CSULB - Sex, Drugs and Radical Chemistry


Uploaded by AMPCENTER on 05.05.2010

Transcript:
>> KEVIN: [APPLAUSE] THANKS FOR COMING.
IT'S REALLY FUN TO DO THIS.
WE DON'T GET A CHANCE TO DO THIS AS FACULTY VERY OFTEN
AND SO I REALLY FEEL HONORED TO GET A CHANCE TO SHARE SOME
OF THE WORK THAT I DO AND SHARING THIS PODIUM
WITH STEVE MESSICKC IS REALLY FUN.
WE APPROACH THINGS FROM TWO SIDES OF THE ANGLE.
WE'RE INTERESTED
IN ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS DRIVE FROM US HUMANS.
I AM APPROACHING IT FROM THE BIOLOGICAL IMPACT SIDE
AND HE IS APPROACHING IT FROM --
PROVIDING SOLUTIONS THROUGH CHEMISTRY -- OF --
ACTUALLY CHEMICALS THAT WERE PRODUCED BY CHEMISTS [LAUGHTER].
I HAD TO DO THAT TO YOU.
OKAY. SO MY JOB FIRST IS TO INTRODUCE
FOR BOTH OF US, THE ISSUES.
SO THIS IS OUR SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BITE AND ONE
OF THE THINGS YOU SHOULD SEE --
YOU SHOULD NOTICE THE TREMENDOUS HUMANITY HERE INTERFACING
WITH THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
THIS IS THE WAY WE'RE GOING
TO INTRODUCE THE SUBJECT OF WATER QUALITY.
SO THE CENTRAL SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA --
I'VE FOCUSED IN A LITTLE MORE -- LA, ORANGE COUNTY,
RIVERSIDE, ALL OF THIS.
THIS IS THE SECOND LARGEST METROPOLITAN AREA
IN THE UNITED STATES, AGAIN,
INTERFACING WITH THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND LA, LA COUNTY,
10 MILLION PERSONS; ORANGE COUNTY, 3; RIVERSIDE, 2 MILLION;
AND NORTH OF US AND SOUTH OF US, MORE.
SO 15 MILLION HUMAN BEINGS ARE INTERACTING
WITH THE ENVIRONMENT.
OKAY. THIS IS ONE WAY WE INTERACT
WITH THE ENVIRONMENT [LAUGHTER].
AND WE DO IT IN VARIOUS WAYS.
AND I WOULD ADVISE ONLY THAT APPROACH RIGHT THERE.
BUT THIS IS MEANT TO MAKE A POINT.
JUST ALONE -- THAT ALONE, THERE'S 15 MILLION URINATERS
AND I'M NOT GOING TO GO BEYOND THAT.
OKAY. WE HAVE TO HANDLE THIS EVERY DAY.
AND THIS IS GOING TO EVENTUALLY END
UP IN OUR MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
SO WE HAVE THREE MAJOR PLACES WHERE, THAT ALONE,
AND THERE ARE MANY OTHER ASPECTS TO WATER CONTAMINATION
BUT THESE ARE REPRESENTING THE THREE MAJOR WASTE WATER
TREATMENT PLANTS IN OUR AREA AND THEY TOGETHER -- IMAGINE THAT --
RELEASE NEARLY A BILLION GALLONS IN ONE DAY
OF TREATED WASTE WATER.
SO WE -- I DON'T KNOW HOW YOU THINK
OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS, BUT THEY ARE THE HEROES.
THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES HAS
TO HANDLE 350 MILLION GALLONS A DAY, MGD.
LOS ANGELES COUNTY, SAME THING; ORANGE COUNTY, A LITTLE LESS
BUT A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT.
THESE ARE THE THREE -- SOME
OF THE THREE LARGEST WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT FACILITIES
IN THE WORLD.
OKAY. SO WHAT ARE WE ADDING TO THIS WASTE WATER?
THIS IS JUST FOOD FOR THOUGHT.
PHARMACEUTICALS -- NOT JUST PUTTING PILLS DOWN THE TOILET,
WHICH IS NOT ADVISABLE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT,
BUT YOU EAT THE PILLS.
YOU DON'T USE IT ALL.
IT GOES OUT IN YOUR URINE.
YOU METABOLIZE IT.
THERE'S A LOT OF WAYS THAT DRUGS GO BACK INTO THE ENVIRONMENT;
DETERGENTS, PESTICIDES, EVEN CAFFEINE, SEATTLE HAS A LOT
OF CAFFEINE IN IT, AS PUNY AS IT SOUNDS [LAUGHTER].
THAT'S NO JOKE.
PLASTICIZER CHEMICALS AND FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS WHICH GO
INTO THINGS LIKE BABY PAJAMAS AND COMPUTER TERMINALS.
SO THIS IS JUST MEANT TO DRIVE HOME THE POINT.
THESE ARE JUST THE TOP PRESCRIBED DRUGS
AND WE ALL MAY KNOW SOME OF THESE, RIGHT; BLOOD PRESSURE,
LIPID, GLUCOSE CONTROL, PAIN, ANXIETY RELIEF, HORMONES,
HORMONE MIMICS, OTHERS; ANTIBIOTICS,
VITAMINS, ALL KINDS OF THINGS.
OKAY. THIS IS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
THE AFFLUENCE -- THIS IS A RECENT STUDY
THAT I'VE BEEN PARTICIPATING IN AND IN THE SEA WATER,
ALL KINDS OF CHEMICALS AND THE SEA WATER IS WHERE, YOU KNOW,
YOU WOULD EXPECT SOME DILUTION BUT STILL WE ARE ABLE
TO MEASURE QUIT A LOT OF THESE CHEMICALS.
NOW YOU THINK -- WELL,
WHAT ABOUT THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS.
WELL, THEY ARE DOING A GREAT JOB BUT THE PROBLEM IS
THAT YOU CAN'T CLEAR THE WASTE WATER OF EVERYTHING.
SO THIS IS INFLUENT THAT COMES
IN TO A PLANT THAT'S PRIMARY TREATED
WHERE THEY'VE REMOVED A LOT OF THE PARTICULATE MATTER
AND THEN THIS IS SECONDARY TREATMENT WHERE A LOT --
MOST OF THE PARTICULATE MATTER IS REMOVED.
BY REMOVING THE PARTICULATE MATTER,
THEY CAN REDUCE CONTAMINANTS BY UP TO 95 PERCENT
AND THIS HAS BEEN DOCUMENTED MANY, TIMES.
SO THIS HAS BEEN, YOU KNOW, AN IMPORTANT ADVANCEMENT
IN WASTE WATER AND THE TREATMENT OF IT
OVER THE LAST HUNDRED YEARS, BUT THE PROBLEM IS
THAT THESE THINGS STILL GET INTO THE ENVIRONMENT,
EVEN THAT 5 PERCENT, BELIEVE ME, IS VERY SIGNIFICANT.
SO THERE'S MORE TO IT, YOU KNOW, IT'S RUNOFF, DRIVING A CAR
THAT FUELS AND WHATEVER HAPPENS
WITH THE ATMOSPHERIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF CARS.
THIS IS STORM WATER.
THIS IS WATER COMING OFF OF THE LAND AFTER ONE
OF OUR LARGE PACIFIC STORMS COMING IN AND,
YOU KNOW, BOATS AS WELL.
SO RUNOFF IS A BIG THING.
ALL OF THIS COMES INTO THIS MARINE ENVIRONMENT HERE.
OKAY. AND AGAIN, 15 MILLION PEOPLE.
OKAY. SO YOU KNOW ONE OF THE THINGS WE FACE HERE
IN CALIFORNIA IS THIS INCREDIBLE INTERFACE
AND NORTHERN CALIFORNIA AS WELL, BETWEEN --
THIS IS A LARGE ESTUARY MARINE AS WELL --
AND THE LARGE MARINE ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
OKAY. SO THAT'S THE BACKDROP
TO WHAT WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT TODAY.
AND SO I'M GOING TO START BY ADDRESSING SOME
OF THE BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS, AND THEN I'LL PASS THE TORCH
OVER TO STEVE TO TALK ABOUT SOME SOLUTIONS, POSSIBLY.
OKAY. SO MY OWN TITLE MIGHT BE, POLLUTION IN OUR WATERS,
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE FISH?
AND THE REASON WE USE FISH IS THEY'RE LIVING THEIR
AND THEY'RE VERTEBRATES AND THEY HAVE THE SAME HORMONES
AND THE SAME PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS WE HAVE
AND THEY'RE GOOD SENTINELS FOR US
TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THESE IMPACTS ARE.
OKAY. ANOTHER THING I WANT TO SAY IS
THAT I'M AN ENDOCRINOLOGIST AND SO I'M CERTAINLY GOING
TO BE INTERESTED IN THIS,
BUT YOU SHOULD KNOW THESE ARE EXTREMELY CRITICAL FOR ANIMALS.
THEY REGULATE EVERYTHING ABOUT YOU, ALMOST EVERYTHING,
THAT KEEPS YOU BALANCED.
IT HELPS YOU ADAPT.
IT HELPS YOU SURVIVE.
AND WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT THE KINDS OF THINGS
THAT ARE REGULATED BY HORMONES, IT'S ALL EXTREMELY CRITICAL
FOR YOUR HEALTH, FOR ANIMAL HEALTH.
ANOTHER CONCEPT, ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS.
THERE'S A LOT OF CHEMICALS OUT THERE.
SOME ARE GOING TO INTERACT WITH ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.
