CSULB Science Colloquium - Fishing for Answers


Uploaded by AMPCENTER on 10.03.2010

Transcript:
[ APPLAUSE ]
>> CHRIS LOWE: WELL, GOOD MORNING.
THANKS FOR GETTING UP EARLY AND COMING
TO HEAR WHAT WE HAVE TO SAY.
SO FROM A STANDPOINT OF FISHERIES,
I HAVE KIND OF A PASSION FOR THIS.
I GREW UP ON MARTHA'S VINEYARD
AND THERE WAS REALLY NOTHING ELSE TO DO BUT FISH AND DIVE.
AND I COME FROM A FAMILY THAT HAS A LONG HISTORY
IN COMMERCIAL FISHING.
MY GRANDFATHER'S A COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN
ON THE VINEYARD FOR 65 YEARS.
AND MY MOM'S FAMILY HAVE BEEN
ON THE VINEYARD FOR ABOUT 200 YEARS.
SO IT WAS THOUGHT THAT I WAS EITHER GOING TO BE A CARPENTER
OR A COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN.
AND I CROSSED OVER TO THE DARK SIDE
WHEN I ACTUALLY WAS THE FIRST TO GO TO COLLEGE
AND ACTUALLY GET A DEGREE IN MARINE BIOLOGY.
I'VE STILL SOME FAMILY MEMBERS THAT DON'T LIKE TO TALK TO ME
BECAUSE THEY THINK I'M THE ENEMY.
BUT THE IMPORTANT THING IS, IS THAT WHEN I STARTED MY STUDIES
IN MARINE BIOLOGY I REALIZED THAT FISHERIES WERE SOMETHING
THAT I WAS TRULY INTERESTED IN AND PASSIONATE ABOUT BECAUSE ONE
OF THE THINGS IS, I REALLY -- I LOVE TO FISH.
AND I WANT TO SEE PEOPLE TO BE ABLE TO CONTINUE TO FISH
BUT THAT'S GETTING MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT
BECAUSE OF THE STATE OF OUR OCEANS.
SO ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I'VE FOCUSED A LOT OF MY RESEARCH
ON IN GREAT -- WORKING WITH KELLY [ASSUMED SPELLING]
BECAUSE KELLY CAN HELP ME ANSWER SOME QUESTIONS
THAT I COULDN'T ANSWER MYSELF
AS DR. LIVINGSTON [ASSUMED SPELLING] WAS POINTING OUT.
OKAY, SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS FOR THE LAST 40 OR 50 YEARS,
PEOPLE HAVE RECOGNIZED THAT SEAFOOD IS GOOD FOR YOU.
IT'S HEALTHY FOR YOU.
IT'S A GREAT SOURCE OF PROTEIN THAT'S LOW IN FAT.
IT'S LOADED WITH OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
IT'S GOOD FOR YOUR HEART.
IT LOWERS THE RISK OF OBESITY, HEART DISEASE,
STROKE, ALL THESE THINGS.
SO WE'VE BEEN TOLD IN THE LAST 40 OR 50 YEARS
THAT SEAFOOD IS GOOD TO EAT.
AND YOU KNOW WHAT?
PEOPLE HAVE LISTENED.
BUT NOT ONLY THAT, THE GREAT THING ABOUT SEAFOOD IS IT COMES
IN ALL DIFFERENT VARIETIES, TASTES, FLAVORS.
SO THE GREAT THING THERE'S SOMETHING
FOR EVERYBODY IN SEAFOOD.
SO NOT ONLY IS IT HEALTHY FOR YOU,
THERE'S SOMETHING FOR EVERYBODY.
AND IT ALL COMES DOWN TO -- THE BOTTOM LINE IS WE HAVE A LOVE
FOR FISH: A GENUINE LOVE FOR FISH.
THIS PERSON AS YOU CAN SEE HAS A GREATER
THAN NORMAL LOVE FOR FISH...
[ LAUGHTER ]
...BUT THE BOTTOM LINE IS, OVER THE LAST HUNDRED YEARS,
THE TECHNOLOGY THAT WE USE TO GO OUT AND HARVEST THE FISH
THAT WE LOVE, HAS GREATLY EXPANDED.
AND NOT ONLY THAT, THERE ARE NOW BILLIONS OF PEOPLE
ON THE PLANET, ALL OF WHOM LOVE FISH.
