Child Motor Skills


Uploaded by GRCCtv on 02.03.2012

Transcript:
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>> EARLY CHILDHOOD IS A CRITICAL TIME FOR CHILDREN TO DEVELOP MOTOR SKILLS.
RECENT ADVANCES IN BRAIN RESEARCH CLEARLY ILLUSTRATE
THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE YEARS,
AS WE ARE ABLE TO SEE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN MOVEMENT
AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.
THE EARLY YEARS ARE A CRITICAL PERIOD AS NEURAL PATHWAYS DEVELOP
THROUGH THE PROCESS OF MYELINIZATION.
MYELIN, A FATTY, INSULATING SUBSTANCE, COVERS AXONS
AND SPEEDS THE TRANSMISSION OF NEURAL PATHWAYS.
WITHOUT OPPORTUNITIES DURING INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
TO INTERACT IN A RICH SENSORY ENVIRONMENT,
SENSORY PATHWAYS IN THE BRAIN MAY NOT DEVELOP PROPERLY
AND THE CAPACITY TO USE MOTOR SKILLS MAY REMAIN UNDEVELOPED.
IT IS THROUGH MOVING, PLAYING, AND INTERACTING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
THAT GROWTH OF DENDRITES AND SYNAPSES IS MAXIMIZED.
THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF THIS PROGRAM,
WE WILL BE DEMONSTRATING THE STAGES OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
AND DESCRIBING HOW EDUCATORS AND PARENTS
CAN ENHANCE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AT EACH STAGE.
REFLEXES.
AT BIRTH, CHILDREN HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF REFLEXIVE BEHAVIORS.
REFLEXES ARE AUTOMATIC... (baby sneezing)
BUILT-IN RESPONSES TO STIMULI.
DOCTORS AND NURSES ASSESS A NEWBORN BY TESTING SOME OF THESE REFLEXES.
OFTEN, REFLEXES ARE CATEGORIZED IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS--
BEHAVIORS TO HELP THE INFANT RESPOND TO THE ENVIRONMENT.
FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU STROKE A NEWBORN'S CHEEK,
THE INFANT WILL TURN TO THE SIDE, ENABLING THE INFANT TO FIND A NIPPLE.
SUCKING AND SWALLOWING REFLEXES ENABLE AN INFANT TO TAKE IN NUTRIENTS.
BEHAVIORS THAT CONTAIN ELEMENTS OF LATER VOLUNTARY BEHAVIORS.
THESE INCLUDE THE STEPPING, STANDING, CRAWLING, AND SWIMMERS REFLEXES.
IF AN OBJECT IS PLACED IN THE PALM OF AN INFANT'S HAND,
THE GRASPING REFLEX WILL BE TRIGGERED.
PRIMITIVE DEFENSIVE REACTIONS.
A REFLEX THAT IS TYPICALLY MEASURED IN NEWBORN AND WELL-BABY CHECK-UPS
IS THE MORO REFLEX.
THIS STARTLE REACTION IS A RESPONSE TO A SUDDEN, INTENSE NOISE OR MOVEMENT.
WHEN STARTLED, THE NEWBORN ARCHES HER BACK,
THROWS BACK HER HEAD, AND FLINGS OUT HER ARMS AND LEGS.
THEN, SHE RAPIDLY CLOSES HER ARMS AND LEGS TO THE CENTER OF HER BODY.
EACH REFLEX HAS ITS OWN DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE,
STARTING AT DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES.
SOME REFLEXES PERSISIT THROUGHOUT LIFE,
SUCH AS COUGHING, YAWNING, AND BLINKING REFLEXES.
OTHER REFLEXES DISAPPEAR, TYPICALLY BETWEEN THREE AND SIX MONTHS.
IT IS BELIEVED THAT AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN PROGRESSES,
VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS TAKE OVER AND THE REFLEXES ARE SUPPRESSED.
DOCTORS CONTINUE TO ASSESS THESE REFLEXES DURING ROUTINE WELL BABY CHECK-UPS
TO MAKE SURE THAT PARTICULAR REFLEXES DISAPPEAR AS SCHEDULED.
THIS TELLS US THAT THE INFANT'S NERVOUS SYSTEM
IS DEVELOPING NORMALLY.
PRE-LOCOMOTOR.
THERE ARE TWO PRINCIPLES THAT GUIDE BOTH PHYSICAL GROWTH
AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR SKILLS.