WHEN THEY DO THAT, THINK OF THE IMPORTANCE OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.
THAT'S A CRITICAL SITUATION.
OKAY. SO ANY WAY THAT YOU CAN IMAGINE INTERFERING
WITH THE ABILITY OF A HORMONE
TO DO ITS THING WOULD BE AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL.
I'M GOING TO START WITH THE RESPONSE TO STRESS.
IT'S A NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
I'M NOT GOING TO TALK ABOUT THESE STEPS.
BUT YOU PERCEIVE A STRESSOR AND IT'S PERCEIVED THROUGH THE BRAIN
AND THIS IS A NEUROENDOCRINE ACCESS SO IT ENDS
UP BEING HORMONAL, AND IT RESULTS IN THE RELEASE
OF A HORMONE CALLED CORTISOL, WHICH IS A STEROID HORMONE.
CORTISOL IS VERY IMPORTANT TO ALL
OF US DURING STRESSFUL TIMES.
IT ALLOWS US TO ADAPT PHYSIOLOGICALLY
AND BEHAVIORALLY.
IT HAS A LOT OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF EFFECTS.
SO THIS IS A CRITICAL ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
AND YOU CAN THINK IN THE LIFE
OF A WILD ANIMAL HOW IMPORTANT IT IS SO, OF COURSE,
THIS IS A VERY SEMINAL EVENT IN THE LIFE OF THIS BUNNY
BUT STRESSORS COME IN ALL KINDS OF WAYS.
OKAY. SO I'M GOING TO START IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY.
AND I LOVE THE CITY.
I'M FROM THE AREA.
BUT LOOK AT THAT, IT'S TALKING ABOUT AN INTERFACE.
LOOK AT ALL THAT CEMENT AND LOOK
AT THIS ESTUARY RIGHT NEXT TO IT.
OKAY. SO IN SOME SITES THAT WE'VE LOOKED AT,
WE WORK WITH SOME FOLKS
UP IN THIS SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE AND COLLEAGUES
AT MOSS LANDING MARINE LABORATORIES
WHICH IS A CSU INSTITUTION.
AND WE LOOK AT VARIOUS SITES SO I'M JUST POINTING THAT OUT.
AND I WANT TO GET TO THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM SO I'M GOING
TO KIND OF FLASH FORWARD BECAUSE I WANT TO TRY
TO COVER A COUPLE DIFFERENT THINGS.
IN ANY CASE, WHAT YOU'RE LOOKING AT HERE IS THE RESPONSE
TO STRESS AND IT'S A CAREFUL PROTOCOL.
BUT WHAT WE'RE DOING IS COMPARING A SHINER PERCH,
THIS ANIMAL, AND THIS IS ANOTHER FISH,
THE PACIFIC STAGHORN SCULPIN.
WE'RE COMPARING THEIR ABILITY TO RESPOND TO STRESS
UNDER IDENTICAL CONDITIONS AND YOU SEE --
WE ALL HEARD OF OAKLAND, IT'S VERY INDUSTRIAL,
SAN PABLO BAY IS -- HAS ITS ISSUES AS WELL, AND WHAT YOU SEE
IN BOTH SPECIES -- AND THESE ARE DIFFERENT FISH,
THESE SWIM UP IN THE WATER;
THESE ARE DOWN ON THE BOTTOM EATING BOTTOM THINGS
WHERE THERE'S MORE CONTAMINATION,
AND YOU SEE QUIT A BLUNTED RESPONSE TO --
IN CORTISOL IN RESPONSE TO STRESS.
SO THIS ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IS IMPAIRED
AND IT'S IMPAIRING THE ANIMAL'S ABILITY TO RESPOND NORMALLY,
PHYSIOLOGICALLY TO STRESS.
OKAY. THIS IS JUST A SECOND YEAR STUDY BUT SHOWING
THAT THERE WERE A HOST OF SITES IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY
THAT SHOWED THIS PHENOMENON.
OKAY. AND THE QUESTION NOW IS: IS THAT ASSOCIATED
WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS?
SO, WELL, A COUPLE PICTURES ABOVE THE INNER HARBOR.
IT'S GOT THE BIG PORT.
IT'S GOT ALL KINDS OF STRANGE INDUSTRY
THAT I DON'T UNDERSTAND.
THESE ARE OUR COLLABORATORS FROM CSULB MARINE LAB
AND THAT'S ACTUALLY JESUS REYES, WHO IS HERE TODAY, RIGHT NOW.
AND I'M GOING TO JUST SHOW TWO SLIDES OF SOME CONTAMINANTS.
LET ME TELL YOU, WE'RE MEASURING THESE
IN OUR STATE-OF-THE-ART FACILITY AT CAL STATE LONG BEACH.
IT'S A GREAT FACILITY.
RICH GOSSETT IS BACK THERE.
HE'S THE DIRECTOR OF IIRMES.
IT ENABLES US TO DO FOREFRONT RESEARCH WITHOUT QUESTION.
ALSO THESE MEASUREMENTS WERE DONE BY MY GRADUATE STUDENT,
CLAIRE WAGNER, WHO RICH KNOWS WELL, AS WELL.
SO IT'S ALL VERY CONNECTED.
ANYWAY, WHAT I'M GOING TO DO IS JUST SHOW TWO SLIDES.
THESE ARE JUST DDT METABOLITES.
YOU SEE A RANGE IN CERTAIN SITES.
THIS ONE SITE HAS HIGH DDT AND THEN THIS SITE,
THIS IS SHOWING PCB'S AND THIS IS ANOTHER KIND OF CHEMICAL,
AND THE POINT HERE IS IN OAKLAND AND SANTANDER BAY,
WE SEE TWICE HIGHER LEVELS.
NOW WHAT I'M SAYING IS THERE IS A LOT OF COMPLEXITY HERE
BUT WHAT YOU CAN DO, IF YOU CAN MEASURE THE CONTAMINANTS
AND THE PHENOTYPE IN AN ANIMAL, YOU CAN CORRELATE STATISTICALLY
AND SEE WHAT KIND OF RELATIONSHIPS SHOW UP.
ONE OF THE THINGS WE FOUND IS THAT THESE ARE CHEMICALS,
PAH IS POLYCYCLATE AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THAT WOULD COME
FROM EXHAUST FROM COMBUSTION OF FUELS, OILS, ALL OF THOSE THINGS
AND THEY GET INTO THE ENVIRONMENT.
AND WE'RE SEEING REALLY PRETTY REMARKABLE STATISTICALLY
SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THIS KIND OF CHEMICAL --
THESE PAH'S AND THIS ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION OF THE STRESS SYSTEM.
THIS IS ENTIRELY NEW KIND OF INFORMATION.
WE HAD A LITTLE BIT OF RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PCB'S
BUT NOTHING MUCH, THEN WE MEASURED A BUNCH OF OTHER THINGS
AND THEY DIDN'T REALLY CORRELATE.
SO THIS REALLY BEGINS TO POINT TO A CERTAIN CLASS
OF CHEMICALS INVOLVED IN THIS THAT COMES FROM, YES, US HUMANS,
OUR CARS, OUR BOATS, ALL THAT.
OKAY. SO NOW I'M GOING TO TAKE US DOWN TO SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
WE'RE GOING TO STAY ON THIS PARTICULAR ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
THERE'S OUR GREAT UNIVERSITY.
SO IN ORANGE COUNTY, THERE'S AN OUTFALL HERE BETWEEN HUNTINGTON
AND NEWPORT BEACH AND THEY USE A FAIRFIELD LOCATION.
SO IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, WE'RE GOING TO FOCUS ON FLATFISH.
THEY LIVE AT THE BOTTOM SO THEY'RE SUBJECTED
TO A HIGHER LEVEL OF CONTAMINANTS DOWN THERE.
AND THE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT AND THE ENGLISH SOLE WILL BE TOO,
YOU CAN SEE IT SITTING RIGHT IN THERE IN THE SAND.
THESE ARE VERY VISUAL CREATURES, AS YOU CAN SEE.
THEY ARE PREDATORS AND SO THEY'RE ALWAYS LOOKING
FOR THE NEXT WORM THAT POPS UP.
SO THESE ARE SOME PICTURES --
BECAUSE I KNOW THESE ARE KIND OF FUN.
SO I'M GOING TO GO THROUGH THEM SOMEWHAT QUICKLY.
BUT WE HAVE TO TROLL DOWN, TO 200 FEET DOWN TO GET THESE FISH
BUT THAT'S WHERE THE OUT-POLE PIPES ARE
TO THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS.
AND THEN WE DUMP THE FISH --
THIS IS ACTUALLY THE CREW FROM ORANGE COUNTY --
INTO A RACEWAY AND THEN THEY'RE SORTED BY SPECIES AND,
BY THE WAY, LONG BEACH, LONG BEACH, LONG BEACH, LONG BEACH,
ALL OF THESE ARE ALUMNI OF OUR UNIVERSITY --
THEY'RE SORTED BY SPECIES AND SO THESE ARE DIFFERENT SPECIES --
AND THESE GUYS ARE GREAT MARINE BIOLOGISTS,
ANN DALKEY FROM THE CITY OF LAS ANGELES IS HERE.
SHE'S ONE OF THESE PEOPLE.
I CAN'T DO THESE IDENTIFICATIONS AT ALL LIKE THESE GUYS CAN --
AND FINALLY, WE GET THEM AND THEN WE CAN SAMPLE THEM.
AND WE HAVE GUYS LIKE JESUS HERE.
