And certainly with OCW, back in 2001, we took
a step. And what we have been on is a journey that had a lot of surprises along the way.
I don't think anybody here or at MIT could have predicted what the impact was gonna be
of OpenCourseWare or where we would be now in 2012, announcing an online course initiative.
With this announcement, I think we've started a new journey in Open Sharing.
And so all I can say is stay tuned. The adventure continues at MIT. Thanks very much and let's
have some questions.
>>Graham Wharton: I'd like to start by asking people if you do have questions to come to
the microphones. There's one here and there's one on the other side of the room. And also,
we have folks on video chat from Irvine, from Mountain View, and from Cambridge, I believe.
And so, if any of the folks on video chat--you probably hear me right now--if you could please
jump in between questions. And hopefully, you'll be acknowledged. I want to start off
the questions by saying, well, a hundred million is pretty good and repeats. And you're probably
closer to a billion now by having courses translated to Spanish and Chinese, perhaps.
I wanted to ask how close are you actually already to the goal of one billion and what
will it take to get there?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: No, no, no, Graham. No. We're at the hundred million level. I
mean, can we reach a billion? There's seven billion people in the world. What percentage
of them can benefit from MIT? Maybe, I don't know, 500 million? I don't know a billion.
That's out there really for impact more than anything. But Shigeru, do you think we can
get to a billion?
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Well, maybe with the help from other people. One thing that you mentioned
that's important is that we have the original CourseWare in English. That's what MIT offers.
But we also have translation sites in Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, what else?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Turkish.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Turkish. Thai.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Persian.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: And those sites get a fairly large number of access as well. And
we hope to grow that to other languages. But our hope, right now, we have a hundred million
people who have used OpenCourseWare in the past ten years, which, by the way, for those
of us who are in the original committee, we had absolutely no idea.
Absolutely no idea that it would be this big a thing. But our hope is to go from a hundred
million to a billion. And to go from here to there, very clearly, we need to collaborate
with other people, hopefully such as Google to help us to get there.
>>MALE #1: Hand editing things like Wikipedia is one way to get things, but to have things
found more easily, particularly since you've got so many institutions, some sort of metadata
would be very helpful for finding it. Are you developing some sort of standards for
the metadata so people can find and put together parts of a program that makes sense for them
across multiple institutions?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Well, it's a really good question. We've done very rudimentary
things. I mean, certainly with OpenCourseWare at MIT we have lots of metadata on our courses,
down to the resource level. We've worked at the consortium level on some search tools.
So, if you go to the OCW Consortium site, there's actually a search place where you
can search for courses across all of the institutions. And those work marginally well. I mean, what
we're dealing with is a bunch of academic institutions that don't have a lot of resources.
And we would love to have people who are experts help us with this problem. We do the best
we can do. So, but it's a big issue. Even just on the OpenCourseWare site at MIT alone,
I'd love to have help on our search.
>>MALE #2: Quick question. Could you give me the website for your Japanese material?
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Ah. It's, well, you can go to OCW. It's O-C-W dot M-I-T dot E-D-U.
That's the general site. And on the left side, you will see different schools. And my materials
are under School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Science.
And if you go to foreign languages section, you will find Japanese and Chinese and Spanish
and so forth.
>>MALE #2: OK. Now, the key one was O-C-W dot M-I-T dot slash--.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Dot E-D-U.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Dot E-D-U.
>>Graham Wharton: Chances are Google will find it.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Type in OpenCourseWare Japanese, and it'll probably lead you there.
>>Shigeru: There we go; there we go. >>MALE #3: So, when we're talking about a
formal course of study, you earn a degree or you earn in this case, let's say MIT has
a certain certificate of accomplishment.
And that has a very clean delineation, demarcation of learning. In the case of, as you said,
the plurality of users are self-learners, what metric are you using to define learning?
Maybe you could elaborate on that and how you might be able to use that as a way of,
shall we say, tuning the output from OCW ON, and the more general OER space.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: That's a great question. And really, I mean, we have--. Our evaluation
program includes three different pieces. I mean, there's our web analytics, which is
what gives you the gross numbers of where people are coming from and how many visits
a month and all that.
We also do, on a regular basis, surveys of different target populations. We always do
some kind of major user survey every year. And through those surveys, we find out who
people are and how they're using the material. And we typically go into that with a very
constructed kind of evaluation tool to get at how are they using it, what were the outcomes,
and that sort of thing.