THE FIRST ONE IS CALLED "CEPHALOCAUDAL."
LITERALLY, THIS MEANS "FROM HEAD TO TAIL."
THE PRINCIPLE IS VERY CLEARLY ILLUSTRATED
WHEN YOU WATCH INFANTS MOVE THROUGH THE PRE-LOCOMOTOR STAGE
AND STUDY THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTURE.
FOR EXAMPLE, AT SIX WEEKS,
THIS CHILD IS JUST BARELY ABLE TO LIFT HER HEAD.
AT FIVE MONTHS, THIS CHILD IS ABLE TO EASILY LIFT HIS HEAD
AND IS BEGINNING TO LIFT HIS CHEST AS WELL.
AT EIGHT MONTHS,
THIS CHILD LIFTS HER HEAD, CHEST, AND STOMACH OFF THE GROUND.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN LAY ON THE FLOOR NEXT TO THE BABY
AND ENCOURAGE HER TO LIFT HER HEAD BY TALKING TO HER
AND GIVING HER INTERESTING THINGS TO LOOK AT.
DURING THE PRE-LOCOMOTOR STAGE,
INFANTS ARE ALSO LEARNING TO MOVE.
THIS ILLUSTRATES THE SECOND PRINCIPLE-- PROXIMODISTAL DEVELOPMENT.
AT FIVE MONTHS, THIS CHILD IS ATTEMPTING TO ROLL OVER.
THE INFANT WILL STRUGGLE WITH THE POSITIONING OF ARMS AND LEGS
AND IS BASICALLY MOVING FROM THE TRUNK OF THE BODY.
AT EIGHT MONTHS, THIS CHILD IS ABLE TO ROLL OVER EASILY,
USING ARMS AND LEGS TO HELP WITH THE MANEUVER.
THIS CHILD IS BEGINNING TO MOVE USING AN ARMY CRAWL,
PULLING WITH THE ARMS AND DRAGGING THE BODY FORWARD.
AT NINE MONTHS, THIS CHILD IS BEGINNING TO CREEP.
THIS INVOLVES MOVING ALTERNATING HANDS AND KNEES.
SOMETIMES INFANTS DEVELOP OTHER WAYS TO MOVE
SUCH AS ROLLING FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER...
OR SCOOTING...
OR CRAB-WALKING ON THEIR BOTTOMS.
THIS CAN BE ESPECIALLY TRUE OF INFANTS WHO DISLIKE BEING ON THEIR STOMACHS.
CAREGIVERS CAN ADDRESS THIS BY ENCOURAGING INFANTS
TO SPEND FLOOR-TIME ON THEIR STOMACHS
BY USING TOYS OR INTERACTIONS TO BUILD COMFORT IN THAT POSITION.
LOCOMOTOR STAGE.
DURING THE LOCOMOTOR STAGE,
TODDLERS PRACTICE AND BECOME PROFICIENT IN THEIR WALKING.
EARLY WALKERS KEEP THEIR FEET WIDE APART
AND OFTEN HOLD THEIR ARMS OUT FOR BALANCE.
BECAUSE OF CEPHALOCAUDAL DEVELOPMENT,
THEIR CENTER OF GRAVITY IS HIGHER UP ON THEIR BODIES,
MAKING THEM TOP HEAVY, AND THEY FALL EASILY.
FOR EXAMPLE, AT 14 MONTHS,
THIS CHILD IS BEGINNING TO TAKE A FEW HESITANT STEPS.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN PUT THEIR ARMS OUT
TO ENCOURAGE THE CHILD TO TAKE STEPS INDEPENDENTLY.
THEY CAN ALSO HOLD ONTO THE CHILD AND TAKE HER FOR SHORT WALKS.
AT NINE MONTHS, THIS CHILD IS ABLE TO WALK SIX TO EIGHT STEPS
BEFORE LOSING ITS BALANCE.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN PROVIDE STABLE TOYS
FOR YOUNG WALKERS TO USE AS SUPPORT.
AT ONE YEAR, MOVEMENTS ARE MUCH SMOOTHER.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN PROVIDE CLEAR, LEVEL SURFACES TO WALK ACROSS.
AT 14 MONTHS, THIS CHILD WALKS PROFICIENTLY
AND IS ABLE TO WALK AROUND OBSTACLES AND MAINTAIN BALANCE.