HE'S A GREAT EXSANGUINATOR BUT HE --
IT'S THE SAME WAY YOU GET BLOOD FROM US, YOU GET FROM A FISH.
YOU CAN USE A SYRINGE AND TAP IN
AND YOU CAN MEASURE HORMONE LEVELS.
YOU DON'T HAVE TO KILL THE FISH TO DO THIS.
WE DO TAKE TISSUE SAMPLES AS WELL, BECAUSE WE NEED
TO ANALYZE CHEMICALS AND STUFF IN SOME OF OUR STUDIES --
DR. JULIE KALMAN AND THAT'S DANA, CN FREENEY,
THAT'S AN UNDERGRADUATE, TAMMY GONZALES,
ALL CAL STATE LONG BEACH.
SO LET'S GET TO THE ENGLISH SOLE.
THIS IS A VERY NICE STRESS RESPONSE.
OKAY. WHEN WE -- AND THIS IS AT THE FAIRFIELD LOCATION
IN ORANGE COUNTY -- WHEN WE GO TO THE OUTFALL
OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT,
WE SEE THE SAME PHENOMENON WE SAW IN SAN FRANCISCO.
WHEN WE LOOK AT THAT OTHER FISH, THE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT,
THE ONE WITH THE BIG EYES, IT SHOWS A TERRIBLE RESPONSE
TO STRESS AND AT FIRST, WE THOUGHT, IS THIS CHARACTERISTIC
OF THIS SPECIES, IT WOULD BE DIFFERENT
FROM MOST VERTEBRATES, REALLY.
BUT THEN WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO CAPTURE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT
AT OTHER LOCATIONS OUTSIDE OF DIRECT --
MORE DIRECT IMPACT BY US HUMANS.
WE DO SEE THAT WE FIND FISH THAT CAN RESPOND NORMALLY.
OKAY. THIS IS OUR ENGLISH SOLBIT IN THE REGION VENTURA,
SANTA MONICA BAY, ORANGE COUNTY --
ALWAYS AROUND WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS,
YOU SEE THIS PHENOMENON.
THIS JUST POINTS TO ONE OF THE DEFICITS IN THE ANIMALS.
STEROIDS ARE MADE FROM CORTISOL.
NOW YOU THINK THIS IS A BAD THING
BUT IT'S ACTUALLY A GOOD MOLECULE TOO.
AND IT COMES -- WE GET CORTISOL FROM IT, TESTOSTERONE,
ESTRADIOL, ALL THINGS WE NEED.
SO CORTISOL IS MADE BY A VARIETY OF ENZYMES IN ENDOCRINE TISSUES.
NOW IT'S A VERY COMPLEX PATHWAY, BUT I'M JUST GOING
TO FOCUS YOU ON TWO GENES.
ONE, THAT HELPS CHOLESTEROL GET INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA
AND THAT'S RATE LIMITING AND THEN WE'LL GO
TO THE LAST STEP TO MAKE CORTISOL.
OKAY. SO LET'S LOOK AT THESE TWO.
AND WHAT WE SEE IS THEY ARE QUITE REDUCED --
THIS IS ANDREW HAMILTON'S WORK AND HE'S SITTING HERE TOO,
RIGHT NOW -- QUITE REDUCED EXPRESSION
OF THESE GENES SHOWING THAT THEY REALLY HAVE AN IMPAIRED ABILITY
TO GENERATE THE CORTISOL IN THE ENDOCRINE LEVEL.
SO WE'RE CONTINUING TO STUDY THIS AND, IN FACT,
WE HAVE SOME GRADUATE STUDENTS WHO ARE COMING IN WHO ARE GOING
TO USE PROTEOMICS TO IDENTIFY WHAT'S WRONG IN THESE TISSUES.
SO WE KNOW SOME OF THE GENES BUT NOW WE WANT TO KNOW --
AND THIS IS ANOTHER FACILITY WE HAVE HERE
AT CAL STATE LONG BEACH WHICH IS STATE-OF-THE-ART
AND VERY SPECIAL, AND IT'S AN OPPORTUNITY
TO MEASURE WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE TISSUE
AND IDENTIFY WHAT'S HAPPENING FROM SCRATCH, ESSENTIALLY.
OKAY. SO I JUST WANTED TO MAKE ANOTHER POINT.
IT'S REALLY UNIQUE.
SO WE HAVE HAD A RECENT LINE OF EXPERIMENTS.
SO THIS IS KIND OF A DISRUPTED HORNEYHEAD TURBOT.
SO THIS JUST SHOWS A REALLY POOR CORTISOL RESPONSE.
WHEN WE BROUGHT THEM BACK TO THE LABS IN LONG BEACH
AND REARED THEM IN CLEAN SEA WATER, AFTER FOUR WEEKS --
WE CALL IT A DEPURATION -- LOOK, YOU GET A RETURN OF THE RESPONSE
SO IT'S REALLY STARTING TO SUGGEST
THAT THERE IS AN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR THAT WE CAN DEPURATE --
GET RID OF IN THE ANIMALS -- AND THE NORMAL PHENOTYPE,
A NORMAL THING COMES BACK IN THE ANIMALS, THEY RECOVER.
OKAY. SO CONSEQUENCES OF DISRUPTION -- SO WE HAVE THIS --
CORTISOL IS A VERY IMPORTANT HORMONE AND I JUST WANT
TO MAKE A COUPLE POINTS AND I CAN ONLY SPEND SO MUCH TIME
WITH THIS, I REALIZE -- IT'S RELATED TO GROWTH.
WHEN YOU HAVE CHRONIC STRESS, GROWTH WILL BE IMPAIRED.
I CAN'T SPEND TIME ON THIS TODAY.
I DID A COUPLE WEEKS AGO.
WE HAD A SYMPOSIUM AT THE COLLEGE AND I WAS ABLE
TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THIS --
ALSO IMPAIRED DEFENSE AND I WANT TO JUST SHOW A COUPLE SLIDES
ON THIS TO SHOW A REMARKABLE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN THIS STRESS DISRUPTION, AS I CALL IT, AND PHENOTYPE.
AND WE'RE GOING TO GO NOW
TO ANOTHER FISH CALLED THE CALIFORNIA SCORPIONFISH
AND THIS WORK IS WITH JESUS REYES AND HE'S NOT ON HERE
BUT JEFF ARMSTRONG AT ORANGE COUNTY AND ALSO JULIE KALMAN --
AND THESE ANIMALS HAVE PARASITES THAT CONVEYED THEIR GILLS
AND THEY SUCK BLOOD AND, IF YOU LOOK REALLY CLOSELY,
YOU'LL SEE THESE LITTLE PARASITES, THEY'RE COPEPODS.
OKAY. AND HERE SHOWS QUITE AN INFESTED GILL.
IT MUST BE TERRIBLE FOR THE FISH.
OKAY. SO THIS HERE SHOWS THE LEVEL OF THIS GILL PARASITE,
AND IT'S LOW IN AN ANIMAL FROM THE REFERENCE AREA,
FROM A CLEANER AREA AND A NICE REGULAR CORTISOL RESPONSE
IN THE ANIMAL.
WHEN WE GO TO TWO SITES THAT ARE IMPAIRED,
THE OUTFALL IN A HARBOR SITE NEAR NEWPORT HARBOR,
AND THE OPPOSITE, YOU HAVE INCREDIBLE LEVELS
OF THIS PARASITE AND A LACK OF NORMAL RESPONSE IN CORTISOL.
SO WE'RE STARTING TO SEE SOME IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AND ANIMAL FITNESS.
OKAY. SO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION OF THIS CORTISOL,
THEY DON'T RESPOND TO STRESS NORMALLY.
THEY WILL SHOW IMPAIRED GROWTH.
THEY SHOW IMPAIRED DEFENSE
AND IMPAIRED METABOLISM, WHICH I DIDN'T SHOW.
SO THIS IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN PEOPLE MAYBE ORIGINALLY THOUGHT.
ALL RIGHT.
AND THEY'RE RELATED TO PH'S AND POSSIBLY PCB'S.
WE ALSO HAVE OTHER THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT.
AND SOME OF THEM ARE ESTROGENS WHICH COME FROM OUR URINE,
COME FROM BIRTH CONTROL ESTROGEN CALLED ETHINYL ESTRADIOL.
DR. MESSICK IS GOING TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THAT.
THERE'S OTHER KINDS.
THIS IS A PLANT DRIVE COMPOUND.
THIS IS A FERTILITY DRUG, DD -- SOME PESTICIDES,
INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS, THEY END UP ACTING LIKE ESTROGENS.
SO THIS IS A BIG ISSUE.
IT'S BEEN AROUND FOR A WHILE.
SOME FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES ON THIS DDS WERE DONE IN THE SIXTIES.
WE KNOW THAT THESE THINGS ARE HAVING IMPORTANT IMPACTS
IN ANIMALS.
SO ARE THEY IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT AFFLUENTS?
YES. SO HERE'S NORMAL ESTROGEN
AND HERE'S THE BIRTH CONTROL ESTROGEN
AND THIS IS WHAT'S COMING OUT OF PIPES
AT DIFFERENT PLACES OUTSIDE OF THE UNITED STATES,
IN THE UNITED STATES TOO.
THIS IS JUST A VERY SIMPLE TABLE.
OKAY. SO IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BITE, WE'RE WORKING
ON IT WITH OUR COLLEAGUES AND YES, IT'S THERE, BOTH.
