Expanded Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self Actualization, Humanistic Psychology


Uploaded by psychetruth on 22.06.2011

Transcript:
Expanded Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self-Actualization, Humanistic Psychology
>>CORRINA: We've made several videos about Maslow's
Hierarchy of Needs, Humanistic Psychology, and you may
be familiar with Maslow's hierarchy of needs or you may
not. You also might know that his hierarchy has been
extended, so in this video we are going to look at the
extended hierarchy of human needs. One thing that we
have tried to make clear in previous videos but may not
always come across is that Maslow's hierarchy of needs
is actually a motivational theory. It is his look at what
actually motivates people to do the things that they do,
to behave the way they behave, so throughout this video
I want you to keep that in mind. Basically, the theory goes
that we are all humans, we all have certain needs, and
when those needs are not being met it will actually
motivate us, or put us into action toward trying to
fulfill those needs. In other words, it's these human
needs that we all share that motivate us to do the things
that we do.
Maslow's original hierarchy of needs contained five
different levels. The extended has eight different
levels of needs. The first four we can call the basic
needs. Maslow also referred to these needs as the
deficiency needs because if you were ever in deficiency
of any of these needs it would certainly motivate
you into action. The four remaining needs could be called
the higher order needs. They could also be referred to
as the growth needs. Maslow referred to them as the
being needs, because they deal mostly with self-
actualization and actually being the most that you could
be.
Now we're going to go through each of the eight levels
of needs, starting with the basic needs at the bottom
and working all the way to the top to the higher order
needs. Throughout the video I'm going to site some
examples of ways that I, personally, or ways that I have
observed others, being motivated by a desire or need
to fulfill these various needs. I would ask that you
also kind of think to yourself, maybe even jot notes
or comments to yourself, of ways that you have seen
other people be motivated by the need to fulfill
the various needs we are going to talk about.
The first level of the very most basic needs are
our physiological needs. Those are our actual physical
needs of our physical body to survive, so that's
water, food, are you able to sleep?
Most of us are motivated by those needs. If we're
hungry we want to eat. If we're thirsty we'll look
for water. If we are swimming in a swimming pool and
we run out of air we're going to swim up to the top
as quick as we possibly can so that we can get to
that oxygen and survive. Another example would be
to think of a country that has maybe been stricken by
a horrible drought. There's no food and there's no
water. Suddenly, the primary thing motivating you
every single day is just a need to find food or find
water so that your physical body can survive.
Maslow estimated that about 85 percent of Americans
were satisfying those basic physiological needs.
I personally would kind of disagree, but we'll get
into that in another video, so stay tuned,
but that basically wraps up that first level,
the physiological needs.
The next level that I want to discuss is the
safety needs. That is the need to feel like we are not
in physcial danger, to have shelter, to have some sense
of security and safety. Some examples of the safety
needs would be me last week taking my car to the shop,
getting my tires rotated, the tire pressure checked,
just to ensure the safety of my vehicle. Another
example would be somebody staying in a job that they
really dislike. What would really motivate someone
to stay in a job that they really couldn't stand
being at every day, except for the safety and security
that comes from having that paycheck. This could also
correspond to someone maybe staying in a bad relationship
or even an abusive relationship. There's some sense of
security or safety that comes from the familiarity of
staying with that person. Thinking about satisfying
the safety needs, I think it's important to recognize
that when our safety needs are not being , or we have
some fear that we won't be able to meet our safety needs,
we won't be able to pay our rent, or something like that,
what usually happens is stress and anxiety. Most of the
time when I think about I'm stressed out, I have a lot
of anxiety, it often can lead back to fulfilling those
safety needs and having some sort of fear of my safety
or fear of my condition that causes me to feel anxiety,
causes me to feel some stress, all because I'm not meeting
my safety needs. Maslow, somewhat optimistically,
estimated that about 75 percent of Americans are
fulfilling their safety needs.
Let's go on to the next one. The third level of basic
needs in our basic needs are the love and belonging
needs or the social needs. This is the need to
communicate with others, to have intimate relations
with others. This is your friends, your family
and your intimate or sexual relationships. This in
general is just the need to have social interaction
with other people. When your love and belonging needs
are not being met, what happens?
We start feeling isolated. We start feeling alone.
We're lonely, depressed. We start introverting.