It ends up that we publish that data. It's not like we have a before and after case that
we can build that says "this person started here, they did OCW, and this is where they
ended up." That's just a limitation of being in the kind of world that we're in. I think
MITx is gonna be able to do a heck of a lot more because you'll be able to evaluate students
on the way in and you'll be able to evaluate students on the way out.
Give you a lot more real learning data. But we try to do what we do with surveys and then
we actually go out we interview. We do interviews, in-depth interviews, with a select number
of people. And those end up being more like case studies.
>>MALE #3: OK. So, just generally though, based off of the surveys and the feedback
that you received, of let's say the 43 percent of people who are self-learners, what proportion
of them are, shall we say, developing comprehension as opposed to just looking up information?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: A lot of it is reference uses. I mean, people who are working professionals,
the typical thing there is they're trying to enhance their skill in a particular area.
They come to the site. They look for a specific kind of course.
They pick through it and they figure out, "OK. Here's the couple things I wanna learn."
They don't necessarily come and go through an entire course. I mean, self-learners are
all over the place, too. We also have self-learners who I would say, a typical high school student,
who may not have access to AP Physics in the high school they're in, but they wanna take
And their teacher says, "Hey, Walter Lewin teaches a wonderful course on OpenCourseWare.
Just go watch his videos." And we've had people who've said they did that. They aced their
physics course. They aced their SAT subject tests and they came to MIT. So, it's a whole
range of things. I don't think--. That's about all I can say.
>>MALE #3: Well, thank you.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Yeah.
>>MALE #4: Hi. So, clearly OCW has had a lot of really great impact on a lot of students
out there who are trying to learn things or people who are just trying to better teach
things. Could you maybe talk a little bit about what impact OCW has had on MIT?
And whether OCW is doing or could be doing anything to give back to the professors who
are contributing content and the MIT community?
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Yes. Thank you. So, when we first proposed OCW, we had in mind the
rest of the world. And we did not really think about how it might impact the institutes in
education. But as we got into this, within just a few years we realized that there's
a whole set of benefits that we get. So, for example, right now, about 90 percent of our
students, MIT students, use OCW.
How are they using it? Well, they're using it not only for their own course, but they're
looking at OCW sites of courses that they might want to take a look at to take. Professors
are using the OCW site to advise students on courses that they might want to take.
Eighty-four percent of faculty members are using OCW. And how are they using that? Of
course, they look at their own site, but what's really remarkable to me is that those professors
tell us that they are looking at other professor's OCW sites and they want to see how they're
But there's something actually quite, quite important and profound about this. And this
is a point that I make when we talk about benefit to MIT. As faculty members, typically,
and this is true all over the world, once you start teaching, you rarely get to see
other people teaching.
So, you have your own model. But you don't see many, many models. But with OCW, all of
a sudden, you get to see a hundred different models. So, this is really helping the quality
of education. A third benefit is that we ask our freshman if they are looking at OCW when
they were in high school and roughly half said that they were, which we are very happy
But what was surprising to us was that of those who were looking at OCW in high school,
something like 36 percent told us that OCW was a significant factor in school choice.
And as you know, students who get into MIT also get into other schools and of course,
the primary reason is that they want to study computer science and biology and so forth.
But OCW played a significant role in school choice.
>>MALE #4: Thank you.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Can I just add quickly that alumni make a large use of our site,
too? So,--.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Fifty percent of alumni look at OCW site.
>>MALE #5: Hi, I'm a proud OCW participant. I'm taking a course right now in computer
science with you guys. So, thank you. I actually wanted to start with a quick quote from Kevin
He was a co-founder of Wired Magazine. And in his book, "What Technology Wants," he was
actually writing about e-readers. But he wrote, "When we think about new technologies, our
immediate tendency is to imagine the new thing doing an old job better.
That's why the first cars were called horseless carriages. The first movies were simply straight-forward
documentary films of theatrical plays. And it took a long time to realize the full dimensions
of cinema photography as its own new medium that could achieve new things, reveal new
perspectives, do new jobs."
And I think that the, it seems like the first phase of OpenCourseWare, where we're simply
putting the lectures online and allow people to come and enjoy them, much as they would
in a traditional environment, is almost like that horseless carriage phase. It's very exciting
to see things move into this new phase where MITx is going to be offering its new courses
I work at a company called Knewton and we do adaptive learning technologies. So, these
are basically a way to take any kind of content, whether you're a textbook publisher, professor,
etcetera, and drive that content adaptively sot that no one student's path through a course
is the same as any others.