OKAY. WHAT DOES ELEVATED ESTROGENS
IN FISH, WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
WELL, IN MALES, THEY PRODUCE EGG YOLK PROTEIN,
OKAY, NOW THINK ABOUT IT.
OKAY. SO THEY DON'T MAKE EGGS AND THEY HAVE THIS,
SO THAT'S ESTROGENIZED OR FEMINIZED MALE.
THE OTHER THING THAT YOU SEE IS OVATESTIS SO EGGS GROWING
IN THE TESTIS SO YOU'RE BEGINNING TO FEMINIZE A MALE.
THESE ARE THE KINDS OF THINGS YOU SEE IN WILD FISH
SO FEMINIZATION OF MALE FISH'S IS A BIG ISSUE WORLD-WIDE.
WE SEE EVIDENCE OF IT LOCALLY.
WE STILL HAVE A LOT OF WORK TO DO ON THIS ISSUE
AND I WANT TO EMPHASIZE THAT.
BUT LET ME SHOW YOU A COUPLE OF THE WILD THINGS THAT WE'VE SEEN.
IN THE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT, WE BELIEVE,
BECAUSE OF ITS PARTICULAR FEEDINGNISH AND WHAT IT'S EATING
AND HOW IT ACCUMULATES THINGS,
WE SEE IN MALE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT IS HIGH
IN ESTROGEN LEVEL AS FEMALES.
OKAY. THESE ARE MALES.
THESE ARE NORMAL MALES OVER HERE.
THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO HAVE LOW ESTROGEN LEVELS, RIGHT.
OKAY. SO THIS IS PRETTY WILD.
IT'S CAUGHT OUR ATTENTION EARLY ON.
WE'VE DONE A LOT OF THESE STUDIES WITH THE CITY OF LA --
AND THIS IS ANN DALKEY AND OTHERS --
AND SO I WANTED TO MAKE SURE I POINTED THAT OUT.
THESE ARE MALE ENGLISH SOLES.
SEE, THEY'RE NOT IMPACTED BUT THESE HORNEYHEAD TURBOT ARE.
AND YOU'LL NOTICE IN ORANGE COUNTY IS A MORE OPEN OCEANIC
ENVIRONMENT; SANTA MONICA BAY IS A MORE CLOSED ENVIRONMENT,
BOTH IMPACTED BY WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS.
BUT WE ALWAYS SEE THIS, THAT THE SANTA MONICA BAY MILLS ALWAYS
HAVE HIGHER ESTROGEN LEVELS.
OKAY. SO THIS WOULD BE THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT
IN SANTA MONICA BAY, THE OCSD IS DOWN HERE.
OKAY. SO IT BEING A MORE ENCLOSED ENVIRONMENT IS ONE
OF THE REASONS WE BELIEVE MAYBE THE ANIMALS ARE MORE IMPACTED
IN THIS REGION.
THIS IS THE HYPERION TREATMENT PLANT GOING OUT INTO THE BAY.
SO WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS?
WELL, THEY MAY UPTAKE HUMAN DRIVE STEROIDS.
THAT'S AN EASY ONE AND THEN I'M GOING TO GO TO ANOTHER ONE.
NOW ALL ANIMALS MAKE ESTROGEN
BUT NO ANIMALS MAKE BIRTH CONTROL SYNTHETICALLY
MADE ESTROGEN.
AND WE SEE IN TURBOT WE CAN MEASURE THIS COMPOUND IN THERE
SO YES, THEY ARE UPTAKING THESE ETHINYL ESTRADIOL
FROM THE ENVIRONMENT, BECAUSE THAT'S THE ONLY PLACE
THAT IT COMES FROM IS FROM US.
AND IN THE SAN FRANCISCO STUDIES AND THESE OTHER FISH,
WE DON'T SEE THAT THERE,
AND THERE'S NO WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
WHERE WE STUDIED.
OKAY. SO IT BEGINS TO POINT TO YES, THEY DO.
HOWEVER, THERE'S ALSO THIS, THAT THEY MAY ENDOGENOUSLY --
CAN THE TESTES MAKE ESTROGEN?
AND UNFORTUNATELY OR FORTUNATELY, I'M NOT SURE
FOR THE ANIMAL, THEY DO SHOW EVIDENCE
THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF THIS.
SO HERE IS ESTROGEN LEVELS IN A MALE,
AND THIS IS FROM ORANGE COUNTY, FAIRFIELD
AND THAT'S SANTA MONICA BAY
AND SEE YOU CAN GET THESE TREMENDOUS DIFFERENCES
SOMETIMES, AND SO THIS IS VERY HIGH ESTROGEN LEVELS
IN THE MALES FROM SANTA MONICA BAY
AND IT'S SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATED
WITH INCREASED LEVELS OF GENES.
IN THIS CASE, IT'S THAT INITIAL GENE AND IN THIS CASE,
IT'S P450 AROMATASE AND FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO, YOU KNOW,
MIGHT BE -- NOT KNOWING WHAT THIS IS,
THIS IS WHAT IS THE FINAL ENZYME TO MAKE US ESTRADIOL
FROM TESTOSTERONE, AS IT TURNS OUT, NOT NECESSARILY EXPECTED
TO BE IN A TESTIS, OKAY, AND WE SEE INCREASED LEVELS
AND ITS CORRELATES WITH ESTRADIOL.
SO THESE ARE VERY INTERESTING FINDINGS
THAT WE'RE BEGINNING TO UNDERSTAND.
OKAY. SO THIS IS THE LAST SET OF SLIDES
AND THEN I'M GOING TO MOVE TO THE END.
THE HIGH ESTROGEN PHENOTYPE --
WHAT KIND OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ARE INVOLVED?
WE'RE WORKING ON THIS BUT HERE'S REALLY PROVOCATIVE INTERESTING
NEW DATA THAT CAME OUT -- ERICA WANSKY AND JESUS REYES HELPED US
AND CLAIRE WAGNER AND I THINK EVEN ANDREW HAMILTON --
SO THESE ARE ANIMALS TAKEN FROM SANTA MONICA BAY FROM --
WITH THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES -- WE BROUGHT THEM BACK TO THE LAB
FOR THAT DEPURATION EXPERIMENT AND LOOK, WOW,
THE MALES CAME BACK TO -- WENT BACK TO BEING NORMAL MALES,
SO THESE ARE ANIMALS CAUGHT IN A FIELD AND THERE'S A LOT
OF COMPLEXITY ABOUT THIS EXPERIMENT BUT ANIMALS
THAT CAME BACK TO THE LAB AFTER TIME, THEY CAME BACK TO LOOKING
LIKE NORMAL MALES TO US IN TERMS OF ESTROGEN LEVELS.
THE GENES ALL SHOWED THE SAME KIND OF THING.
I'M NOT GOING TO SPEND A LOT OF TIME ON THERE,
BUT THESE ARE TESTICULAR STEROID PRODUCING GENES
AND NOTICE THEY ALL COME BACK DOWN.
NOW THESE DO HAVE TESTOSTERONE
AND THIS IS A RELATIVELY NORMAL LEVEL OF TESTOSTERONE.
DOES THE -- IS THE DEPURATION EFFECT JUST AFFECTING THE
WHOLE GONAD?
WELL, NOT REALLY, TESTOSTERONE LEVELS REMAIN AT A NORMAL LEVEL.
SO IT SEEMS TO BE AN ESTROGEN, SPECIFIC KIND OF AN IMPACT.
AND IT IMPACTS SPECIFICALLY ON ESTROGEN.
NOW I WISH I COULD HAVE HAD TIME FOR THIS
AND I KNEW I WOULDN'T THAT'S WHY I PUT THIS CASSETTE IN,
BECAUSE I AT LEAST WANTED TO TELL YOU THAT THERE IS
SUCH A THING AS THYROIDAL DISRUPTION TOO.
AND WE JUST PUBLISHED A PAPER ON THIS AND IT'S REALLY,
REALLY IMPORTANT BUT I'M GOING TO HAVE TO FLIP THROUGH IT,
SO EXCUSE ME FOR THAT, BUT IT IS TIED TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS
LIKE PCB'S IN PARTICULAR, BY THE WAY.
OKAY. SO WHAT DO WE DO ABOUT THIS?
THERE'S ONE ANSWER.
SO CAN WE SOMEHOW REVERSE THIS?
WELL, BANNING DDT REALLY DID HELP THE RAPTOR POPULATIONS
TO RECOVER.
ADDING PCB'S IN THE GREAT LAKES, BIRD POPULATIONS ARE RECOVERING,
BANNING PCB'S HAVE ALSO BEEN ASSOCIATED --
IT'S BELIEVED WITH REDUCING EFFECTS ON FROGS.
OKAY. HOW CAN -- WHAT CAN WE DO?
WELL, YOU CAN IDENTIFY THE COMPOUNDS AND YOU NEED TO KNOW,
ARE THEY ACTING, BECAUSE THAT'S WHAT'S IMPORTANT.
THAT'S WHAT I MEAN BY ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUND EARLIER.
YOU CAN ELIMINATE THE USE OF UNNECESSARY HARMFUL COMPOUNDS.
HOPEFULLY, DEVELOP SUBSTITUTE COMPOUNDS THAT ARE NOT AS BAD,
POINT SOURCE REGULATION HAS BEEN VERY, VERY SUCCESSFUL,
TRY TO STOP THE PRODUCTION OF IT AND THE RELEASE OF IT,
BETTER TECHNOLOGIES, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR BREAKDOWN.
AND THAT'S WHAT DR. MESSICK IS GOING TO BE TALKING ABOUT.
