"Крылатая память Победы" ч.6


Uploaded by DEDATV on 08.10.2012

Transcript:
Every year, old ëwarbirdsí participate in various festivals and air shows throughout
the world. The main theme of these colorful and popular events is the feeling of patriotism
in the most sublime sense of the word. Aircraft collectors, throughout the world, are interested
in examples of their countriesí military equipment, thereby preserving the history
of their country, their culture, and the prestige of their countries. If we do not show the
world the excellence of our weaponry, and in particular our military aircraft, it will
gradually lead to the sad result Ö ignorance of Russia's contribution to victory in World
War II. The duration of each aircraft restoration
depends on many factors and it usually takes from two to five years. The average proportion
of original parts in aircraft, reconstructed at Novosibirsk, is between 5 and 15%. The
rest of the aircraft having to made from scratch, based on the exact original design and, wherever
possible, using the original materials - if wood was used, the new part must, in terms
of the ìrulesî of restoration, be made of wood. Incidentally, in the case of the restoration
of the IL-2, original parts comprised 40% of the final, restored, aircraft.
Obviously, the repair of aircraft engines, found at crash sites, is much more complicated
than the restoration of airframes. This is because it requires the use of special processes,
not readily available to many restoration companies. The simplest solution can be illustrated
with the restored Polikarpov fighters. These are powered with the latest nine-cylinder,
air-cooled, M-62 engines - designed by Arkady Dmitrievich Shvetsov.
A significant number of the ASh-62IR engines are also available nowadays ñ these are still
used in the Antonov AN-2 aircraft. Therefore, the I-16ís, the I-15bisí and the I-153ís
that are flying today are powered by 1000 horsepower engines which were produced in
more recent times. The issue of propellers has been solved in
a similar manner - restorers take the four-bladed propellers of the Antonov An-2, remove two
of its "extra" blades, modify the hub - and the engine-propeller combination for the I-16
and the I-153 is ready! However, itís much more complicated with
the liquid-cooled V-shaped engines that powered the "Yak" and the "LaGG" (VK-105, VK-107),
the MiG-3 and the IL-2 (AM-35A, AM-38 designed by Alexander Alexandrovich Mikulin). The production
of these engines, in Russia, ceased some 60 years ago, and itís now almost impossible
to find working models or parts for such engines. Therefore, restored versions of these aircraft
must be powered with engines of similar design and performance to the original Ö like the
U.S. "Allisonî V-1710 engine, generating 1250 ñ 1325 horsepower.
Itís worth noting that the production of the "Allison" engine also ceased more than
60 years ago, but warehouses in the U.S. still have sufficient stocks of these engines, in
working condition, to satisfy the needs of aircraft restorers.
It is also worth noting that the "Allison" engine was, at one time, the most widely produced
aircraft engine in the US, and it powered virtually all American World War II fighters
requiring liquid-cooled engines. In the period 1931 to 1948 more than 70 000 of these engines
were installed in such famous fighters as the P-38 ìLightning", the P-39 "Airacobra",
the P-40 ìThunderboltî, the P-51 "Mustang" and many others.
The legal aspects of flight testing and certification of restored aircraft are extremely strict.
Restored military aircraft require a SibNIA (Siberian Aeronautical Institute) certificate
of airworthiness, similar to that required for civil aircraft. For this, they need to
pass a technical inspection at a special center in order to get authority to fly ñ this involves
a comprehensive assessment of the aircraftís airworthiness.
Resources are assigned at the technical center on the basis of theoretical and experimental
evaluations. These restored combat aircraft of the 1930ís -1940ís are authorized for
700 hours, or 12 years, of service, whilst during the Great Patriotic War, they rarely
"survived" for more than 30-50 hours. The world has about 1,000 aviation museums.
In the U.S. there ñ 600; in the UK ñ 300; in China - 4. Even in Germany they restore
World War II aircraft, of course, always removing the swastika! There are also a lot of aircraft
restorations done in the Czech Republic, Poland and in other countries. National collections,
such as those in the UK, are under the patronage of the Queen; in the U.S.; under the presidential
administration; in France, under the Government. And this policy works. In the UK, air shows
attract hundreds of thousands of people. The US has similar attendances at its air shows.
In short, the West has no problem with the ìpatriotic educationî of its people and
they have the visual aids to help to explain their involvement in winning the war. Young
people, in these countries, have the opportunity to see their war veterans. In the sky, they
see front-line aircraft and on the ground, they see tanks and other military hardware.
There are also thousands and thousands of different types of souvenirs that are available
- glorifying their national army, air force, and navy. In these countries, whether you
like it or not, you become a patriot. We tend to accuse the Westerners of ignoring our contribution
to the victory, over Germany, in World War II.
As former allies of the anti-Hitler coalition, they do not agree with these allegations that
we level against them. In response they say: we will gladly show off your front-line aircraft
at our air shows Ö just please send them to us. But we have little to offer and, consequently,
to show. This is a reality. This is the situation in the area of patriotic work being done today
ñ it is not in keeping with international practice.
