Российская Империя: Александр II, часть 1. [11/16] [Eng Sub]


Uploaded by TheComradeRussia on 26.04.2012

Transcript:
NTV presents
300th Anniversary of the Russian Empire
300th Anniversary of St. Petersburg
Defeat in the Crimean War brought down the apogee
of Nicholas' autocracy in Russia.
The Emperor was unable to endure such a disaster.
The demise of Nicholas was received almost with relief.
A great epoch, a whole 30 years of Russian life, came
to an end with his death.
Something new was starting it just had to start.
Contemporaries felt that whatever it was, it would be different.
lt was not without irony while speaking about the starry - eyed impulses
at the beginning of the reign of the new sovereign Alexander ll
Leo Tolstoy subsequently remarked: 'He who did not live in Russia
in 1856, does not know what life is.'
Few were groomed forthe throne as the future Alexander ll was.
The education and upbringing of the heir was entrusted
to a staff headed by the great poet Zhukovsky.
Speaking about the upbringing of the Grand Duke for his reign,
Zhukovsky remarked: 'We need an educated monarch, not a regimental commander.'
The last item in this curriculum included two long journeys
forthe most august pupil,
through Russia and Europe.
Through Russia, the heirto the throne visits 29 provinces.
Zhukovsky dubbed this tour ''A betrothal with Russia.''
At 4 p.m. on May 26, 1837, on this old high road
some 30 miles from Yekaterinburg cesarevitch Alexander was the first
of the Romanovs to cross the border between Europe and Asia.
After more than 200 years of rule of this dynasty
the future sovereign is finally able to fully grasp
the vast country he is to rule.
Further on lies Siberia.
To fully fathom all this seriously, this, of course, was not enough.
And Zhukovsky remarks: that these are but 'the titles
of the chapters of the book that yet must be read.'
To be sure, his predecessors had not even read those titles.
Alexander spent only 10 days in Siberia,
and only within the boundaries of present - day Tyumen region, he reached Tobolsk.
The 18 - year - old heir received a multitude of petitions from the ex - convicts
and even managed to persuade his fatherto ease their plight.
Abroad, Alexander sees Europe and looks for a bride.
ln Hesse - Darmstadt Duchy
Alexander is introduced to a 15 - year - old marriageable princess.
By family tradition, she was to be his match.
At the end of the tour was England where the unwed Queen Victoria ruled.
She was a yearyoungerthan Alexander.
For a whole month England entertained the heirto the Russian throne.
During the visit, rumors about a genuine or alleged love affair
between the two swept London and St. Petersburg.
Buckingham Palace was the scene of parties, receptions
and court balls
at which the young queen danced only with the Russian Crown Prince.
Alexander and Victoria converse at length,
attend the opera together.
At unofficial parties, they danced the then popular Granddad dance.
Quite a quaint pastime according to present - day notions.
ln this dance, the partners hold the tips of a man's handkerchief.
And the men jump over it.
And Her Royal Majesty and His lmperial Highness
danced till two in the morning.
Afterthat, Victoria could not fall asleep till morning.
The Queen confessed to the Premier's wife that she was
very fond of the Crown Prince.
ln his diary, Alexander wrote:
'Quite small, stout waist, unpleasant face but converses very well.'
lf indeed it was a love affair
lf the heir abandoned Russia and remained in England as prince consort,
and two powerful empires concluded a union,
then world history could have developed quite differently.
But such a stunning union was out of the question.
England remains unfriendly to Russia,
Alexander marries the recommended German princess
Maximillian Wilhelm August Sofia Maria
Her Orthodox name was Maria Alexandrovna.
Alexander himself visited the theater of the Caucasian war
while still the heirto the throne.
By the beginning of the 50s after several defeats in a row,
a split develops among the highlanders.
lmam Shamil accuses the second - ranked chieftain, Haji Murat,
of betrayal.
He served the Russians and again goes overto their side.
Realizing he was being used against his tribesmen,
Haji Murat kills his guards and flees.
But the fugitive is caught.
His chopped off head is sent to the governor - general in Tiflis,
and from there to St. Petersburg.
The skull of Haji Murat is still in the cabinet of curiosities.
Hugzakh is the historical center of Avaria.
Among 20 tiny monarchies and many highland republics,
including Daghestan the Avar Khanate was the largest.
The Avars today make up most of the population in Daghestan.
The governor - general of the Avar Khanate underthe Russians and under Shamil
was the legendary Haji Murat.