OKAY. SO WHAT CAN WE ALL DO?
TRY NOT TO FLUSH THINGS, OKAY, IT DOESN'T JUST GO INTO SPACE,
OKAY, IT GOES INTO OUR ENVIRONMENT.
DO YOU REALLY NEED IT?
I LOVE THAT BECAUSE SOMETIMES WE GET A LITTLE OVER HYPER
ABOUT TAKING DRUGS AND THINGS, DETERGENTS AND ALL, YOU KNOW,
WE USE THEM BUT USE THEM WELL, USE THEM JUDICIOUSLY,
BE SUPPORTIVE OF RESEARCH AND EDUCATION.
OUR EFFORTS ARE DIRECTED RIGHT AT SOLVING THESE ISSUES,
RIGHT HERE AT LONG BEACH AND AT MANY OTHER UNIVERSITIES.
AND SCIENCE BASED ASSESSMENT IN POLICY IS SO IMPORTANT,
BECAUSE DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE WITH SOME DATA BEHIND THEM.
OKAY. ALL RIGHT.
WE'RE DOING IT FOR THEM AND WE'RE DOING IT FOR US.
SO ALL I WANT -- I HAVE A LOT OF THINGS TO THANK
BUT I'M GOING TO JUST FLASH IT UP.
THE C-GRANT HAS BEEN INSTRUMENTAL IN FUNDING US
AND ORANGE COUNTY SANITATION AND THE CITY
OF LOS ANGELES HAS BEEN INSTRUMENTAL AS WELL,
AND THIS IS JESUS REYES THEY -- THIS IS A NEW ORGANIZATION.
HE'S THE PRESIDENT.
HE'S A LUM OF LONG BEACH AND HE'S MAKING A DIFFERENCE
AND I'M VERY PROUD OF HIM.
COLLABORATORS, LOTS, SO I CAN ONLY JUST FLASH THIS UP
AND FIND YOUR NAME IF YOU'RE HERE AND THANK YOU.
OKAY. ALL RIGHT.
AND A GREAT LAB.
OKAY. SO IT'S ON TO YOU STEVE.
>> STEVE: ALL RIGHT.
WELL, KEVIN HAS BASICALLY TAKEN THE FISH CHUNK OF THE INTRO
SO I DON'T NEED TO GO THROUGH IT AGAIN.
BASICALLY, MY POD OF THIS IS -- WE KNOW WE HAVE A PROBLEM
AND WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT STEROIDS
BUT WE KNOW WE HAVE A PROBLEM.
HOW DO WE GET THEM OUT?
SO THIS IS GOING TO BE CHEMISTRY.
AND THIS IS GOING TO BE ABOUT SAFE WATER.
OKAY. WE CAN ARGUE THAT KEVIN'S RIGHT.
WE CAN IGNORE THE PROBLEM.
WE CAN ELIMINATE THE PROBLEM BUT TELLING PEOPLE NOT
TO USE STEROIDS OR NOT
TO USE ANTIBIOTICS HAS A FEW LIMITATIONS AND PEOPLE ARE GOING
TO USE CERTAIN STEROIDS
AND THEY'RE CERTAINLY GOING TO USE ANTIBIOTICS.
AT THE END OF THE DAY, THOUGH, WHAT OUR INTEREST HERE IS,
IS ABOUT MAKING WATER SAFE, OKAY, EITHER SAFE FOR RELEASE,
SAFE FOR CONSUMPTION, SAFE IN GENERAL.
AND WE'D LIKE TO KIND OF CONCENTRATE ON THIS BOTTOM,
FOR DOLLAR SIGNS, BECAUSE REALISTICALLY, WE LIVE IN ONE
OF THE BEST -- WELL, NOT THE BEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD --
WHEN IT COMES TO HEALTH STANDARDS, TO STANDARD OF LIVING
TO AGE EXPECTANCY, EVERYTHING IS BASED ON AN INCREDIBLE STANDARD
OF LIVING, BUT THAT STANDARD OF LIVING COMES WITH A COST.
KEVIN ALLUDED TO THIS ALREADY, BUT OUR WATER EFFECTIVELY COMES
WITH A WHOLE BUNCH OF OTHER STUFF AND THIS IS STUFF WE --
WELL, THIS IS NATURAL, THE IDEA, THE REST OF THIS WE'VE KIND
OF ADDED TO THE WATER THROUGH VARIOUS WAYS.
NOW YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND THE SCALE OF THIS PROBLEM, I MEAN,
THIS 300 MILLION, 350 MILLION PEOPLE IN THE US.
SO WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT STEROIDS
IN THIS PARTICULAR PART OF IT.
THIS IS ETHINYL ESTRADIOL, THIS IS THE BIRTH CONTROL COMPONENT.
THERE'S TWO PARTS, TWO STEROIDS
IN THE AVERAGE BIRTH CONTROL PILL BUT TO TRY AND GET A FEEL
FOR HOW BIG THIS PROBLEM IS,
IF YOU TAKE ALL THE BIRTH CONTROL --
AND I HAVE NUMBERS FOR ABOUT 2004 --
YOU TAKE ALL THE BIRTH CONTROL PILLS THAT WAS SOLD IN THE US,
YOU ASSUME HALF THE POPULATION ARE CONSUMING THEM,
YOU ASSUME THAT 10 PERCENT JUST GETS RELEASED
THROUGH THE URINE BASICALLY INTO THE ENVIRONMENT AND YOU END
UP WITH ALMOST A HUNDRED TONS OF THESE STEROIDS BEING RELEASED
INTO THE WATERWAYS ACROSS THE US.
THIS IS A HUGE IMPACT.
YOU DON'T NEED VERY, VERY MUCH.
NOW THE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS DO AN AMAZING JOB.
THEY REALLY DO.
BUT AT THE END OF IT ALL, THEY DON'T GET IT ALL OUT.
THERE ARE VERY TINY LEVELS LEFT,
BUT IT ONLY TAKES VERY TINY LEVELS
TO HAVE BIOCHEMICAL IMPACTS.
SO WHAT WE'RE TALKING ABOUT HERE IS HOW DO YOU GET THESE LAST
LITTLE BITS OUT OF WATER ON A BILLION GALLONS A DAY?
THAT'S REALLY WHAT IT COMES DOWN TO.
ANYBODY CAN PURIFY A BEAKER OF STUFF.
OKAY. YOU CAN BOIL IT.
YOU CAN DO A LOT OF OTHER THINGS.
HOW DO YOU DO IT WHEN YOU HAVE EFFECTIVELY GOT A RIVER
OF STUFF GOING THROUGH AND YOU'VE GOT TO DO IT ALL AT ONCE?
WELL, THERE ARE MANY WAYS TO DO IT
BUT REMEMBER TRADITIONAL TREATMENTS AREN'T WORKING.
THEY'RE GETTING MOST OF IT OUT AND WE NEED THEM
AND IT'S NOT ADVOCATING GETTING RID OF ADDING CHLORINE
BECAUSE REALISTICALLY WE CAN'T DO THAT.
BUT WHAT WE CAN DO IS LOOK FOR OTHER WAYS TO TRY
AND GET THE LAST BITS OF CHEMICALS OUT.
AND WHAT I WANT TO TALK TODAY IS
ABOUT THE CHEMISTRY BEHIND THIS NEW SET OF PROCESSES.
NOW THERE ARE VARIOUS FORMS OF THESE.
THEY COME GENERICALLY CALLED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES.
NOW WE'RE GETTING INTO THE CHEMISTRY.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT OXIDIZING THESE CONTAMINANTS,
AND THE SPECIES THAT'S MOSTLY RESPONSIBLE IS RIGHT HERE.
IT'S A RADICAL.
IT'S SO HYDROXYL RADICAL AND IT CAN BE GENERATED
BY A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT WAYS.
THE UTILITIES -- THE WATER UTILITIES WILL DO THINGS
LIKE TELL YOU, ADDING OZONE -- NOW THIS IS AFTER YOUR CHLORINE
AND AFTER YOUR FILTRATIONS AND EVERYTHING ELSE --
AT THE VERY END YOU ADD OZONE, YOU ADD HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
IN OZONE, UV LIGHT,
THESE COMBINATIONS OBVIOUSLY WILL BREAK UP
AND MAKE THIS RADICAL --
AND THIS RADICAL IS EXTREMELY REACTIVE --
IT'S IN THE WATER AND IT WILL TRY
AND DESTROY WHATEVER IT CAN GET A HOLD OF.
SO THE IDEA IS TO TRY AND USE THIS CONCEPT TO TRY AND DO
THAT LAST POLISHING, THAT LAST CLEANUP
OF THE CHEMISTRY THAT WE WANT TO HAVE.
WE USE TWO DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES; ELECTRON BEAMS,
BASICALLY PASSING A ELECTRICITY THROUGH THE WATER;
GAMMA RADIATION, THIS IS THE SAME
AS STERILIZING YOUR MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS.
OKAY. IT'S JUST A HARD CORE PART OF THE X-RAYS.
AND THIS WAS INSPIRED IN TWO SENSES.
THE FIRST IS THAT -- AN ELECTRON BEAMS --
AND THAT'S THIS THING RIGHT HERE --
HAD BEEN USED IN THE PAST TO STERILIZE --
THIS IS SEWAGE WATER IN MIAMI.
NOW THIS IS BACK IN THE SEVENTIES AND EIGHTIES.
THIS WAS A PILOT TEST PLANT AND IT WORKS, WORKED VERY WELL.