IN JUST A COUPLE OF SHORT MONTHS,
WALKING SKILLS HAVE IMPROVED DRAMATICALLY.
TODDLERS CAN NOW WALK QUICKLY OR RUN STIFFLY FOR A SHORT DISTANCE,
BALANCE ON THEIR FEET IN A SQUAT POSITION
WHILE PLAYING WITH OBJECTS ON THE FLOOR,
WALK BACKWARDS WITHOUT LOSING BALANCE,
AND STAND AND KICK A BALL WITHOUT FALLING.
IN A SITTING POSITION, WE SEE THAT, AT FIVE MONTHS,
THE CHILD IS LEANING FORWARD AND NEEDS SUPPORT,
AS TRUNK MUSCLES ARE STILL DEVELOPING.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN SIT BEHIND THE CHILD,
PROVIDING SUPPORT AND TOY BARS WITH DANGLING OBJECTS
THAT ENCOURAGE THE CHILD TO REACH AND SIT UPRIGHT.
AT NINE MONTHS, THE CHILD IS PULLING ITSELF
INTO A STANDING POSITION.
PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS CAN PROVIDE A VARIETY OF STURDY EQUIPMENT
TO USE FOR SUPPORT.
AT TEN MONTHS, THE CHILD IS ADEPT AT PULLING UP
AND BEGINNING TO LET GO
AND STAND WITHOUT SUPPORT FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME.
THE INFANT CAN BE PROTECTED FROM INJURY WHEN IT FALLS
BY COVERING CORNERS WITH GUARDS,
AND CHOOSING CARPETED SURFACES TO WALK ON.
FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS.
PRE-SCHOOL AND EARLY ELEMENTARY CHILDREN
ARE INVOLVED IN DEVELOPING FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS,
SUCH AS RUNNING, JUMPING, HOPPING, PEDALING,
CLIMBING, CATCHING, AND THROWING.
CHILDREN PROGRESS THROUGH STAGES AS THEY DEVELOP EACH OF THESE SKILLS.
FOR EXAMPLE, AT TWO TO THREE YEARS, THE CHILD RUNS STIFFLY,
HAS DIFFICULTY TURNING CORNERS, AND STOPPING QUICKLY.
AT THREE TO FOUR YEARS, THE CHILD RUNS MORE SMOOTHLY,
HAS MORE CONTROL OVER STARTING AND STOPPING.
AT FOUR TO FIVE YEARS, DISPLAYS STRONG, SPEEDY RUNNING,
TURNS CORNERS, STOPS AND STARTS EASILY.
AT FIVE TO SIX YEARS, THE CHILD SHOWS MATURE RUNNING,
SELDOM FALLS, DISPLAYS INCREASED SPEED AND CONTROL.
AT TWO TO THREE YEARS, THE CHILD JUMPS OFF BOTTOM STEP WITH BOTH FEET.
AT THREE TO FOUR YEARS, THE CHILD SPRINGS OFF FLOOR WITH BOTH FEET
AND IS BEGINNING TO JUMP OVER OBJECTS, LEADING WITH ONE FOOT.
AT FOUR TO FIVE YEARS, THE CHILD JUMPS UP, DOWN, AND FORWARD.
AT FIVE TO SIX YEARS, THE CHILD JUMPS LONG, HIGH, AND FAR.
THEY ALSO JUMP ROPE.
AT TWO TO THREE YEARS, THE CHILD TRIES CLIMBING TO THE TOP OF EQUIPMENT.
THEY OFTEN HAVE TROUBLE GOING OVER AND CLIMBING DOWN.
AT THREE TO FOUR YEARS, THE CHILD CLIMBS UP AND DOWN LADDERS,
JUNGLE GYMS, SLIDES, AND TREES.
AT FOUR TO FIVE YEARS, THE CLIMB CLIMBS UP AND DOWN LADDERS,
JUNGLE GYMS, SLIDES, AND TREES
WITH INCREASED PROFICIENCY, GREATER SPEED, AND AGILITY.
AT FIVE TO SIX YEARS, THE CLIMB DISPLAYS MATURE CLIMBING, IN AN ADULT MANNER.
AT TWO TO THREE YEARS, THE CHILD THROWS THE BALL BY FACING THE TARGET
AND USING BOTH FOREARMS TO PUSH,
USES LITTLE OR NO FOOTWORK OR BODY ROTATION.