This is the burdock that cannot be taken in a bare hand,
it is thorny and has a thick stalk.
This burdock
reminded Leo Tolstoy about Haji Murat
like he fought for his life alone in the field.
Leo Tolstoy served in the Caucasus when Haji Murat sided with the Russians.
This burdock reminded Tolstoy of that highlander.
Then he wrote 9 versions of the story
and kept the manuscript in his desk until he left Yasnaya Polyana.
The chapter about purging a Chechen village was unacceptable to Russian censors,
lt was first printed in Berlin.
Leo Tolstoy writes in 'Haji Murat':
'The feeling that all Chechens experienced
was not hatred. They simply did not considerthese Russian soldiers as people.
lt was revulsion, disgust for the stupid brutality of these creatures.'
The last camp of Shamil was crushed in the Chechen village of Vedeno in the spring of 1859.
The lmam and his detachment go deep into Daghestan.
Shamil rises to the peak of Mt.Gunib.
Digging there, he relies on the will of Allah.
Shamil had only 400 warriors and no one came to his help.
Having surrounded Gunib but still at the bottom,
the Russians offer Shamil to surrender, guaranteeing his life
and free passage to Mecca.
Shamil refuses.
Under heavy fire of the warriors the Russian soldiers climb upwards.
Then halt and begin another attack. Another offerfor honorable surrender.
The Russians admit Shamil chose the proper position.
This fortress was built on the site of Shamil's position
after Gunib was captured.
lt will become one of the largest Russian outposts in Daghestan.
Having captured the position the soldiers mill around the huts of Gunib.
Shamil tries to barter by offering the enemy one of his sons.
The Russians demand that all surrender, now guaranteeing them only their lives.
The rest depends on the mercy of the Czar.
ln the outskirts of Gunib village
on a rock over which a summer - house has been restored
the Russian commander, Prince Baryatinsky
accepts the surrender of Shamil.
The main enemy of the Russian0 Empire surrenders his arms.
For his victory over Shamil Baryatinsky is promoted to Field Marshal.
Here is the silver medal. One one side - initials of Alexander ll,
on the other - the inscription: 'For the conquest of Chechnya and Daghestan.'
The dates of the decisive battles and the last one - 1859.
The capture of Gunib.
Then in 1859, on this rock it seemed that war was over.
'All had been wiped out.'
The victors will receive titles, promotions and decorations.
Field Marshal Baryatyinsky in his proclamation to the Chechen people:
'The Russian Emperor generously pardons the Chechen people
for all the hostile actions against us,
forthe spilled blood of Russians forthe harm and losses.'
Shamil and his family are sent to Russia.
ln Moscow and St. Petersburg the defeated lmam is received in high society.
The sovereign meets Shamil with interest and without enmity.
And presented Shamil a carriage along with four horses.
And granted him 15,000 rubles a year.
Shamil's place of residence is Kaluga.
Shamil's family and servants number 22.
lt was not simple to select a house for him.
A landlord, Sukhotin, agrees to let his 3 - storeyed mansion
in the center of Kaluga for 900 rubles a year.
Along with other buildings, there was even a small mosque in the yard.
Laterthis would be called 'Caucasus in Kaluga.'
The dreaded lmam of Chechnya and Daghestan Shamil lived here 9 years.
Shamil's elder son, Muhamed - Shakhi, remained in St. Petersburg.
He was promoted to the rank of officer and upon Baryatinsky's recommendation,
was enrolled in His Majesty's convoy as military escort of the Emperor.
He would command a special Caucasian platoon.
The building of the Kaluga Assembly would later became a House for Young Pioneers..
Our of the historical decorations the ceremonial staircase was preserved best of all.
Just for official ceremonies.
Although rebuilt, the auditorium still remains..
Here, in 1866, the now former main enemy of the Russian Empire, Shamil,
pledges allegiance to the Emperor.
Also taking the pledge with him are his sons, Gazi Magomed and Magomed - Shakhi.
By that time, having banished the Cherkesi to the Ottoman Empire,
Russia establishes full control in the Caucasus.
Shamil in Kaluga writes to Prince Baryatinsky:
'Star of princes, valiant field marshal!
'l rejoice overthis great event the ultimate conquest of the Caucasus.'
God's humble servant, Shamil.'
The sovereign allows Shamil to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
At that time it was Turkish territory.
During the journey, Shamil fell ill and died in the city of Medina.
Going forthe lmam, his son, Gazi Magomed, did not return.
Having betrayed his allegiance, he fought against Russia in the Russo - Turkish War.