SO WHAT THIS HAS MEANT IS
THAT WE'RE NOW SEEING SIGNIFICANT INCREASED PRESSURE
ON MANY OF OUR LIVESTOCKS OF FISH.
AND REMEMBER, IT WAS ONLY 200 YEARS AGO - 150 YEARS AGO -
THAT MARINE BIOLOGISTS SAID IT WAS ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE
TO FISH OUT A MARINE FISH SPECIES.
A HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS AGO THE MOST PROMINENT MARINE
SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD SAID IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE.
AND WE'RE THERE.
WE'RE THERE.
SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS,
HUMAN POPULATIONS HAVE INCREASED DRAMATICALLY
OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS.
WE CAN SEE HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH, BUT WE ALSO SEE
THAT THE NUMBER OF LANDINGS OF FISH HAVE NOW INCREASED,
WE'RE NOW LANDING SOMEWHERE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD
OF OVER 7 MILLION TONS OF FISH PER YEAR.
SO WITH THIS INCREASED HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH
AND INCREASED DEMAND BECAUSE SEAFOOD IS GOOD FOR US,
WE ARE NOW STARTING TO SEE PROBLEMS IN OUR OCEANS.
AND MANY OF THE POPULATIONS AND THE THINGS THAT WE
LIKE TO EAT -- IN FACT RIGHT NOW FISH HARVEST IS INCREASING
AT A RATE OF 13 PERCENT PER YEAR.
THAT'S UNBELIEVABLE.
SO THE THING IS, IS
THAT ORIGINALLY PEOPLE FISHED TO LIVE.
WE FISHED FOR SUBSISTENCE.
THAT'S HOW WE SURVIVED.
AND THEN, INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH THERE'S SOME PEOPLE
WHO GOT REALLY GOOD AT FISHING BUT THEY WERE HORRIBLE FARMERS.
SO WHAT HAPPENED IS THIS LED TO THE EVOLUTION
OF COMMERCIAL FISHING.
YOU COULD TRADE YOUR FISH FOR CORN
IF YOU WERE REALLY GOOD AT CATCHING FISH.
SO WHAT HAPPENED WAS, WE SEE A SHIFT
FROM SUBSISTENCE FISHING TOWARDS MORE COMMERCIAL.
AND OVER THE LAST 100 YEARS,
COMMERCIAL FISHING HAS EXPLODED LARGELY BASED ON TECHNOLOGY.
WE HAVE SHIPS THAT CAN SPAN THE OCEAN.
WE HAVE SHIPS THAT DON'T HAVE TO COME INTO PORT.
THEY CAN FISH 365 DAYS A YEAR BECAUSE THEY HAVE FUEL SHIPS
THAT COME OUT TO SUPPLY THEM.
THEY CAN OR FREEZE FISH RIGHT ON BOARD.
THEY OFFLOAD IT.
THEY'RE CONSTANTLY OUT AT SEA.
SO AS A RESULT THE TECHNOLOGY HAS ENABLED US
TO KEEP BOATS FISHING ALL THE TIME.
BUT WHAT WE'RE BEGINNING TO SEE - PARTICULARLY IN THE STATE
OF CALIFORNIA - IS A LOSS OF OUR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES.
NOW WHAT WE'RE SEEING IS A SHIFT FROM MORE COMMERCIAL
TO RECREATIONAL FISHING.
AND IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WITH 22 MILLION PEOPLE,
YOU'LL BE SHOCKED AT HOW MANY PEOPLE SPORT FISH
IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
SO TRENDS IN WORLD FISHERIES?
MARINE FISHERIES NOW ARE LANDING
ABOUT 70 MILLION TONS OF FISH PER YEAR.
IT'S ESTIMATED THAT THE FIRST SALE VALUE OF THAT FISH BRINGS
IN OVER 50 BILLION DOLLARS WORLDWIDE.
SO WE'RE TALKING MAJOR,
MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO WORLDWIDE ECONOMY.
FISH DOMINANT THE LANDINGS.
THEY ACCOUNT FOR 80 PERCENT
OF EVERYTHING THAT'S LANDED IN TERMS OF SEAFOOD.
SO WE'RE TALKING FISH HERE: NOT NECESSARILY CRABS OR LOBSTERS
OR ALL THOSE OTHER MOLLUSKS THAT WE LIKE TO EAT.