For me, when I start getting into a place where I don't
want to go anywhere or talk to anyone, I'm feeling
anxiety about going into a social situation,
I'll say, "You know what, Corrina? Just chalk it up
and get out there!" Because once I am in a social
situation and I'm talking to my friends or I'm
talking with my family, just that basic, satisfying
that very basic need of interacting with someone
or communicating with someone, it really does a lot
and I think it's a very important need and we need
to remember that this is one of our basic needs;
being social, being communicating. Maslow estimated
that 50 percent of people satisfied this need, and
that brings us to our next.
Have you ever known somebody who fishes for compliments?
Well, it's because they are trying to fulfill the last
of the basic needs, and those are the esteem needs.
Maslow made an important distinction on the esteem needs;
that one part is your reputation, or what other people
think of you, and the other part your self respect,
or what you think of yourself. A great example of
someone trying to fulfill esteem needs on the
reputation side might be somebody driving a really
really fancy car or maybe getting a breast augmentation
surgery or something like that; something that they are
really trying to affect the way that other people see them.
You also have instances where people either fish for
compliments or maybe even invalidate other people
to try and make them feel better about themselves.
Looking at the self respect side of this coin, there's
a really good saying out there that the people who
matter don't judge and the people that judge don't matter.
I think that's a really important thing to keep in mind here
because ultimately we have pretty limited control over
what other people think of us. We have a certain amount
of control over how we present ourselves, but the
only place we can really exert 100 percent control
is what we think of ourselves and what kind of
self-confidence we have; what is our internal environment
and the way that we're thinking about ourselves?
Maslow estimated that only about 40 percent
of people are satisfying their esteem needs, and that
will bring us to our higher order needs.
Before we move on, let's look one more time at the
basic needs. That's our physiological, safety,
love and belonging and esteem needs. Maslow
kind of considered these four basic needs as
coping behavior. When you're fulfilling these needs,
you're really at the most basic level of survival
and trying to cope with life.
Now we're moving into the higher order, or the
growth needs. This first one that we're going to
talk about actually comes from Maslow's extended
hierarchy of needs and it is the need to understand.
This could be cognitive needs, needs to know things,
and for me, this is something that I can definitely
relate with. All throughout college I was driven by
a desire to know things, to learn things, actually
part of the reason that I am now here at
Psyche Truth, is because I have a desire to have more
understandings, a desire to know things.
It's those cognitive needs that are mayne why
there is the Discovery Channel or the History
Channel, these different sources that are just
giving information out there, trying to satisfy
that human desire we have to know things.
Mikie, the guy on the other side of the camera
who actually started Psyche Truth, has a huge,
huge cognitive need. He spends most of him time
watching documentaries, reading books, doing
coursework that's not required for school or anything
like that, but he has a huge desire to have more
understandings and have more knowledge. If you're
watching this video it's because there is a part
of you that is trying to fulfill your need to
understand.
The next level also comes from the extended
hierarchy of needs and it is aesthetic needs;
need for beauty, order, symmetry. There are different
ways that that that has been described, just that as
humans we have a desire for beauty and I think that
can be seen in a couple different cases. For me,
I find that nature and being outdoors is the most
incredible beautiful and aesthetic experience,
and I know that I have a need to experience
that aesthetic beauty on a regular basis.
Another example might be Mikie, who is really into
photography and creating beautiful things
through that outlet. Another might be that I'm
really interested in making music. I'm a musician
so one of the ways I satisfy my aesthetic needs
is to create music and share that with people.
People who aren't musicians will also enjoy
beautiful music, all relating to the aesthetic
needs.
Our next level is the self-actualization needs.
That means being who you are, being the best
person that you can be, really living up
to your true potential.
One interesting thing about the self-actualization
needs is that one of the characteristics that
Maslow listed is morality. Why is morality
a part of self-actualization needs?
Maslow is pretty optimistic about most people and
generally thought that for the most part humans
are well meaning, so when people do bad things
he reconciled it, or explained it, as an attempt
to satisfy some of the other needs. Examples might
be that if you are really in a state of starvation,
you have no food, you might steal from someone else
in order to satisfy those physiological needs.
If your safety needs are threatened and you're living
in a state of fear and anxiety you may be violent
towards someone else in order to protect yourself
or feel that you're protecting yourself.