And the exciting thing about this actually is that eventually it will allow us and other
companies that are doing similar things to what we're doing to have access to these huge
reams of data on how students progress through the course, how they learn best.
And so, I was just curious, especially looking forward to MITx, whether you're planning to
use adaptive learning technologies and also what implications you see for once you're
collecting this data on students and when you have millions of people around the world
taking MITx courses, if that's going to be something that you're gonna be looking at
as a way to improve them, a way to uncover new ways of teaching, etcetera?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: I will say that there are several faculty members who are involved
in the MITx initiative that just get deliriously happy for the reason that you just pointed
out, which is access to data about what really helps people learn.
We have a professor in physics, Dave Pritchard, who's been teaching a freshman physics course
for several years. And he actually is into this whole adaptive assessment kind of piece.
He has his own software. He developed something called Mastering Physics, which Pearson actually
picked up and it's used by hundreds of thousands of people, which does a lot of data collection
and some amount of adaptive stuff.
Dave is now working on another generation of that and he's very--. I mention the Carnegie
Mellon project, the OLI Project, that does a lot of this adaptive stuff and Dave works
very closely with them. So, I think that's a kind of thing that you'll see over the next
few years, get integrated in here.
And yes, I agree with you about the--what did we do?--this is first generation. OCW
shows how MIT has taught. As teaching at MIT evolves through online technologies, it will
look different.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Can I just add to that? OCW is a way of doing something new with something
old. But there's something very profound about OCW. And that is that OCW's mission is really
MIT's mission. And OCW has allowed us to express that mission of the institute in a new way.
If you go to the website, it says that MIT's mission is to create, to preserve, and disseminate
knowledge and to bring that knowledge to bear on the great problems of the world. So, MIT
has been known for basic research in expressing that. But now with OCW, we get to do that
with education.
And I think that's something that's really important. And that's why it's been so successful
at MIT because it is a core value that we have been able to express with OCW.
>>MALE #5: Thank you.
>>FEMALE #1: Hi, my name is Diane Liebowitz. I graduated from MIT as an undergraduate.
And just looking at MITx, something immediately came to mind. One of the biggest problems
that we deal with now is unemployment.
And a lot of that is in finance and a lot of is because certain roles simply don't exist
anymore. Mortgage-backed securities immediately come to mind. And so, there are a lot of very
bright people out there in finance, many of them MIT graduates, who are in this situation
and one of the ways you deal with a situation like this if your role isn't so prominent
anymore because of the changing environment is to adapt your skill set.
And what I'm seeing is that a lot of what you do in order to adapt the skill set is
learning new things, all of which have some certification attached to them: C++ certification,
SAS certification, Project Management certification. And let's say, to get one of these certifications,
all you need to do is just sign up for NYU Continuing Education, pay five or six thousand
dollars, and take a series of courses and you're certified.
So, the first thing I thought of when I saw MITx was, "Has any consideration been given
to, let's say, somebody wants to get C++ certification while they're not working. And really spend
some productive time building on their skill set without having to spend five or ten thousand
dollars to do that, rather than getting this official, very costly certification to get,
let's say, an MITx certification?"
It essentially means the same thing. The certification means you know the material, which is what
people really wanna hear. So, has there been any thought to maybe looking into the types
of things that people in the real world are out there trying to learn who would need this
certification to really adapt their skill set?
Because the world is crawling with quants right now and it's very tough to compete.
And one way to compete is to learn some of these skills if you're coming from finance,
some of the more technical skills that you might not have needed before. Because what
you were doing before, let's say, was very proprietary.
But now you need C or SAS or MatLab or whatever. Has any thought been given to addressing that
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Shigeru, do you have any insight to that?
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: You're hitting at exactly why we have to do this open learning. Open
learning is exactly what you see, what Stanford did with the AI course and what we intend
to do with MITx. And that is that, I mean, exactly what you said, that skill sets are
changing and they change, according to some people, every five years.
You have to reboot. Now, every five years you cannot go back to school because you are
out there in society. And so, there has to be a way to reboot and to learn new things.
And open learning is, I believe, the way to do it. And this is why it's going to be critical
that we provide the kinds of education that we see.