THIS IS A THIN SHEET OF WATER, HARD TO SEE HERE,
EASIER TO SEE HERE AND THIS IS JUST BASICALLY AN ELECTRON GUN,
SAME AS YOUR TELEVISION, OKAY, IT'S JUST BLASTING THE WATER.
IT GOES BACK AND FORTH AND AS IT BLASTS IT,
IT DOES MAKES THESE RADICALS.
THE RADICALS CLEAN UP THE SEWAGE.
THE WATER THAT THEY DUMPED OUT THERE
IN MIAMI WAS EFFECTIVELY DRINKING QUALITY AT THE END.
BUT IF YOU TRY TO COME TO ORANGE COUNTY AND SAY, HEY,
I HAVE THIS GREAT NEW TECHNOLOGY.
ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS SPEND A COUPLE OF MILLION DOLLARS
AND YOU CAN DO THIS, YOU GET TOLD GO AWAY.
OKAY. YOU GOT TO UNDERSTAND THIS IS NEW TECHNOLOGY.
THE ENGINEERS WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE
FOR TREATING THIS WATER CAN'T AFFORD TO MAKE ANY MISTAKES.
THEY'RE NOT GOING TO.
THEY WANT TO KNOW IT WORKS.
YOU MUST PROVE IT BEFORE THEY WILL DO ANYTHING AT LARGE SCALE
AND THAT'S PERFECTLY UNDERSTANDABLE.
FROM PROVED CONCEPT IS ENGINEERING AND THIS CHEMISTRY.
ENGINEERING IS SOLVABLE.
CHEMISTRY IS NOT REALLY UNDERSTOOD.
SO THE ROLE THAT WE'VE BEEN PLAYING HERE
AT CAL STATE LONG BEACH IS UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMISTRY
SO WE CAN BASICALLY BUILD THE COMPUTER MODELS
THAT ENGINEERS NEED TO TRY
AND QUANTITATIVELY PREDICT THE CHEMISTRY
THAT WILL OCCUR AT LARGE SCALE.
WE CAN DO IT ON THE BENCH.
WE CAN DO IT AT A COUPLE OF THOUSAND GALLON LEVEL.
WHERE WE CAN'T DO IT IS AT THE BILLION GALLON LEVEL.
OKAY. YOU'VE GOT TO PROVE IT WORKS BEFORE WE EVEN THINK
ABOUT TRYING IT.
SO FROM A CHEMISTRY VIEWPOINT, IF YOUR TRYING TO BUILD A MODEL,
WHAT WE'RE LOOKING AT IS BASICALLY REACTION MECHANISMS
AND HOW FAST IT GOES, HOW FAST, WHAT DO WE MAKE,
BECAUSE WHAT WE DON'T WANT TO DO IS MAKE SOMETHING WORSE.
OKAY. WE WANT TO CLEAN IT UP BUT IF WE MAKE SOMETHING WORSE,
WE'RE IN REAL TROUBLE.
SO THE REST OF THIS TALK IS CHEMISTRY.
IT'S ABOUT UNDERSTANDING WHAT WE MAKE AND HOW FAST IT GOES
AND I WANT YOU TO KEEP IN MIND IT'S BUILT IN SUPPORT
OF THE ENGINEERING THAT'S REQUIRED TO DO THIS PURIFICATION
AND THAT'S REALLY WHAT WE'RE DOING HERE.
NOW WE -- NO UNIVERSITY HAS THE FACILITIES TO DO THIS.
OKAY. WE NEED MACHINES
OR WE NEED SYSTEMS THAT ARE LARGE SCALE.
SO BASICALLY, THIS UNIVERSITY DOESN'T HAVE IT.
THIS UNIVERSITY DOESN'T HAVE IT.
IF ANY OF YOU ARE FOOTBALL FANS,
YOU MAY RECOGNIZE THAT GOLDEN DOME.
THIS IS THE UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME BUT ON
THAT CAMPUS IS A DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITY.
IT'S A VERY NONDESCRIPT BUILDING.
IT'S PROBABLY THE UGLIEST BUILDING BY FAR ON THE CAMPUS
AND IN THE BASEMENT OF THAT BUILDING IS A BUNCH
OF ACCELERATORS.
TO USE THE FACILITY, YOU'RE ALLOWED TO GO THERE.
YOU CAN TAKE YOUR STUDENTS THERE.
AND IF YOU PICK THE RIGHT TIME OF YEAR LIKE JANUARY,
YOU TEND TO FIND THE STUDENTS DON'T WANT TO GO
AND LOOK AROUND THE CAMPUS.
THEY WOULD RATHER SIT IN THE BASEMENT AND WORK.
IT'S AMAZING HOW THAT WORKS.
ALL RIGHT.
WHAT IS AN ACCELERATOR?
WELL, IT'S A MIMIC.
IT'S A LAB MIMIC OF WHAT THE ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS IS.
IF WE TAKE A SIMPLE MODEL OF WATER, WE CAN THINK
ABOUT BREAKING A BOND HERE.
WE CAN THINK ABOUT IONIZING IT.
OKAY. I'M DUMPING ELECTRICITY INTO WATER.
THE WATER IS GOING TO DO SOMETHING.
OKAY. THIS IS REALLY SIMPLE.
IF I BREAK BONDS, I'M GOING TO GET THIS PARTICULAR RADICAL.
HEY, THAT'S THE ONE I WANT.
I'M GOING TO GET THIS RADICAL -- WELL, IT'S USEFUL.
AND IF I IONIZE WATER, I'M GOING TO GET ELECTRONS.
OKAY. SO THAT'S THE SIMPLE CHEMISTRY AND THE ONLY REASON
FOR USING AN ACCELERATOR, BELIEVE IT OR NOT,
IS IT'S THE MOST QUANTITATIVE AND EASIEST WAY TO DO IT.
IT'S ALSO THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE.
I MEAN, EFFECTIVELY THEY DON'T CHARGE ME
FOR USING THE FACILITY.
I CAN TAKE A COUPLE OF STUDENTS UP THERE.
WE CAN WORK FOR, YOU KNOW, FOUR OR FIVE DAYS.
WE GET ALL THE DATA WE NEED.
WE COME BACK -- AND AS JEFF SAID, WE SPEND A LOT
OF TIME TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IT REALLY MEANS.
NOW THIS IS A LITTLE MORE COMPLICATED BECAUSE,
WE HAVE THIS WONDERFUL RADICAL THAT WE WANT
AND WE HAVE OTHER RADICALS HERE, AND WE UNDERSTAND
THAT THE RADICALS ARE JUST ENERGETIC SPECIES
THAT DO THE CHEMISTRY WE WANT
BUT WILL THEY DO WHAT WE WANT IS REALLY THE QUESTION?
WE CAN ISOLATE INDIVIDUAL RADICALS.
WE CAN USE CHEMISTRY.
THIS IS EASY ENOUGH.
THIS IS LAUGHING GAS AND NO, THAT'S --
YOU DON'T USE IT FOR THAT PURPOSE BUT,
IF YOU ACTUALLY PRE SATURATE YOUR SOLUTIONS,
YOU ONLY GET THIS PARTICULAR RADICAL
AND WE CAN LOOK AT IT IN ISOLATION.
THE SYSTEM IS STRAIGHTFORWARD.
YOU TAKE YOUR SOLUTION WITH A CONTAMINATE IN IT THAT YOU MAKE.
YOU FLOW IT IN FRONT OF THE ACCELERATOR.
THIS ACCELERATOR RADIATES IT AND YOU LOOK AT IT IN REAL-TIME.
OKAY. IT'S -- I DON'T KNOW, IF YOU HAD FIVE MILLION BUCKS,
YOU COULD PUT ONE HERE.
WE DON'T HAVE FIVE MILLION BUCKS SO WE GO THERE.
THE COOL DEAL IS THAT THEY HAVE BEEN ABSOLUTELY WONDERFUL
TO MYSELF IN TWENTY YEARS SINCE I'VE BEEN GOING THERE
WITH VARIOUS STUDENTS.
THEY'RE VERY HAPPY TO TAKE STUDENTS WITH --
YOU KNOW, TO ACCEPT STUDENTS THERE,
AND IT'S A LEARNING EXPERIENCE
THAT YOU WILL NOT GET ANYWHERE ELSE IN THE WORLD.
NOW IN SPECIFIC -- FOR SPECIFIC STEROIDS,
THE FIRST PROBLEM YOU HAVE IS THAT THE STEROIDS
IN THE ENVIRONMENT -- IF YOU SAW ANY OF KEVIN'S SLIDES --
ARE ALL AT NANOGRAM AMOUNTS PER LITER.
WE CAN'T DO CHEMISTRY AT THAT.
WHEN WE CAN DO CHEMISTRY, WHICH IS AT THE MICROGRAM
OR MILLIGRAM PER LITER, THIS IS OUR PROBLEM,
IT DOESN'T DISSOLVE, GEE, WHAT A SURPRISE.
ALL RIGHT.
SO WE CAN'T DO CHEMISTRY RIGHT NOW.
WE'RE HAVING PROBLEMS DOING IT DIRECTLY BECAUSE BASICALLY,
THESE STEROIDS ARE NOT DESIGNED TO BE SOLUBLE IN WATER.
THEY'RE DESIGNED TO SOLUBLE IN LIQUIDS.