AND OF THE 17 THOUSAND SPECIES OF FISH FOUND
IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT, BELIEVE IT OR NOT 50 PERCENT
OF THE 7 MILLION TONS COMES FROM ONLY 20 SPECIES.
THAT'S IT: 20 SPECIES CONSTITUTE 50 PERCENT OF THAT.
SO PRESENTLY, THERE ARE FEW ENVIRONMENTS OF THE OCEAN
THAT IS VAST ON OUR PLANET
THAT ARE NOT CURRENTLY BEING EXPLOITED
FOR SOME MARINE RESOURCE FOR FOOD.
SO FISHING TECHNOLOGY USED TO BE LIMITED BY THE TECHNOLOGY
THAT WE HAD, HOW FAST YOUR BOAT WAS, COULD YOU REFRIGERATE
OR PREPARE FISH AT SEA?
NOW THAT'S NO LONGER A LIMITATION.
THE ONLY LIMITATION THAT WE HAVE ARE THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF DOING
THAT BECAUSE WHEN IT COMES TO YOU GOING TO THE SUPERMARKET
AND BUYING THE FISH, ONCE FISH GETS OVER 20-30 DOLLARS A POUND,
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO BUY IT ANYMORE
WHICH MEANS IT BECOMES TOO EXPENSIVE
FOR SOMEBODY TO GO CATCH.
SO WE'VE SEEN A SHIFT IN FISHING PRESSURE FROM WHAT USED TO BE
"IT WAS THE COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN THAT WERE RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE DECIMATION OF FISHING IN OUR OCEANS " TO NOW
WITH ALL THE PEOPLE WE HAVE ON THE PLANET WE'RE SAYING,
"INCREASE SIGNIFICANT PRESSURES BY RECREATIONAL FISHERS."
SOMETHING THAT PEOPLE NEVER THOUGHT COULD HAPPEN BEFORE.
SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS, IT'S HARD TO JUST POINT OUR FINGER
AT THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
AND SAY THEY'VE BEEN THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM.
RECREATIONAL FISHING HAS BECOME VERY POPULAR.
AND AFTER WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II,
THERE WAS ACTUALLY FEDERAL INITIATIVES
TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE COMING BACK FROM THE WAR TO GO FISHING.
IT WAS A GREAT WAY FOR THEM TO REUNITE WITH THEIR FAMILIES
TO GET BACK TO THE THINGS
THAT WERE INHERENT IN BEING AN AMERICAN.
SO IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, IT'S ESTIMATED THERE ARE
OVER 1 MILLION SPORT FISHERS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ALONE.
THEY GENERATE OVER A BILLION DOLLARS IN REVENUE
TO THE ECONOMY FROM SPORT FISHING ALONE.
SO YOU CAN'T TELL PEOPLE THAT THEY CAN'T SPORT FISH ANYMORE
BECAUSE IT'S ACTUALLY PART OF OUR CULTURE.
FOR MANY OF US, OUR MOST FONDEST MEMORIES COME FROM FISHING
WITH OUR FATHERS OR OUR GRANDFATHERS.
SO NOW WE'RE SEEING A STATE
WHERE OUR FISHERIES ARE BEING DEPLETED,
OUR RESOURCES ARE BEING DEPLETED,
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES ARE GOING OUT OF BUSINESS
BECAUSE THEY CAN NO LONGER BE VIABLE,
THEY OVER CAPITALIZE IN MANY CASES.
RECREATIONAL FISHERS ARE BEING TOLD THEY CAN'T FISH ANYMORE
IN THEIR FAVORITE SPOTS BECAUSE WE'VE DEPLETED MANY
OF THE RESOURCES.
BUT THESE HAVE IMPORTANT EFFECTS
ON NOT JUST OUR ECONOMY, BUT OUR CULTURE.
SO CALIFORNIA FISHERIES ARE NOT IMMUNE.
WE'VE SEEN THIS NOT JUST WORLDWIDE,
BUT IN CALIFORNIA AS WELL.
SO WE'VE HAD A HUNDRED YEARS
OF HEAVY EXPLOITATION HERE IN CALIFORNIA.
AND HERE WE JUST HAVE A REALLY BASIC GRAPH.
ON THIS AXIS, WE HAVE FISH SIZE.
THESE ARE THE SIZE FREQUENCIES OF THE VARIOUS FISH.
SO THIS IS FROM 1984 TO -- OOP, I'M LOSING --
WE'RE LOSING JUICE KELLY.