He served to the rank of marshal in the Turkish Army.
The serfs were emancipated.
By his nature, Alexander ll was not a liberal.
His great grandmother, Catherine, considered it was necessary to abolish serfdom.
During, the rule of his father, Nicholas, who was not at all a liberal,
there 9 secret committees on the peasantry question.
lt solution was long overdue.
Addressing the Moscow gentry on March 30, 1856, Alexander ll declared:
'you know yourselves that the existing order of owning souls
cannot remain unchanged. lt is betterto abolish serfdom from the top,
ratherthan wait until it abolishes itself from the bottom.'
A 10th secret committee was formed and it was called the Main one.
With rare persistence, Alexander accelerated matters,
playing up his initiative as if it came from the landlord gentry.
The Manifesto was signed on the 6th anniversary of his ascension to the throne.
On February 19.
And made public on Sunday of Forgiveness.
On March 5, 1861.
As always - on Sundays,
a military review in the presence of the sovereign in Mikhailovsky Manege.
Here, Alexander ll, Emperor and ruler of all Russia,
Czar of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland,
and so on and so forth personally reads his Manifesto.
He himself decided to proclaim freedom to the serfs only before the officers.
Meanwhile, troops were being pulled up to the Winter Palace.
lnfantry, cavalry and 24 cannons.
Even those that wrote the reform realized they were hoodwinking the peasantry.
The landlord received compensation for his serfs.
Some redemption forthe peasants' plots but a higher price
20% paid by the muzhik, 80% from the treasury,
but the debt had to be paid with large interest.
There was a poor serf, but now he was a free debtor.
The final text of the Manifesto was written by Moscow Metropolitan Filaret.
lt was so incoherent that it was regarded as a 'dead decree.'
Tolstoy wrote about Czar's Manifesto:
'Muzhiks will not understand a word and we will no believe a single word.'
The peasantry reform was indeed Great.
That year witnessed the greatest number of peasant rebellions.
The main ones were in Kazan province in Penza province, in the village of Kandeyevka.
The obelisk in Kandeyevka is a reminder of the events in the spring of 1861.
Public criers roamed the countryside shouting 'Freedom' and waving a red banner.
Forthe first time in Russia's history the red banner of rebellion was raised.
The main instigator was peasant Leontiy Yegortsev.
He explained that the Czar had sent the serfs genuine emancipation,
but the landlords had intercepted the decree and hid it.
Now the Czar, through him, Yegortsev
urged all to gain theirfreedom by Easter.
This is where it all happened.
This is where a church once stood in which the Manifesto was read.
Part of landlord's house before which the peasants gathered.
Kandeyevka stands at the crossroads of three districts and people came from everywhere.
As usual, the mansion was on a hill and there was a huge mob.
Up to 10,000 peasants were in Kandeyevka.
The troops arrived.
General Drinyakin emerged from the house.
He swore on an icon that it was the genuine Manifesto,
but the peasants did not believe him and did not disperse
All shouted: 'For God! Forthe Czar we shall give our lives!'
The mob did not move afterthe first volley, nor afterthe second and third.
Then another412 arrested cried out: 'We shall die ratherthan obey.'
Many others were clubbed to death in the cellars of that house.
Here in Kandeyevka, Leontiy Yegortsev was called
Grand Prince Konstantin Pavlovich.
Although he died 30 years priorto these events.
Any leader of a peasant rebellion
was always an impostor of royal blood.
That was the only time after the rebellion was crushed
the peasants did not give away their leader.
Yegortsev was hidden in the neighboring villages.
He was very old and he died a natural death that same year in 1861.
They had to pay three times the price fortheir plots of land.
The plots were smallerthan even in serfdom.
The peasants were given the worst lands.
And before the deal was concluded, the peasant was still obliged to work,
performing his former duties without pay or compensation.
The 'mock' Manifesto that was circulated then:
'The landlord keeps an arable plot for his whole family,
whereas the muzhik gets nothing.'
A sazhen is a little more than two meters.
A desyatina is a little more than a hectare.
So it is easy in the nearby fields to estimate
how much land was handed out in 1861.
Land was given only to men at the age of 20 to 55.
Women and children were not entitle to land at all.
On the average the plots were 3.5 hectares.
ln width that was about 70 steps. Here is the first pole, second, third.
That is to the third pole. ln length, it would be,
like to those trees by the river. That was one plot.
On the average, in Russia, it turned out the peasants lost 20% of their land.