SO WE HAVE TO PLAY TRICKS
AND THE TRICKS IS WHAT TAKES THE TIME TO DEVELOP
AND WHAT WE'D ACTUALLY SPEND A LOT OF TIME WORKING ON BUT,
IF WE DUMP A BUNCH OF ALCOHOL IN THERE AND WORK BACKWARDS,
WHAT WE CAN DO IS LOOK AT THE MOLECULE LIKE ETHINYL ESTRADIOL,
WHICH IS EE2, AND THIS IS IN CHEMISTRY, AND, BASICALLY,
WE CAN LOOK AT REAL-TIME ON A MICROSECOND TIME SCALE.
WE CAN LOOK AT THE KINETICS
OF HOW WE OXIDIZE THIS THING USING THIS RADICAL.
NOW NOT WORRYING ABOUT THE DETAILS BUT, OF COURSE,
LIKE ALL GOOD PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY,
YOU MUST HAVE A GOOD STRAIGHT LINE.
THERE IS ONE.
HEY, THAT'S WHAT PHYSICAL CHEMISTS DO.
WE JUST MAKE STRAIGHT LINES.
OKAY. WE PROVE THIS.
WE MEASURE THE RATE CONSTANT.
THIS IS HOW FAST THE REACTION HAPPENS
AND THERE'S TWO PARTS ON THIS SLIDE.
THE FIRST, IS THERE WAS ONE NUMBER IN THE LITERATURE
WHICH WOULD BE AN ESTIMATED, I MEAN, 10 PLUS
OR MINUS 1 IS A GOOD NUMBER
BUT WE GOT A LITTLE BETTER THAN THAT.
WE GOT 1.5 PLUS THE MINUS .03.
BUT THE OTHER THING TO NOTE IS
THAT THIS IS ACTUALLY A VERY FAST REACTION.
THIS IS ABOUT AS FAST AS YOU CAN GET FOR TWO SPECIES
IN WATER COMING TOGETHER.
WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT IT WILL REACT AND IT IS FEASIBLE THEN
TO USE THIS TECHNOLOGY.
IT ISN'T VERY EFFECTIVE IF YOU CONSIDER EVERYTHING ELSE THERE,
BUT IT'S EFFECTIVE ENOUGH THAT IT CAN BE USED
TO ACTUALLY DO REMEDIATION OF THESE CONTAMINATED WATERS.
THIS IS ETHINYL ESTRADIOL.
IT'S FAST.
THIS IS PROGESTERONE.
THIS IS THE OTHER HALF OF YOUR BIRTH CONTROL PILL AND IT'S
ABOUT A FACTOR OF 10 SLOWER
AND THAT ACTUALLY STARTS TO BECOME A PROBLEM.
OKAY. IF YOU START FAST ENOUGH, ALL YOUR RADICALS ARE GOING
TO REACT WITH ALL THE OTHER JUNK IN THE WATER.
SO IT ISN'T GOING TO BE GREAT FOR THIS.
BUT THIS IS THE ONE WE'RE MOSTLY CONCERNED ABOUT,
AND IT IS ACTUALLY GOING TO WORK.
SO THE UTILITIES WERE VERY HAPPY TO HAVE THAT NUMBER CONFIRMED
BUT THEN, OF COURSE, LIKE ALL GOOD SCIENTISTS YOU'VE ANSWERED
ONE QUESTION.
YOU NEED TO ASK THREE MORE, OTHERWISE,
WHERE DOES FUNDING COME FROM, RIGHT.
OKAY. SO THE QUESTION NOW COMES DOWN TO, ALL RIGHT, WE REACTED.
WE'VE GOT A VERY HIGHLY REACTIVE RADICAL.
WHERE IS IT REACTING?
IS IT REACTING HERE AT THIS TRIPLE BOND?
IS IT REACTING HERE AT THIS RING?
OR IS IT REACTING HERE IN THE STEROID BACKBONE?
WELL, WHAT YOU TRY TO CONVINCE YOUR STUDENTS IS
THAT THE LITERATURE HAS VALUE AND YOU REALLY SHOULD GO
AND LOOK AT IT ONCE IN A WHILE --
AND IF YOU GO AND TAKE A LITTLE MODEL COMPOUND AND IF YOU LOOK
AT JUST THIS PART
OF THE MOLECULE HERE, IT LOOKS LIKE THAT.
AND, YOU KNOW, SOMEONE'S MEASURED THE NUMBERS.
THEY'RE ALL OVER THE PLACE BUT THEY'RE THE RIGHT BALLPARK.
IF YOU LOOK AT THIS PART HERE, WHICH IS WAY
UP THERE, IT'S MUCH SLOWER.
SO JUST PURELY WE CAN ARGUE
THAT ALL THE OXIDATION CHEMISTRY IS HAPPENING DOWN HERE AND,
BELIEVE IT OR NOT, THE MEDICINAL CHEMISTS HAVE KNOWN
THAT FOR YEARS.
THEY SAID THAT'S WHAT HAPPENS, GREAT.
WELL, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
WELL, YOU CAN LOOK AT THE CHEMISTRY OF THESE RINGS
AND WHAT HAPPENS IS THE RADICAL ACTUALLY ADDS TO THE RING.
YOU CAN ADD HERE.
YOU CAN ADD HERE.
YOU CAN ADD HERE.
WELL, NOW WE HAVE A PROBLEM BECAUSE WE STOPPED
AND REALLY THOUGHT ABOUT THIS, DID A LITTLE BIT MORE HUNTING.
THIS SPECIES IS WORSE THAN WHAT YOU STARTED WITH.
IT'S REALLY BAD.
IT'S A MUTAGENIC, REASONABLY HIGH STEROIDAL ACTIVITY.
SO YOU'VE TAKEN YOUR STEROID, YOU'VE OXIDIZED IT,
FROM AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE, YOU'VE ACHIEVED YOUR GOAL,
YOU GOT RID OF IT, BUT WHAT YOU MADE IS WORSE
THAN WHAT YOU STARTED.
THIS IS NOT GOOD.
NOW ON THE OTHER HAND, IF YOU'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO MAKE IT HERE,
IT'S ACTUALLY NOT SO BAD.
NO ONE'S REALLY SURE IF HAS STEROIDAL ACTIVITY,
AND IT ACTUALLY INDUCES CELL DEATH IN TUMORS.
YOU'VE MADE AN ANTICANCER AGENT.
THAT'S NOT, YOU KNOW, RELEVANT ON A LARGE SCALE.
BUT THE PROBLEM WE'RE TRYING TO SAY IS YOU REALLY DO NEED
TO KNOW WHAT YOU MAKE.
YOU CAN'T MAKE IT WORSE THAN WHAT YOU STARTED WITH.
OKAY. THAT'S ACTUALLY A REALLY AN IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION.
SO PART OF THE THING IS NOW WE TRIED TO OXIDIZE THIS
AND WE MAY END UP MAKING SOMETHING MUCH WORSE.
OKAY. THIS IS NOT THE WAY TO GO.
NOW THE OTHER THING IS WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU USE WATER
AND YOU PASS ELECTRICITY THROUGH IT, YOU BREAK IT UP,
IS YOU MAKE REDUCING ELECTRONS.
SO MAYBE INSTEAD OF OXIDIZING IT, WE'LL REDUCE IT.
MAYBE WE CAN DESTROY IT THAT WAY.
SO WE STARTED PLAYING WITH THIS AND WE LOOKED
AT THE KINETICS OF THIS.
YOU CAN ISOLATE THIS SPECIES BY SIMPLY ADDING ALCOHOL AGAIN
WHICH YOU HAVE TO ADD
AND IT TAKES AWAY THESE TWO RADICALS SO, REALLY EASY.
WE CAN LOOK AT THE ELECTRON DIRECTLY, TURNS OUT THAT
IF YOU PUT A SINGLE ELECTRON IN WATER,
IT HAS A HUGE BEAUTIFUL BLUE ABSORPTION.
YOU CAN SEE IT IN THE RED.
IT'S FINE.
YOU CAN MONITOR DIRECTLY.
AS YOU ADD MORE STEROID, IT GETS FASTER AND FASTER.
THIS IS WHAT WE TEACH IN GENCAM.
AND YOU CAN GET A BEAUTIFUL STRAIGHT LINE AGAIN
BY DOING THE APPROPRIATE PLOT.
NOW BECAUSE WE ACTUALLY HAVE TO ADD ALCOHOL,
WE CAN DO MORE STEROIDS.
WE STARTED LOOKING AT THESE THREE HERE, AS WELL.
BUT THE TWO I WANT TO CONCENTRATE ON ARE RIGHT HERE,
THE EE2, ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND THE PROGESTERONE.
IF YOU REMEMBER BEFORE, THAT ONE WAS FAST; THAT ONE WAS SLOW.
NOW WE'VE REVERSED IT.
WELL, THAT'S INTERESTING.
AGAIN, YOU GO THROUGH THE MODEL COMPOUNDS.
YOU LOOK AT THIS END OF THE MOLECULE.
YOU LOOK AT THIS END OF THE MOLECULE.
AND WHAT YOU FIND NOW IS THAT ALL
OF THE REDUCTION IS OCCURRING RIGHT THERE,
RIGHT AT THAT TRIPLE BOND.
NOW WHY IS PROGESTERONE SO FAST?
WELL, IT TURNS OUT THAT INSTEAD OF AN OH HERE YOU GOT A KEYTONE
AND IT TURNS OUT THAT'S A FAST REACTION.
OKAY. GREAT.
I KNOW NOW WHERE IN THE MOLECULE IT'S REDUCED, SO WHAT?