Now, MIT offers a certain kind of education, right? MIT's known for its science and engineering--the
STEM courses. And those are the courses that I would imagine that MITx is going to focus
on. We offer what we do best. Other schools will offer other skill sets, but absolutely.
This is going to be essential, critical to our future in terms of the labor force and
the wealth of the country.
>>FEMALE #1: OK. Great. Thank you.
>>MALE AUDIENCE MEMBER #6: Hi. Andrew Bein, Class of '87. This has been great and the
benefits are very clear. I'd be very curious to hear if there had been discovered costs,
especially with a third new way of educating coming and what costs have occurred and been
anticipated, not in dollar, but in terms of education.
I'll give you an example. If you're in classroom where there's a video on, it's a different
classroom experience than if you're just there with your fellow students and a professor.
Maybe a better experience, I'm not sure. But are there scenarios that you've looked at
and policies you've developed to deal with conflicts among the three different ways of
providing courses?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Well, within OCW I can speak that we don't bring cameras into
a classroom if it's gonna disrupt the learning experience there. We tend to--. There are
a lot of classrooms at MIT now that have cameras that are built-in, just like this room has
cameras that are built-in and you just don't notice it.
So, that's why for seminars, it's really hard 'cause we're not gonna bring a camera into
a seminar 'cause it's gonna create an artificial situation. So, just to answer that specific
question. Are there other costs? We try to minimize faculty time. I mean, we try to keep
faculty time to four or five hours for an OCW course.
We do all the work. That's why we cost four million dollars a year. So, we've tried to
avoid the impact on the existing MIT educational program.
>>MALE #7: To what extent could MITx or OCW actually be used as a platform for innovation,
with the possibility of self-learners contributing back and perhaps solving some of the problems
that even MIT hasn't solved yet?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: I think that's yet to be seen. MITx--. We'll have to see how
that evolves and how broad and sweeping the goals are. I do believe that you're gonna
see much more of a focus on community contribution and community participation than we've been
able to deliver in OpenCourseWare.
I mean, there's a lot of resources that are gonna be put into the development side of
MITx to create the kind of platforms that would allow that kind of interactivity.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Yeah. We're seeing a little bit of it in OpenCourseWare already. So, I
was talking to professor in Chemical Engineering who had launched a new course. And he needed
some pieces of programming. And he went on OpenCourseWare and found what he needed under
the professor's site.
And so, he got that and got the approval and used it. So, there are things like this happening.
We don't get to document it. But OCW does have that kind of dynamic built into it as
>>FEMALE #2: Hi. I was wondering what sorts of things are decided within the coalition--the
OCW coalition-- and how you get decision-making to take place and if there's anybody who has
any kind of authority over or if it's just group decisions? I'm just curious about that
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: It's a very loose consortium. I mean, there's a board of directors,
but the board of directors is really responsible to the membership. It's a membership organization.
There are projects that get spawned. There will be some interest group in metadata, for
And you'll bring together technical people from around the consortium and they might
come up with a standard. We had a group that got together several years ago to look at
best practices in what's called Fair Use under copyright law and to actually write a document
together that tried to articulate policy--.
Not policy-level, but what our practices would be in terms of using Fair Use in our content.
But there's no, it's not like a group that has any power over any of the institutions.
It's really a membership organization designed to help the members on whatever the problems
are that they have in common.
>>MALE #8: So, I apologize for what might be a naive question, but when I think of things
like OpenCourseWare and the OER initiatives, I naturally think of the impact it would have
on the cost of tuition. So, there's been a lot of talk lately about increasing cost of
tuition, bubbles in tuition, things like that.
I'm curious if you can talk about how you think the various initiatives, OER, OCW, as
well as MITx, could potentially impact that in the long term. Is it, yes it could impact
it in a very dangerous way, like really affecting tuitions? Maybe it'll bring it down a little
bit, but not significantly?
Or, they are two completely different things. MITx is really addressing people, trying to
do continuing education, and things like that. And existing tuition policies are a completely
different bucket and there's no reason to worry about the two interacting.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Ooh. That's a hard question. I can tell you that in the discussions
that I've heard at MIT about why are we doing MITx, I've never heard someone say, "We're
doing it because we've gotta deliver education more cheaply." [chuckles] That hasn't been
part of the whole equation.
It's been, "Can we scale it to like, a lot of people?" It's been, "Can we figure out
how to teach online effectively so that we can improve our own educational programs and
give our students more flexibility?" As an engineer at MIT, as a student at MIT, it's
really hard to go away for a semester and study someplace else because we don't have
online capabilities.