Before emancipation, it was admitted the peasants had little land.
ln certain provinces, they lost up to 40% .
Such was the price that was paid forthis personal freedom:
'l will no longer be sold.'' lt was not highly valued.
Land was what was highly valued and millions of peasants argued:
'Without land there can be no freedom.'
That's why they did not believe the Czar's Manifesto.
The Ministry of State Property,
just like today's ministry,
calculated the norm: 18 poods of grain per mouth a year.
That norm, of course, was lowered.
Nonetheless, on the average throughout the country
it came to 13 poods of grain per mouth a year.
So the great hospitable Russian wheat basket could not eat its fill of bread,
in large measure, it remained a half - starved country.
Everywhere - the same thing.
The illiterate peasants seek their own reader of the Manifesto.
They don't believe the papers are authentic,
interpret the Czar's will in their own way. They don't obey orders.
They don't till the fields and are not afraid of soldiers.
Atelegram to police chief from Kazan province:
'Up to 60 peasants killed yesterday, no repentance, disturbances everywhere,
no one wants to work. Colonel Larionov.'
Alexander ll remarks in the margin:
'Sad and incomprehensible.'
The United States expands energetically in the 19th century.
lt buys 12 states from France for $15 million.
Forthe same price, Mexico sells it California.
After it took over Texas by force.
Before selling Alaska, farewell to Russian America
began with the sale of the Russian colony at Fort Ross in California.
Maximum insurance in case of a car accident
$30,000 is exactly the sum
for which the Russian Empire sells its Fort Ross
to a U.S. citizen, Mr. John Sutter.
To be sure, in the mid - 19th century the dollar was more valuable than now.
But even so, that was not a great sum if one recalls,
that about that time, Tom Sawyerfound lndian Joe has $12,000.
But the amazing thing is that Russia did not receive those $30,000.
Mr. Sutter did not pay Russia the money.
Perhaps there are formal grounds to lay claims to that territory,
only who is to lay such claims and to whom?
By the mid - 19th century Russian hunters killed all the Kamtchatka beavers,
and without the valuable pelts , they didn't know what to do.
ln the valley of the river that is still named 'Russian,'
things were not going well, they could not develop the land.
Not enough people.
The government that controlled the Russian - American Company
did not allow only serfs to settle in the Californian colony,
Even free peasants were forbidden.
So in the local hardware store
someone bought a colander or sieve.
Sources hold that gold was scooped out of the Russian River with a sieve.
Prospectors from the whole of America came rushing in.
Six years afterthe Russian Empire sold this land,
the famous Californian gold rush begins.
Then came California's wealth that is continuing to this day.
The Russian - American Company could only kick itself.
Government lnspector Golovin:
'Public opinion in Russia is still indignant
for giving away ourformer trading station in California,
especially since gold fields were discovered next to Fort Ross.
Enterprising people will discover wealth in our colonies,
wealth the existence of which they could not even imagine.'
The lnspector was against the sale of Alaska. Beavers there had also become extinct.
There were plenty of seals, but theirfur was not valued then.
Although engineer Dorokhov was the first to find grains of gold in Alaska,
but there were no 'enterprising people' to start prospecting.
ln the final years, Russians in Alaska sold ice
forfood warehouses in San Fransisco. There was no other business.
There was nothing to be sorry for.
For 70 years of possessing that vast territory
a state administration was not even established.
At a secret meeting, Alexander ll decides to sell Alaska.
Half the job is done Russia wants to sell.
Now America remains to be convinced that it wants to buy.
But in Washington no one intends to buy those lands.
Alaska is called 'the frozen egg' and also 'walrus Russia.'
Russian ambassador Steckel, a participant of that meeting
spent more than $100,000 to bribe senators
and order newspaper articles about that,
to persuade public opinion to support the treaty.
Alexander ll issues categorical instructions:
'To sell but for no less than $5 million.
ln the end, Alaska was almost forced on America for $7.2 million.
At the exchange rate then - 11 million rubles.
A modest sum with Russia having an annual budget of 400 million rubles.
Only in gold, Americans would find in Alaska 2,500 times more.
And then rich oil fields would be discovered.
On October 18, 1867 this hill in Novo - Archangelsk, now Sitka,
was the site of the official ceremony.
The Russian flag was lowered and the American flag was hoisted.
Since that day October 18 is celebrated as Alaska Day.
The Russian Empire sold 10% of its territory.
The United States acquired its 49th state.
Then and today it is still the largest state.
The epoch of reform stirred the public.