Itís well known throughout the world that in our country, all decommissioned aircraft
have been deliberately and systematically disposed of Ö and this process continues.
Until now, no one has ever tried to understand the motive behind the ruthless and thoughtless
instructions to dispose of these aircraft, and to determine the extent of our material
and spiritual losses by doing this. Destruction involved not only aircraft, but also the technical
drawings and documentation Ö and the names of designers, engineers and pilots also disappeared
into oblivion. Surprisingly, in the role of the "enlightened" vandals were, and are, the
Soviet, and now the Russian, officials and military personnel. I would like to know who
they are so that their names can be recorded on a board of shame.
The word ìHomelandî meant nothing to them. It is their fault that our countryís archives
have preserved only fragmented and unsystematic information, insufficient to restore aircraft
to flying condition. Therefore, the only way to restore our famous aircraft is to study
documentation of their construction, repair designs, and technology. We also need to engage
in an active search and retrieval of aircraft wreckages from the swamps, lakes and forests
of Russia. It is our sacred duty to do so! As part of this, we will have to bury, with
honor, the bodies of our missing pilots, and whenever possible, notify their relatives.
It is our Christian duty - a duty to our fallen heroes.
A ìcollection of historic aircraftî can be from one to several dozen aircraft. Of
course, not all of these aircraft can fly. Some are particularly rare and, due to their
dilapidated state, flying these is dangerous ñ these ones would therefore be kept as museum
exhibits. It should be noted that in contrast to the restoration of old cars, motorcycles
and even tanks, aircraft restorers face much more complex technical problems ñ this is
because even a small fault in the engine, or the control system, of an aircraft can
result in a serious and perhaps fatal accident. Therefore aircraft restoration must be done
by people with a good theoretical, and practical, knowledge of aircraft.
On 12 August 2012, Russia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the creation of its Air Force.
This anniversary was celebrated with a world-class air show - unprecedented in size and scale.
The main part of the anniversary celebrations was held in Zhukovsky, near Moscow. Guests
were shown a rich display of military air technology, and the air show was comparable
with the best air shows in the world. It was a unique show that had major historical
and technical content. Never before, in Russia, have so many rare aircraft been demonstrated
in one place, starting with the first aircraft - "what-notís" at the beginning of the last
century, to the fighting aircraft of the World War II. The show guests witnessed simulated
dogfights involving the "Fokker" triplane and the "Temmelisa" biplane. The great-grandfather
of modern aircraft, the "Bleriot", from Sweden, was a highlight of the show.
Soviet aircraft, such as the MiG-3, Po-2, I-16, "I15-bis", were present. Also present
were some unique allied aircraft. Having these rare aircraft appear in the skies
over Zhukovsky was the result of a lot of hard work by the Chairman of the Fund, "Memory
Winged Victory", BL Ossetia. Thanks to his perseverance and belief in the success of
this inaugural event, we were able to see these great aircraft. No one will ever know
what it cost to organize this show - months and months of negotiations, and masses of
phone calls to all the corners of the world. Disappointment gave way to a glimmer of hope
for success. On his shoulders lay the responsibility not to let unfortunate misunderstandings,
which occurred at different stages of the preparation, scare him ñ in fact, these ensured
the showís success. The air show was held in Zhukovsky, outside Moscow from 10 to 12
August. It was dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Russian Air Force, and was visited
by more than 200,000 people. The owners of most restored aircraft are foreign
nationals. This is largely due to the fact that in countries such as the U.S., UK, France
or Germany, the restoration and participation in demonstration flights of these old planes
(and other hardware) is a long and respected tradition.
The main part of the summer of the festival program introduced more modern, local, aircraft.
In short, the festival was a success. At the same time, we must recognize that it was mainly
aircraft, developed and adopted several decades ago, that were seen at Zhukovsky. The aircraft
seen at Zhukovsky were mostly older models, with minor changes, and with new designations.
Major innovation has not been seen in the Russian aviation industry. The only relatively
new model is the Sukhoi T-50, which embodies a number of innovative ideas that have been
implemented in this fifth-generation aircraft. First of all, it incorporates ëstealth technologyí
and is virtually invisible on radar - achieved by it having a special shape of fuselage,
covered with a special coating. The main weakness of the T-50 project was the development of
its fifth-generation engine: operational models of the T-50 have used engines that were created
for the Sukhoi Su-35 fighter. However, work on the T-50 continues with the belief that,
over time, this aircraft will be powered by a full-fledged fifth-generation engine.
Speaking at the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air Force, President Vladimir Vladimirovich
Putin, said that, by 2020, more than 600 new aircraft, and a thousand of new helicopters,
will be brought into service. It is expected that included in this will be 60 Sukhoi T-50ís.
If all goes well, in time the T-50 will be in a position to compete with the world's
only other fifth-generation fighter, the U.S.ís F-22 Raptor.