That means when you go, you can't take MIT courses. [chuckles] And that's hard and it
really messes up your whole degree path. So, that's one. I think that's some of the thinking
in terms of MITx is we've gotta figure out how to do online education at MIT for MIT
students, so that we can improve our educational program.
But it's not to make it cheaper to do. Now, there may be things that come around that
it's gonna be less expensive. Now, OER on the other hand, look outside the broader world,
OER certainly is being used to try to reduce the cost of textbooks. I mean, textbooks is
a huge issue.
Cost of textbooks in community colleges, pretty much every community college that I have sampled,
the textbook cost is at least 50 percent of the total cost of education. In California,
it's more than the cost of tuition. So, the textbooks, I think, there's a lot of opportunity
to drive costs way down.
For our educational programs, I haven't heard the discussions along those lines.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: See, one thing to keep in mind is that MIT, like many Ivy schools,
have a need blind policy, which means that a student that's accepted at MIT and then
once the decision is made, then we take a look at the financial needs of the student
and we give that student whatever he or she needs to come to MIT.
And so, yes, the tuition is expensive, but we try to help out. Now, if something like
MITx or some other effort can bring us extra revenue to MIT, then that could be turned
into more financial aid for students who need it so that we can give opportunity as wide
an array of students as possible to come to MIT.
>>MALE #8: Thank you.
>>MALE #9: Hello. My name is Jay Damask. I'm Class of '90. And I'm glad you talked about
textbooks. My question to you is about archiving. I go back and look at Gil Strang's book, 18.06,
or Sussman 6.001 all the time, and I've been out and out for a long time.
How is it that OCW after so many learns or perhaps MITx, in ten years, in twenty years,
can go back and refresh the material that they learned? That's my question.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Well, of course, what I said to an earlier question, MITx or something
like it, is open education, which means it's going to be--. The content is going to be
available to anyone who wants to--.
>>MALE #9: Yeah, but this content will vary and grow over this period of time. And when
it's flat, like a PDF, you can print it out and put it in your file. But when it's more
interactive, that's hard to capture.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Yeah. Yeah. So, that is something about OCW. Much of OCW is PDF. I
don't know exactly what is being planned as far as that's concerned for MITx. It is our
hope that it would be interactive in a way that would be more up to date on a given basis.
But that's still to be worked out.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: It's an interesting question. With OCW, we have worked out ways
of archiving stuff. So, we archive to what's called D-space at MIT. It's a big repository.
You can get to all the old OCW stuff from 2001 in there. How you do that on an interactive
system? Good question. I don't think we know yet. [laughs]
>>MALE #9: Thank you very much.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Thank you.
>>MALE #10: Hi. Adam Bookbinder. I work here. Speaking of textbooks, back in I think 2003,
2004, I was a grad student and I first heard of OpenCourseWare and I was very excited to
hear about this. And I remember finding that only a few of the courses had textbooks and
that's still the case that it's only a few of them.
As you said, the cost of textbooks is incredibly high, especially for people in community colleges
and so forth. And given that the people at MIT are some of the elites in their fields,
you could set standards for textbooks and so forth. And I guess I'm wondering how hard
is it to get a standard textbook released openly and get it used widely?
That could help out a lot of even traditional students with school if they didn't have to
each go through the whole textbook rigmarole if there were a free and open textbook, especially
for basic subjects. I mean, linear algebra hasn't really changed in 50 years, you know?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Yeah. I mean, the answer to that varies from publisher to publisher.
A lot of these textbooks are locked up with publishers. And we had a case recently where
a faculty member went back to the publisher and said, "Hey, I think it's time for you
to give me back the rights to my book. I wanna put it on OpenCourseWare."
And that happened. But if it's a book that's being actively used, the publishers aren't
gonna do that. On the other hand, we have something called "OCW Scholar Courses." We're
building 20 foundation level courses--first-year courses in math, physics, biology, computer
And what we're trying to do there is exactly deal with this issue. We're trying to get
enough notes and stuff together that effectively we have what the textbook would have. So,
we've got five of those on OCW now. We have another seven coming in the next three weeks.
And by the end of next year, we'll have a total of 20. So, those will address for the
foundation level, I think, the content issues. Are you signaling to me, Graham?