AT THREE TO FOUR YEARS, THE CHILD THROWS OVERHAND WITH ONE ARM,
USES BODY ROTATION, DOES NOT LOSE BALANCE.
AT FOUR TO FIVE YEARS,
THE CHILD USES MORE MATURE OVERHAND MOTIONS AND CONTROL,
BUT THROWS FROM THE ELBOW.
AT FIVE TO SIX YEARS,
THE CHILD STEPS FORWARD ON THE THROWING ARM SIDE
AS THE THROW IS MADE.
AT TWO TO THREE YEARS, THE CHILD USES HANDS AND ARMS AS A SINGLE UNIT
IN AN ATTEMPT TO TRAP THE BALL AGAINST THE BODY.
AT THREE TO FOUR YEARS, THE CHILD BENDS THEIR ARMS AT THE ELBOWS
TO TRAP THE BALL AGAINST THE BODY.
AT FOUR TO FIVE YEARS, THE CHILD USES THEIR HANDS TO CATCH THE BALL.
AT FIVE TO SIX YEARS, THE CHILD PLACES THEIR FEET WIDE APART,
IN ANTICIPATION OF NEEDING TO MOVE TO CATCH THE BALL.
THE CHILD WILL ALSO CLOSE ITS HANDS AROUND THE BALL.
MOTOR AND SKILL-RELATED FITNESS.
BASIC TO ALL CHILDREN'S SKILL DEVELOPMENT
ARE THE COMPONENTS OF MOTOR AND SKILL-RELATED FITNESS.
EACH OF THESE COMPONENTS IS DEVELOPED DURING THE FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT STAGE
AND ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS TO SKILLFUL PARTICIPATION
IN A VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES.
THESE COMPONENTS ALSO SERVE AS THE FOUNDATION
FOR MASTERING ACTIVITIES THAT OLDER CHILDREN AND ADULTS ENGAGE IN.
MOTOR FITNESS COMPONENTS INCLUDE...
AGILITY-- THIS IS THE ABILITY TO CHANGE THE MOVEMENT DIRECTION
OF THE ENTIRE BODY IN SPACE, BOTH RAPIDLY AND ACCURATELY.
THIS IS ESSENTIAL IN SIMPLE GAMES, SUCH AS TAG,
AND IN SPORTS, SUCH AS SOCCER OR TENNIS.
BALANCE-- THIS INVOLVES MAINTAINING EQUILIBRIUM,
BOTH WHILE STANDING STILL OR MOVING.
THIS IS IMPORTANT FOR STANDING ON ONE FOOT,
HOPPING, JUMPING, AND RUNNING.
IT IS AN ESSENTIAL SKILL IN SPORTS, SUCH AS GYMNASTICS AND DANCE.
COORDINATION-- THIS IS THE ABILITY
TO PERFORM MOTOR SKILLS SMOOTHLY AND ACCURATELY.
COORDINATION IS DEMONSTRATED
WHEN A CHILD USES MORE THAN ONE PART OF THE BODY AT A TIME,
SUCH AS WHEN THROWING OR CATCHING A BALL.
THIS IS A SKILL USED IN MANY SPORTS LATER ON.
POWER-- THIS IS THE ABILITY
TO TRANSFER ENERGY INTO FORCE AT A FAST RATE.
THIS ALLOWS CHILDREN TO KICK AND STRIKE OBJECTS FASTER,
FARTHER, AND WITH GREATER ACCURACY.
POWER IS APPARENT, AS YOU OBSERVE SKILLS IN SPORTS
SUCH AS BASEBALL, GOLF, AND VOLLEYBALL.
REACTION TIME-- THIS IS THE TIME ELAPSED
BETWEEN STIMULATION AND THE BEGINNING OF A REACTION TO THAT STIMULATION.
WITH PRACTICE, CHILDREN LEARN TO ANTICIPATE WHERE THE BALL WILL LAND
AND REACT QUICKLY.
SPEED-- THIS IS THE ABILITY TO PERFORM A MOVEMENT IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.
CHILDREN ARE FASCINATED WITH SPEED
AND OFTEN EXPERIMENT TO SEE HOW FAST THEY CAN MOVE.
SPEED IS A FACTOR IN SPORTS, SUCH AS TRACK AND SWIMMING.
SPECIFIC SKILLS STAGE.