Studies of the history of the Air Force in different periods of the twentieth century
unwittingly makes an analogy of this present "reform" with that of the 1940ís. Our perception
of that time is very much distorted by the large amount of classified information that
existed Ö clogged by a strong emotional layering from memoirs and the intentional distortion
of obvious facts in related literature (to conceal the true causes and the perpetrators).
Despite this, it is possible to draw some conclusions from the material that is currently
available and evaluate how to assess the sad experience of the past.
The collapse of the Soviet Union, with its the accompanying political and economic crises,
and the painful reforms of the 1990ís, led to a sharp reduction in military spending
and in a near-state of collapse of the Soviet Unionís armed forces ñ this was exposed
by the divisions that existed between the former Soviet republics.
The Air Force, as the most sophisticated military arm and the most sensitive to the economic
situation, experienced very big and difficult challenges. In addition to experiencing permanent
cuts in military spending, the Russian Air Force had not, since 1993, been allocated
any new aircraft, nor was it doing enough to repair and upgrade the aircraft that it
had. The Air Force actually stayed at its 1991 level, and also fell sharply in numerical
strength and its level of readiness. There has never been such a situation in the
history of military aviation that the views of the Government and the military leadership
coincided so much regarding the needs of the country in the quantitative and qualitative
state of its military aviation. The incorrect assessment of local aviation
needs, and the direction of its development, may lead to catastrophic consequences for
air combat in the future. However, neither before nor after World War II did the Soviet
government manage to have a balanced view on military aviation.
Unfortunately, the current approach to military aviation is even more damning and irresponsible
than it was before. During the Soviet era, such a situation was
a consequence of authoritarian governance and voluntarism of its leaders who, in their
own way, werenít particularly competent in the field of aviation.
The post-Soviet era was initially characterized by a disastrously low level of competence
amongst its leaders, and this resulted in an even more rapid decline, combined with
a lack of responsibility on the stateís part for an all-embracing national defense capability.
In both cases it was the people who paid for the mistakes made by this military-technical
policy. The people paid with unaccountable human losses during the World War II and the
low living standards experienced after it. The most astonishing thing is that the Russian
Government still isnít acknowledging its mistakes. It seems that itís better to undermine
the country's defense capacity, than to admit to incompetence.
The acuteness and seriousness of this statement is reflected by the state of modern military
aviation and by an analysis of the actions taken by the government for the so-called
ìreformationî of the Air Force. But in spite of everything, brave people,
patriots and real professionals have been protecting the Russian skies. The Air Force
has always been the elite arm of the military forces and the pride of the Russian army.
Thereís another important fact. Only in the last decade have Western aircraft collectors
started to show some interest in Soviet aircraft. Newspapers, magazines, and especially internet
websites, began to spring up ìlike mushrooms after the summer rainsî and can truthfully
be called "the heart-rending criesî of patriotic citizens Ö realizing that these swindlers
are selling our glorious past before our very eyes. That's it Ö no more - no less, they
sell ìmemories"! Itís been left unsaid, that before Western
collectors showed any interest in these rusty aircraft wrecks, rotting in Russian fens (sometimes
with the bones of the pilots still in these), none of these ìpatriotsî had raised a finger
to preserve these ìmemoriesî. They actually didnít want to know about it.
And now, thanks to the Western collectors, they have learnt about it. When they realized
that others were paying a lot of money for restoration projects, they started to experience
feelings for the nation. That is as it is, a pseudo-patriotic hysteria.
The reality is that before this explosion of interest in the 1990ís, no one cared much
for this activity. At the Monino Museum, rare aircraft were left rotting in the street ñ
in terrible conditions. For years, plunderers have been getting into the museum and removing
anything that took their fancy. There are many examples of this in history
Ö where ìitís better to cut off oneís nose to spite oneís face!î Let everything
rot in the ground Ö itís patriotic! Someone can buy an aircraft wreck, restore
it, and thereby give something that was ìdead metalî, a ìsecond lifeî. And then it will
not only demonstrate itself at international air shows, but will also rise up into the
sky, impressing the audience and reminding them about the deeds of the Russian people
ñ is that not patriotic? Is there a "patriot" who would dare ask the
question ìwhy is this so?î I'm sure that you will not find such a person. After all,
for them to give a candid reason as to their inaction, pseudo patriots would need to acknowledge that getting the aircraft wrecks,
restoring them and getting these airworthy, not only takes a lot of time, physical strength
and perseverance, but also a lot of money Öwhich they havenít got! Money must be sought
from people who will be interested in, and attracted to, this activity. Such people must
be able to organize the very difficult restoration process in order to make the project a reality
- they must, after all, also be able to accept risks!
And here we have to ìseparate the sheep from the goatsî. We need to separate the genuine individual willing
and able to get involved in restoration from the ìbig-talkerî on the internetís aviation
forums! During the shooting of this film, we always
remembered that our work would
be another modest contribution to the cause of preserving the "Memory of Winged Victory."
Many thanks to
the translators movie:
Anastasia Levanova Robin Mun-Gavin