In some cases, in an attempt to satisfy love and
belonging needs may have an affair or cheat on the
person that they are with. It's kind of a
dysfunctional way of attempting to satisfy
these other needs. People who are really attempting
to satisfy their esteem needs may even be mean to
other people or try to invalidate other people
or even be physically abusive to someone else
so they can somehow feel better about themselves.
Some other aspects of the self-actualization needs
are creativity, spontaneity, acceptance and
fulfilling your personal potential, or being as
good as you can be at whatever you are interested in.
A big part of that is finding your purpose; finding that
thing that really drives you and motivates you.
For me that's playing music. When do I feel the most
like myself? The most euphoric? It's when I'm
performing or sharing my music with people.
For Mikie it's photography; it's producing these videos;
it's helping facilitate understanding for other people;
something that really drives him and really helps him
feel like he is meeting his full potential.
Maslow estimated that about ten percent of Americans
were meeting some of their self-actualization needs
and only two percent were meeting all of their self-
actualization needs. Among college students, he
estimated that 0.1 percent of students were
meeting their self-actualization needs.
This brings us to our final level of needs.
That is the transcendence needs.
This level is literally looking beyond yourself,
beyond your selfish needs, beyond any of the needs
we've talked about before and actually is a need
to help others reach their full potential or
to help others in general. This would be compassion,
sympathy, empathy, those true virtues that are taught
by so many of the different philosophies and that really
came back down to you care more about everyone else
around you than you do about yourself. You're willing
to take time out of your day our effort out of
your life to really try and help other people.
Maslow theorized in his hierarchy that those
feelings or could only be met once you were
truly satisfying all of your other needs.
Eastern philosophies are all trying to attain
a state of enlightenment. For all intents
and purposes, meeting those transcendence needs
is really kind of the equal of that state
of enlightenment, which is truly being in touch
with the sense that there is a universal
consciousness, a universal connection between
each and everyone of us and the Earth that we're
living on, that there really is a universal
brotherhood, and that by doing things to help
our fellow humans out, we're actually doing
a whole lot to help ourselves as well.
Looking back on our hierarchy of needs I want to
point out a couple of things. One is that
when you are satisfying these basic needs
or the coping needs, usually this is more of
a situation with instant gratification,
but not necessarily long lasting gratification.
Really easy examples to see are you're hungry,
you eat, you feel really gratified and stuff for
a minute, but it's not something that last a long
time. Another example might be having a one night
stand, or finding someone that you hook up with
for a short time or something and you get some
love and belonging gratification from that
but it doesn't really stick. It doesn't last.
When you're addressing the higher order needs
this is when you're dealing with what really
makes you happy. Maybe it's not as intense an
amount of gratification as receiving a compliment
from someone or something like that, but it's a
kind of pleasure, the kind of satisfying your needs
that really lasts and really is going to bring
you happiness.
To take that one step further, you can ask yourself
how does it make you feel when you really, really
help someone with something. Or how do you feel
when you really feel that you've found some purpose
and you're really going after your goals and
you're rally making steps toward reaching your
goals. The sense of happiness that you get from
those things is just way more meaningful
and way more long lasting than the happiness that you
get from having a really delicious meal. Even when
you eat a really delicious meal, it's a really
gratifying experience, but it just doesn't quite
compare to how good it makes you feel when you've
really helped someone. I would theorize that
happiness pretty much comes down to the satisfaction
of the higher order Truly caring for other people
and truly helping other people, finding your purpose,
finding your meaning in life that really drives you,
then doing those things and how motivating that is
to make you really feel that you are fulfilling
your potential, to experiencing beauty and to
learning. How good does if feel when you understand
something you've never understood before or you
find out something new that you never knew before?
That's a really incredible feeling, and I think that
there is a lot to be gained by looking at this
hierarchy of needs and using it to our best
advantage so that we can help attain the happiness
that Maslow talked about.
That brings us to the end of the discussion of
Maslow's extended hierarchy of needs.
In a future video I'm going to give you the
Psyche Truth version of the hierarchy
of needs. Did Maslow miss something?
And in another video we are going to discuss
Maslow's hierarchy of needs and if it can help us
to have a healthy, sane relationship, or if
such a thing is even possible.
Thank you so much for watching my video.
Give me a thumbs up if you liked it.
Please leave comments down below.
What do you think? Give me your thoughts.
Give me your questions for future videos
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