The best minds started to raise, discuss and resolve questions.
Land, women's, army, legal questions.
The 19th century too had its people of the sixties.
Forthe first time, thick journals captured the public mind.
The leading journal, founded by Pushkin,
and then edited by the major poet of his epoch, Nikolai Nekrasov,
was 'The Contemporary.'
Printed in more than 7,000 copies. lts annual subscription was 16 rubles, plus advertising.
lt was a joint stock company and Nekrasov was a shareholder.
He was the first classical writerto make money on literature.
The editorial office of the journal.
Actually, the office consisted of one room.
ln 1856 for a share of the dividends the right of first printing for4 years
Nekrasov receives the works of Tolstoy, Turgenev and Grigorovich.
Afamous photograph from the archives of the authors
taken right afterthe contract was signed.
For a novel, the author received 2,000 rubles.
Quite enough to rent a large apartment in downtown.
Nekrasov's apartment - office was in the prestigious Liteiny Avenue
opposite the State Property Ministry,
at the main entrance, the poet saw the petition - bearers.
The main entrance.
lt was from his window that the poet made his observations
of the people's life.
The publication of each new edition of the journal was followed by a party,
for 20 years the leading writers of that time met in this room.
Korney Chukovsky once said
that if the ceiling came down during lunch,
then all of Russian literature would perish at once.
The editorial board also had progressive views on life.
The journal had two publishers - Nekrasov and lvan Panayev, neighbors.
Avdotya Panayeva was a woman of rare beauty.
Dostoyevsky fainted when he first met her.
Although she officially was Panayev's wife, she openly lived with Nekrasov.
Nekrasov:
'Shameful, hateful bonds, reject this heavy burden
and while there is still time, conclude a free union of your heart.'
Alexander's reforms were the 'golden age' of Russian literature.
ln 20 years, Tolstoy and Doestoyevsky
Turgenev and Goncharov created the Russian novel.
Ostrovsky - the Russian playwright, Nekrasov - popular poet,
Leskov - folk tales.
But progressive contemporaries place ideology above artistry.
Turgenev and Tolstoy quit the journal,
but the public takea to Dobrolyubov and Chernyshevsky.
ln February 1863
'The Contemporary' announces Chernyshevsky's novel 'What to do?'
But on the way to the printers, Nekrasov loses the manuscript.
lt was picked up by a petty official.
He was crossing Liteiniy Avenue nearthe hospital,
he saw the package, picked it up,
and waited for a long time should the owner show up.
Here in the street, the fate of the novel 'What to do?' was being decided.
Would the Holy Writ of all Russian revolutionaries see the light of day or not?
Chernyshevsky is locked up in the Petropavlovsky Fortress.
This does not obstruct publication.
He wrote the novel clean. lt could not be restored from the rough notes.
Nekrasov is desperate, he places an ad in the paper,
promising a reward of 50 silver rubles to the finder.
The official brings Nekrasov the manuscript
to this house on the corner,
Nekrasov then was still a scatterbrain.
Then the street would be renamed in his honor.
lnstead of the promised 50 rubles, Nekrasov gives the finder 100.
To buy presents forthe children. The official can't believe his luck.
The editor is even happier.
ln the next issue, he prints the bestseller.
'What to do?' - the most political novel in Russian literature.
ln the '4th dream of Vera Pavlovna' he gives an example of Russian - style communism.
Lenin remarks: 'Chernyshevsky plowed through it deeply.'
From Central Asia, raids are carried out on Russian border posts
for over a century.
Only afterthe Caucasian War, it is decided to build up defenses here.
By an offensive. The Empire has already reached south Kazakhstan,
military initiative on the spot is allowed.
Without orders from Petersburg, the troops capture Tashkent.
All that is left of a chapel in the Russian military cemetery,
in the very center of Tashkent.
ln 1913 a monument will be raised in memory of General von Kaufman,
the conqueror and first governor - general of Turkestan.
Then in this spot there would be a monument to emancipated labor,
then a monument to the 10th anniversary of October, then a monument to Stalin,
and afterthe 22nd CPSU Congress -
an obelisk on the adoption of the program to build communism.
Then a monument to Karl Marx.
Now this monument to the oriental conqueror Amir Timur.
So a total of 7 monuments in 80 years..
Von Kaufman came from a Russified Austrian family.
He fought in Crimea and the Caucasus, but the main thing for him was Turkestan.
At that time, Tashkent was where men made careers and fortunes.