WELL, THE PROBLEM IS THAT,
THAT'S NOT REALLY THE IMPORTANT END OF THE MOLECULE.
THAT'S THE IMPORTANT END OF THE MOLECULE.
SO WHILE THE REDUCTION WORKS AND WORKS QUICKLY, WE'RE NOT SURE
THAT IT'S ACTUALLY DOING ANYTHING FOR US,
WHICH IS REALLY ANNOYING.
ALL RIGHT.
THERE'S ALSO ANOTHER PROBLEM.
WATER HAS OXYGEN -- FOR ANY OF YOU WHO'VE EVER HAD AN AQUARIUM,
YOU KNOW, YOU'VE GOT TO KEEP OXYGEN IN THE WATER --
WHEN YOU'RE TREATING THIS AT LARGE SCALE, THERE'S A LOT
OF OXYGEN AROUND AND YOU CAN'T USE REDUCING RADICALS
BECAUSE THEY ALL REACT WITH THE OXYGEN.
SO RECENTLY -- AND THIS IS BRAND NEW STUFF --
WE'RE STARTING TO LOOK AT THIS SPECIES, PERSULPHATE.
NOW THIS IS SOMETHING YOU CAN BUY.
IT'S A STANDARD CHEMICAL.
YOU CAN ADD IT TO WATER,
AND IT'S A WATER CLEANUP IN ITS OWN WAY.
BUT ONE OF THE REALLY COOL THINGS IT DOES DO IS IT TAKES
THIS REDUCING RADICAL
AND IT MAKES A DIFFERENT OXIDIZING RADICAL.
AND WE STARTED LOOKING
AT HOW THIS PARTICULAR RADICAL WILL REACT
WITH THE STEROIDS AND, SURE ENOUGH, SAME CONDITIONS,
YOU NEED ALCOHOL, YOU NEED TO HAVE YOUR STEROID PRESENT,
YOU GET NICE GOOD STRAIGHT LINES,
WE CAN GET RATE CONSTANTS, AND WE'VE STARTED TO REALIZE
THAT THIS ACTUALLY MAY BE A BETTER WAY TO DO IT.
THE OH FOR THE ETHINYL ESTRADIOL IS MAKING SOMETHING WORSE.
WE KNOW THE SULPHATE REACTS DIFFERENTLY.
WE DON'T KNOW QUITE WHAT WE'RE MAKING YET.
WE'RE STILL LOOKING AT THAT AND PART OF THE DEAL IS
BECAUSE THIS PROJECT IS ONLY ABOUT A YEAR AND A HALF OLD
WHEN WE'RE STILL DOING THIS BITS AND PIECES,
WE THINK WE HAVE A NEW WAY TO ACTUALLY GET THIS STUFF OUT.
NOW THERE'S SOME LARGE SCALE PROBLEMS.
THEY DON'T LIKE YOU ADDING SULPHATE TO WATER,
BECAUSE AT THE END OF IT ALL
WHEN YOU TREAT WATER, THEY ADD LIME.
LIME IS CALCIUM OXIDE.
YOU HAVE SULPHATE IN THE WATER, IT MAKES GYPSUM,
CALCIUM SULPHATE, AND YOUR WATER LOOKS TURBOT.
IT'S PERFECTLY FINE.
IT JUST LOOKS CLOUDY.
NOBODY LIKES CLOUDY WATER.
OKAY. ONE OF THE RULES OF LIFE.
SO IT'S NOT PERFECT BUT WE THINK WE MAY HAVE A BETTER WAY
TO DO IT.
ALL RIGHT.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
WELL, THIS JUST OPENED UP A BRAND NEW FIELD.
OBVIOUSLY, WE NEED TO LOOK AT MORE NUMBERS
FOR THE REMAINING RADICALS AND THE OTHER STEROIDS.
THERE'S A LOT OF STEROIDS OUT THERE.
WE STARTED WITH TWO SIMPLE ESTROGENIC STEROIDS
BECAUSE THEY'RE THE MOST IMPORTANT.
ONE THING WE HAVE TO DO
AND REALLY LOCK DOWN IS THE PRODUCTS.
WHAT ARE WE MAKING?
NOW ONE OF THE GREAT OPPORTUNITIES THIS PLACE --
IN THEORY AND SOON WE MAY HAVE AN LC ASPECT COMING HERE.
THAT'S WHAT WE ALL NEED.
THIS IS WHAT WE NEED IS TO TRY AND FIND THE ACTUAL PRODUCTS
THAT WE MAKE AND THEN WE CAN QUANTIFY HOW MUCH
AND WHETHER THIS IS FEASIBLE.
WHAT ARE WE REALLY MAKING IS VERY IMPORTANT.
ONE THING THAT KEVIN ALLUDED TO
AND I THINK NOBODY'S REALLY PICKED UP ON YET IS
THAT IT'S NOT JUST THE STEROIDS.
IT'S NOT JUST THE CHEMICALS THEMSELVES THAT ARE GOING OUT.
WE PROCESS THEM.
WE MAKE METABOLITES.
THOSE HAVE A HUGE IMPACT AND THEY'RE MORE RELEVANT
THAN THE STEROIDS THEMSELVES.
AND WHAT WE'RE TENDING --
TO STARTING TO LOOK AT IS THE METABOLITES THAT COME
FROM ALL THESE STEROIDS IN THIS PARTICULAR CASE
AND CERTAINLY ALL THE OTHER COMPOUNDS WE'VE TALKED ABOUT
AND MOST IMPORTANT AT THE END OF THE DAY, IT'S NOT JUST
ABOUT GETTING YOUR ONE CHEMICAL
AND CHANGING IT TO SOMETHING ELSE.
WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IS TAKE THESE STEROIDAL ACTIVITY
AND GET RID OF IT.
IT'S GOT TO STOP BEING A STEROID,
AND NOW WE COULD OXIDIZE IT FIVE OR SIX TIMES
AND MAYBE WE CAN BREAK IT UP.
MAYBE WE CAN JUST DESTROY IT TO THE POINT
WHERE IT'S NO LONGER A STEROID.
BUT WHEN IS IT ENOUGH?
THAT'S REALLY THE QUESTION AT LARGE SCALE.
THAT'S THE MOST IMPORTANT.
ONE RADICAL REACTION MAY NOT DO IT, FIVE MAYBE GREAT.
OKAY. WELL, IF THAT'S THE ONLY WAY YOU CAN GET RID OF IT,
THAT'S THE WAY YOU'VE GOT TO GO.
THERE ARE SOME WONDERFUL STUDENTS WHO'VE WORKED
ON THIS PROJECT; EDSEL, KATIE, GARRETT, KIM -- KIM'S HERE.
THESE ARE UNDERGRADUATES WORKING AT THIS INSTITUTION AND THEY GO
WITH ME TO NOTRE DAME.
THEY SLAVE AWAY.
WE'RE TALKING 16, 18 HOURS A DAY FOR FOUR OR FIVE DAYS STRAIGHT,
GETS THEM EXHAUSTED, DOESN'T DO MUCH FOR ME.
DION IS THE GUY WHO GOT US
UNDER THE SULPHATE RADICAL CHEMISTRY, HIS SUGGESTION.
SO WE THANK HIM FOR THAT AND LASTLY,
THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE I WISH TO THANK.
THIS PROJECT IS NOT FUNDED, PER SAY.
OKAY. I DON'T HAVE AN NIH GRANT OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT.
THIS IS A PROJECT THAT CAME OUT OF A NEED.
KEN ISHIDA ACTUALLY MADE A PERSONAL DONATION TO MY GROUP
WHICH KICKED THIS PROJECT OFF.
HE BASICALLY GAVE A COUPLE THOUSAND BUCKS,
ALLOWED MY STUDENTS TO GO, BUY THE CHEMICALS, DO THE WORK.
WE STARTED THE PROJECT THANKS TO HIS GREAT EFFORTS.
SO I WANT TO THANK YOU.
COUPLE -- ONE OF THOSE STUDENTS WAS A BECKMAN SCHOLAR.
SHE WAS ABLE TO DO SOME STUFF WHILE WORKING
ON HER OWN PROJECT AS WELL.
A WOMAN IN PHILANTHROPY [INAUDIBLE] HAS BEEN ABSOLUTELY
AMAZING TO ME.
THEY'VE FUNDED MOST OF MY STUDENTS AT ONE POINT OR ANOTHER
AND EVEN, YOU KNOW, A SMALL AMOUNT
OF MONEY ALLOWS THE STUDENTS TO TRAVEL,
ALLOWS THEM TO DO THIS CHEMISTRY,
AND ONE STUDENT WAS ON THE MARK PROGRAM.
SO I WISH TO THANK THEM THERE.
AT THE END OF IT ALL, I JUST WANTED TO POINT
OUT THAT WE CAN DO SOME AS KEVIN SAID,
WE CAN DO SOME AMAZING STUFF HERE.
WE ARE AT THE FOREFRONT OF WHAT WE'RE DOING.
NOBODY ELSE CAN DO THIS.
NOBODY HAS DONE THIS.
WE CAN DO THIS WITH THE WONDERFUL STUDENTS WE HAVE HERE
AT CAL STATE.
AND I JUST APPRECIATE THIS OPPORTUNITY
TO THANK YOU LISTENING TO ME ABOUT SOME OF THE FUN STUFF
THAT WE'VE BEEN DOING OVER THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS.
SO I'M ASSUMING KEVIN AND I WILL ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS.
BUT THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR LISTENING.
[ APPLAUSE ]