BY AGE SEVEN, MOST CHILDREN HAVE MASTERED THE FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT BEHAVIORS.
NEXT, THEY MOVE INTO SPECIFIC SKILLS STAGE,
WHERE ALL OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT BEHAVIORS ARE COMBINED
AND USED IN SPORTS, SUCH AS BASKETBALL, SOFTBALL, SOCCER, AND SWIMMING.
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THESE STAGES ARE APPARENT
WHEN YOU COMPARE YOUNGER AND OLDER CHILDREN
ENGAGING IN THE SAME TASKS.
THESE BEGINNING SWIMMERS ARE WORKING ON EACH INDIVIDUAL PART OF LEARNING TO SWIM.
THEY PRACTICE KICKING, ARM STROKES, AND BREATHING SEPARATELY,
AND HAVE TROUBLE PUTTING EACH OF THESE COMPONENTS TOGETHER.
A TEENAGER IS ABLE TO SMOOTHLY COORDINATE EACH PART OF THE STROKE
AND MASTER THE SKILL COMPONENTS, SUCH AS SPEED AND COORDINATION.
OBVIOUSLY, WITH SWIMMING, AS WITH OTHER ACTIVITIES,
CHILDREN NEED OPPORTUNITIES TO PRACTICE THESE SKILLS.
MASTERING FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS DURING EARLY CHILDHOOD IS CRITICAL,
BOTH FOR MOVING INTO THE SPECIFIC SKILLS STAGE
AND FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SKILLS IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE.
OBSERVING AT AN UPPER ELEMENTARY PLAYGROUND,
IT BECOME APPARENT THAT MUCH OF THE CHILDREN'S SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
TAKE PLACE AS THEY ENGAGE IN THE SPORT OF THE SEASON...
KICKBALL, FOOTBALL, SOCCER, BASEBALL.
CHILDREN WHO HAVE NOT MASTERED THE FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS
AND MOVED INTO SPECIFIC SKILLS ARE OFTEN RELUCTANT TO PARTICIPATE,
AND MAY FEEL INFERIOR TO MORE SKILLED CLASSMATES.
THIS MAY EVENTUALLY DISCOURAGE THEM FROM PARTICIPATING IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
THAT ARE ESSENTIAL FOR LIFELONG HEALTH AND WELL-BEING.
THE FOLLOWING ARE BARRIERS, BOTH AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL,
THAT MAY IMPEDE CHILDREN'S MOTOR DEVELOPMENT...
CHILDREN, PRE-SCHOOLERS AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-AGE,
ARE SPENDING INCREASING AMOUNTS OF TIME ENGAGING IN SEDENTARY SCREEN ACTIVITIES,
LIKE TELEVISION, VIDEO GAMES, AND COMPUTERS.
MORE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN ARE LEFT HOME ALONE AFTER SCHOOL
AND INSTRUCTED TO STAY INSIDE FOR SAFETY REASONS.
PRE-SCHOOLS OFTEN HAVE LIMITED SPACE INDOORS AND OUTDOORS
FOR CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN LARGE MOTOR ACTIVITIES.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE SHORTENING RECESSES
AND ELIMINATING TIME SPENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES,
IN RESPONSE TO DEMANDS THAT CHILDREN SPEND MORE TIME
FOCUSING ON ACADEMIC SKILLS.
AND OF COURSE, THERE IS OBESITY.
RECENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT APPROXIMATELY 10 PERCENT OF CHILDREN
IN THE UNITED STATES
ARE AT LEAST 20 POUNDS ABOVE THE AVERAGE WEIGHT FOR THEIR AGE.
THIS MAY IMPEDE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT.
PHYSICAL, AS WELL AS PSYCHOLOGICAL, PROBLEMS MAY ENSUE.
PARENTS AND TEACHERS NEED TO DO THEIR BEST
TO ADDRESS EACH OF THESE ISSUES BY...
LIMITING CHILDREN'S SCREEN TIME,
PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES,
MAKING SURE CHILDREN EAT NUTRITIOUSLY AT HOME,
AND DEVELOPING CURRICULUM IN PRE-SCHOOLS AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
THAT DEVOTES TIME AND RESOURCES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR SKILLS.
THIS TYPE OF PROGRAMMING RECOGNIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTOR SKILLS
IN INFLUENCING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT,
AS WELL AS SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, AND COGNITIVE SKILLS.
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