Saltykov - Shchedrin even wrote a book 'Tashkent Gentlemen.'
Already then, Tashkent was a prospering city.
The Turkestan Military District House of Officers underwent major repairs.
ln one of the largest cities of Central Asia, Tashkent,
life did not change much after it became part of the Russian Empire.
The Russians settled here in their own districts,
and maintained order only here. ln the Russian districts
locals were even forbidden to sit on a bench in national dress.
ln the rest of the city 99% of the population could not speak Russian,
They lived by the Oriental calendar and Sharia law.
The Bolsheviks abolished them only 1927.
The Emir of Bukhara declares a 'holy war' against Russia,
but in the open field, the Russians always win.
Turkestan Governor - General von Kaufman:
'On their way, the troops destroyed everything with fire and sword.
Forthe Turkmens know no other language.'
ln Central Asia, water means life.
The Russians emerge at Zeravshan that supplies waterto the entire Bukhara Emirate.
ln summer, the river is full, in spring it is shallow.
On May 1, 1868, several miles from Samarkand
the Russians find a place to ford Zeravshan.
On the opposite bank, a short skirmish with the troops of Emir Said Muzafar,
the Russians lose only two soldiers.
Atown delegation comes to the conquerors.
The Russians meet them in the morning with traditional bread and salt.
The conquerors prepare robes as gifts forthe Samarkand elders.
On May 2, 1868, along this Tashkent road
through the gates of Asha Hizinad the Russians enter Samarkand.
The center of the Universe, the gem of the world, the Rome of the Orient,
Samarkand becomes an ancient city of the Russian Empire.
Leaving a small garrison in Samarkand, the Russians march further,
having forgotten about oriental treachery.
The town that was still obedient yesterday rises up against the infidels.
ln the old citadel, 650 soldiers hold back 65,000 rebels for a whole week.
Until reinforcements arrive.
Among the those under siege was the beginner painter Vasily Verashchagin.
His Turkestan series of paintings is bought by Pavel Tretyakov for his gallery.
Verashchagin gains fame as the best Russian painter of battle scenes.
His canvases bear such titles as 'Surprise attack,'
'Let them enter,'
'Mortally wounded,'
and his most famous work in that series 'Apotheosis of War.'
The largest expansion of the Russian Empire was underthe rule of Alexander ll.
From the Caspian to China.
The remains of the empire of Tamerlane, Khiva Khanate, Bukhara and Kokand.
All three capitals are now in Uzbekistan.
The Tokan Khanate was mainly Kirghizia and part of Tajikistan.
Only small bits of Khiva and Bukhara would remain,
but their independence was fictitious. Kaufman boasted:
'The most punctual chief in Turkestan is the Emir of Bukhara.'
Russia steadfast push southwards alarms England.
The northern bear is getting close to lndia.
Officially, Russia denies any suspicions.
ln reality, lndia is viewed as the most accessible chunk of the British Empire.
Historian Teentiev:
'lf the British become openly hostile towards us,
we must tickle them in lndia. The British fearto be tickled there.'
That hour struck in 1878.
To make the British more compliant at the talks on the results of the Balkan War,
from Turkestan, infantry, sappers and a regiment of Orenburg Cossacks headed for lndia.
Marching towards lndia, the soldiers wore new uniforms.
Each man took an extra pair of boots,
to reach the lndian Ocean and wash them there.
From Samarkand they marched the first 64 miles to the village of Djam.
There they received a message: 'Talks with the British have been concluded,
it is too late to scare them.'
The detachment gets orders to return, an epidemic starts in the ranks.
The detachment perishes not in battle, but from cholera.
Their communal grave -
a monument to the last lndian campaign of the Russian Empire.
At the beginning of his reign, the Manifesto of Alexander ll
held the words of Apostle James: 'truth and mercy shall reign in the courts.'
They are to be inscribed over the entrance to the main court.
ln the 1930s at the beginning of Liteiniy Avenue,
A huge building of the Leningrad NKVD - NGB - KGB was erected.
Formerly, at this address, there was an old arsenal.
That was the first attempt to create a law - governed state.
The most consistent reform.
The court is declared independent; the judges are irremovable,
openness and competitive legal proceedings.
ln the provinces, the Justices of Peace enjoy high authority,
jurors hand down outrageous acquittals
to revolutionaries and strikers,
preliminary investigations are conducted by court investigators ratherthan police.
Previously, not having defense counsel,
Russia rapidly acquired lawyers of world level.
The whole country knows the best jurors and attorneys.