>>Graham Wharton: I'm your clock.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: We can probably take a couple of more questions and then we, I
think, have to call a halt. This is a one--. And thank you so much. This is great. You
guys are fantastic.
>>FEMALE #3: Hi. I was wondering if you could say anything about what sort of content MITx
is gonna offer and whether it's gonna be digitized versions of current MIT classes or whether
there's gonna be new content?
And also, what sort of time commitment? Is it gonna be similar to the Stanford model
in that it's a scaled down version of a college class? So, to make it more accessible to working
people and people who are in school doing other things. That sort of thing.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: It's easy to answer that. Stay tuned.
>>FEMALE #3: OK. [giggles]
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: We're not involved in the design of those courses and I think
those decisions are being made right now. So, we'll see. Stanford has been a good model.
Whether MIT chooses to follow that or not, it remains to be seen.
>>FEMALE #3: All right. Thanks.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Thanks for your question.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: I should add that the director of C-Suite, who is lead on MITx,
has offered to talk about this at Google Cambridge.
>>MALE A #11: What is the role of a textbook publisher going forward? And what do you think
of Apple's textbook initiative?
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Oh, I don't know if I--. I don't know if we have time to get into
that. And I'm not really necessarily an expert in that. You know, I think there's a lot of
different opinions at this point in time. It's exciting from a technology perspective.
It's a lot of whiz bang. I mean, these textbooks are unbelievable. But they're not open. And
we're in the open world.
>>MALE #11: Thank you.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: One more?
>>MALE #12: Thank you for one last question. I'm a high school educator, so I noted with
interest that the high school market is something that you guys target as a potential future
partner. So, I really have two things I'm curious about. One is, do you see anybody
currently now doing for high school what OCW has done for college-level study?
And two, what do you think high school partnership is going to look like for OCW? Do you have
ideas what that might look like?
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: So, we have a cycle, high school update for high school--.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Highlights for high school.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Yeah. Where we've created a portal for high school teachers and students
to come in. We did not change the content, but to point out where in the present OCW
content things are useful for high school, particularly AP classes. So, we have that.
Take a look. There are many of us who do take our content, which we created for MIT, and
we take it to high school. So for example, I have a course that I teach with a colleague
of mine, history, on Asian History, and we use a lot of visuals. And we've taken this
to high schools.
And we've actually trained close to two thousand high school teachers in face-to-face workshops
using our OCW site for it to be used in high school classes.
>>MALE #12: Thank you.
>>Graham Wharton: So, I want to thank both of you very much for coming and sharing all
of this with us. This is very exciting. I think Scott has a few words to say about upcoming
events. And I invite you all to stay around a little bit after his words to chat with
everyone and to enjoy the remainder of the food.
>>Shigeru Miyagawa: Thank you.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Thanks.
>>Scott Morrison: First, I want to thank--.
>>Graham Wharton: And once again, please join me in a round of applause.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Thank you.
>>Scott Morrison: OK. Just very quickly before the networking and the remainder of the food,
I just want to let you know about a couple of upcoming MIT Club of New York events. We
have a social event next week. It's an interclub Winter Mingle on February 7th.
February 27th, Energy Efficiency and Quantum dot Nano Materials. March 1st, another event
that was being put together by Yu-Hui Lin, who is our Vice President of Educational and
Cultural Programs who is responsible, her and her team, responsible from the club for
tonight's event.
It'll be MIT Comes to New York, an evening with Professor Peter Diamond. He's an institute
professor, Nobel Laureate in Economics and the discussion will be on significant global
economic issues of the day. So, we hope that you'll join us for that.
That will be held at Credit Swiss. And again, that's on March 1st. March 6th, MIT Public
Service Center is the PSC, another wonderful innovation-led group doing work all around
the world. This will be MIT Club of New York Professional Programs and the Hub New York
City presenting New York City's second annual launch of the MIT Idea's Global Challenge.
So, again, that's March 6th. March 17th, our community services will be asking for volunteers
for the 2012 First Robotics Competition, New York Regional Championship at the Javits Center.
Again, March 17th. And then, March 27th, something that I think will be of interest.
Professional Programs presenting on Speaking Up. This will be a panel discussion about
how managers in varied industries will discuss how they communicate effectively, and in some
cases, cross-culturally. And then, the last one to mention is May 15th, the Energy C-Suite
Series on electron beam technology.
So, we do hope that you'll join us and please join us now for networking and food. Thanks
very much.
>>Cecilia D’Oliveira: Great.