The eloquence of lawyer Fyodor Plevako becomes proverbial.
Justice Minister Zamyatin:
'Rich or poor, grandee or commoner -
each shall equal defense and protection.'
Chairs of law at universities are the most prestigious,
in respect to the population czarist Russia had more lawyers than the USSR,
but abolishing branding and the gauntlet, flogging is retained.
'Entering the square at 6 in the evening yesterday,
a young peasant woman was being whipped.'
ln Nekrasov's poems,
the most notorious place for corporal punishment
was Sennaya Square in Petersburg.
lt was always ugly here with its old flea market,
food stalls for beggars.
lt was not only due to barbarian morals,
people were flogged because they were poor.
Most people could not pay fines fortheir offences.
Corporal punishment was abolished only in the 20th century.
Less than a century, the state is not flogging its citizens.
The army is being reformed,
indeed, the best Russian war minister Dmitri Milyutin
holds his post 20 years.
The country is divided into military districts that exist to this day,
the army is reduced by a third, pay is increased,
forthe first time, the soldiers are armed with the Berdan rifle.
A new uniform is introduced, not tight - fitting, but with pockets.
Call - up of recruits is abolished, compulsory military service is introduced.
Apart from the privileged, all males of 21 years are drafted,
but the army takes in only what is needed. Usually a quarter of the list.
The first reception commission in the Moscow City Duma.
The memorial plate.
The men draw lots, numbered tickets from a box.
A special rule declared
that before drawing a lot, the person had to bear his arm to the elbow.
That was the time of card sharks. He had to show his open hand.
ln 1874, only those who drew from 1 to 139 were
were sent to the medical commission and to the army.
All who drew 140 and higher were placed in reserve.
Russia headed towards its first capital from the same low start
as now in its second start.
About 1.5% of total world production.
Today it lags 15 times behind the leader, the USA,
then it lagged 18 times behind the leader, England.
But in the first 10 years of Alexander's reforms,
the country more than doubled its share in the world and ranked fifth.
lt never rose any higher, only shortened the gap.
Leader of the first Russian capitalism was the textile industry.
A rich merchant had an abundance of calico and brocade,
i.e., stylish and silk fabrics and ordinary every day fabrics.
Amazingly strong truly stable colors.
Famous Russian calico prints.
When othertextiles and colors came in, this pattern was called 'Granny's.'
ln reality, this was the acme of the Russian light industry.
Russia witnessed a textile boom under Alexander ll.
ln 20 years the number of textile mills doubled.
Textile output even trebled.
Sateen kings, Morozovs, owners of mills in Orehoovo-Zuyeva,
and calico kings, Prohorovs, owners of the mill in Moscow,
dress up home - spun linen Russia.
Yakov Prohorov speaks about calico:
'By its price, both the middle and lower class can afford it.'
The easiest wedding anniversary - the first
is called 'calico wedding anniversary.'
The largest cotton mill in Europe, Kremgolsk rises
in Russia near Narva.
The textile boom experiences a shortage of its own raw material.
Cotton is brought in from the USA.
The Civil War between North and South disrupts deliveries.
Central Asia has already conquered, but the cotton there is worse and more costly.
The fibers of Turkestan cotton are short and coarse.
Cotton seeds are brought here from America and this sort takes
takes root here. lt is called 'Nagorny.'
Here are piles of it.
From here to Central Russia it is taken by camel to the Caspian,
then by barges up the Volga to the mills in lvanovo
and Moscow greatly raising its cost.
When the Civil War ended in America,
North American cotton was sold to Russia
at a quarter of the price of Central Asian cotton.
Only Peter's reforms were a greater breakthrough in Russian life
than Alexander's reforms.
Afterthat, for 150 years, the history of Russia
differed from generation to generation.
Every time, children lived different than their parents.
A stool on elks legs.
A quaint piece of work, one of the few genuine items
that came from the forests of a landlord at the epoch of Nicholas' stagnancy,
Vasily Vereshchagin,
Cherepovets marshal of nobility in Novgorod province.
He sent his two elder sons while still young
to the Naval Cadets Corps in Petersburg.
But upon graduation, they disobeyed theirfather,
and both of them resigned.
Those were two different destinies in the turbulent times of Alexander.
One brothertackled the endless problems of social life in Russia.
The other immersed himself in the practical civilization in Russia.
Vasily Vereshchagin Jr.
became a fruitful painter of war scenes and the world.
The chief artist of the reform policy of the Empire.
Personally participating in the main military campaigns,
he wrote a will before each one.
But would be killed in the 20th century in the Russo-Japanese War.
For his contemporaries, Vasily was a protest painter.
Priorto him, military paintings depicted only parades.
He painted wars as meaningless and merciless.
After his first personal exposition in 1874,
Vereshchagin is accused of anti - patriotism and sympathizing with the enemy.
Alexander ii himself becomes acquainted with his canvases.
Officially, the Emperor expressed his extreme dissatisfaction.
True, a month later, the lmperial Academy of Arts
awards Vereshchagin the title of professor, but he rejects it.
Poorly received by Russian patriots,
Vereshchagin travels to 'hot spots' of the planet.
ln the West, he holds many displays and sells many of his canvases.
Grand Prince and heir, Alexander:
'His bias is always repulsive to national self - respect
there can be but one conclusion: Vereshchagin is either is a swine
or an absolutely madman.'
The other brother, Nikolai,
becomes a pioneer in the mass production of butter and cheese in Russia.
At the World Fair in Paris in 1870
Nikolai tastes the butterfrom Normandy in northern France.
lt had a walnut taste.
He decides to make the same from the milk of Russian northern cows.
ln Europe, dairies used only cold cream to make butter,
To check the anti - sanitary conditions in Russia, Nikolai decides
to boil the cream first.
This is one of the 3 existing methods of making Vologda butter in Russia.
Nikolai was the author of the law on responsibility of falsified butter,
although he did not patent his technology.
So that the production of such butter
would be started throughout the country.
He did not label his butter Vologda butter immediately.
ln Russia it was called 'Paris Sweet,' abroad 'Petersburg Butter.'
And the same with cheese.
These places, north of Yaroslavl and Tver regions, south of Vologda
are Poshehonia, but Vereshchagin began with world formats
'Cheddar,' 'Dutch, 'Parmesan.'
Nikolai Vereshchagin:
'ln vain, l asked many Swiss cheese - makers.'
'lf we teach you Russians,' they replied,
what will we Swiss then do in Russia?'
Borrowing 2,000 rubles from his painter brother, Vasily
Nikolai himself goes to Switzerland.
Mastering cheese making himself, he returns and
spends anotherthousand rubles to organize the first cheese making cooperative.
Not his own, but of the peasants.
The money was provided by the Free Economic Society.
From that society, chemist Mendeleyev comes twice to inspect the dairy.
He instructs his colleague to work on his Periodic Table,
and together with Vereshchagin, takes turns in milking the cows.
He organizes 17 more cooperatives and is awarded the Order of St. Anne.
Cheese dairies are opened in all provinces.
Nikolai was the first to put his complete faith in Russian milch cows.
Priorto him, it was considered that in order to produce world class cheese and butter
all the dairy cattle in Russia had to be replaced by foreign breeds.
Of course, the quality of the end products, cheese and milk
proved the quality of the initial product - milk.
But Vereshchagin demonstrates the cows themselves.
Our of 59 herds, he selects the best for an exposition in Yaroslavl,
then holds the First National Exhibition of horned cattle
in St. Petersburg.
The result was a book 'On the question of Russian dairy cattle.'
There was also such a question.
lt received positive response.
Vereshchagin is busy attracting investments, veterinaries,
milk bottles and quality checking instruments,
mobile creameries for sharing experience,
and training personnel.
He founds butter and cheese making schools.
ln the first one, he was principal for 27 years.
He founds a unique Dairy Economic lnstitute
near Vologda.
Today it is the Dairy Economic Academy named after Nikolai Vereshchagin.
But his greatest achievement was sweet cream butter.
With it, Nikolai conquered the world market.
The secret was in the flooded meadows,
on the flat banks of numerous rivers and streams.
Spring high water washed river silt to the banks,
afterthe water recedes, the meadows are fertilized,
the grass is succulent, giving rich milk yields.
Making use of the natural conditions, producing excellent butter is not all,
the delicate product has yet to be delivered to the consumer.
The butterfirst goes by rail. Every 160 miles - ice storage,
where the butter is unloaded, cooled and carried further.
Train schedules coincide with departures of ships from Riga, Revel,
formerly Tallinn, St. Petersburg.
Departure of ships and sea voyages
coincide with trading days at the exchanges in London and Hamburg.
That is the route covered from this stream to London City.
Vereshchagin heads the Commission of Butter Makers
for settings export quotas for shipping lines.
A remarkable achievement - export of Russian butter brings greater revenues
than export of gold.