THERE WE GO.
TO 1995. AND WHAT YOU SEE IS THAT FISH ARE GETTING SMALLER
AND SMALLER AND SMALLER.
THAT RED LINE THAT YOU SEE IS THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY
WHICH MEANS NOW FOR ROCKFISH - THIS GRAPH IS FOR ROCKFISH -
MOST OF THE ROCKFISH THAT ARE BEING LANDED
IN THE FISHERY HAVEN'T REACHED SEXUAL MATURITY YET.
THEY HAVEN'T HAD A CHANCE TO SPAWN WHICH MEANS THEIR CHANCES
OF REPLENISHING THE POPULATION ARE GOING DOWN.
THIS FOR A FISHERIES BIOLOGIST IS NOT A GOOD SIGN.
IN ADDITION, WE'VE LOST A LOT OF THE CRITICAL HABITAT THAT MANY
OF THESE SPECIES USE IN THE LAST 100 YEARS.
WE'VE FILLED IN MANY OF OUR WETLANDS.
WE'VE FILLED IN MANY OF OUR ESTUARIES
TO BUILD MARINAS, TO BUILD CONDOS.
AND AS A RESULT, THESE ARE CRITICAL HABITATS
FOR MANY OF THESE SPECIES.
SO THESE SPECIES ARE GETTING A DOUBLE WHAMMY.
WE'RE NOT ONLY TAKING THE ADULTS OUT OF THE POPULATION,
BUT WE'RE TAKING AWAY CRITICAL NURSERY HABITAT
FOR THEIR LARVAE.
WE HAVE POLLUTION: BOTH CHEMICAL, THERMALS,
SILTATION AS THE RESULT OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT.
WE HAVE SHIFTS FROM COMMERCIAL TO MORE RECREATIONAL IMPACTS
WHICH CHANGES THE WAY MANAGERS GO
ABOUT MANAGING THESE FISHERIES.
SO THIS -- REMEMBER JUST SPORT FISHING ALONE CONTRIBUTES A
BILLION DOLLARS TO OUR LOCAL ECONOMY.
SO IT'S NOT SO SIMPLE TO COME IN AND SAY,
"WE HAVE TO PROTECT FISH.
WE'RE GOING TO TELL EVERYBODY YOU CAN'T TAKE THEM ANYMORE."
THAT IS NOT A VIABLE SOLUTION.
ONE OF THE THINGS WE'VE BEEN FOCUSING
ON AT CAL STATE LONG BEACH
IN OUR FISHERIES RESEARCH IS PROVIDING SOLUTIONS
THAT KEEP PEOPLE FISHING BUT HELP MITIGATE
FOR SOME OF THESE PROBLEMS.
SO I'M GOING TO TALK A LITTLE BIT
ABOUT THE LIVE FISH FISHERY IN CALIFORNIA.
THIS FISHERY EVOLVED TO SUPPLY PRIMARILY ASIAN SEAFOOD MARKETS,
BOTH IN CALIFORNIA AND WORLDWIDE WITH FISH.
AND THE WAY IT WORKS IS YOU GO INTO THE FISH MARKET
AND YOU ACTUALLY PICK OUT THE FISH THAT YOU WANT,
THEY'LL TAKE IT OUT AND THEY'LL COOK IT
FOR YOU RIGHT THERE ON THE SPOT.
SO THIS FISHERY EVOLVED IN CALIFORNIA IN THE LATE 80S.
IT PEAKED IN 1997 AND IT TARGETS PRIMARILY ROCKFISH,
FLATFISH, CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD.
AND GENERALLY WHAT THEY'RE LOOKING
FOR IS A FISH BIG ENOUGH TO FIT ON A PLATE.
SO WHEN THEY COOK THE FISH FOR YOU, THEY COOK THE WHOLE FISH.
IT'S BEAUTIFULLY DISPLAYED.
BUT THE FISH HAS TO BE BIG ENOUGH TO FIT ON A PLATE.
SO IT'S THE RESULT FOR EVERY SINGLE ONE OF THESE SPECIES
BECAUSE OF THE DEMAND, WE SAW A SIGNIFICANT DECLINE
IN CATCH RATES FOR ALL THESE SPECIES.
AND WHEN WE SEE THAT SIGN OF DECLINE,
THAT'S USUALLY A BAD SIGN.
NOW TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF HOW MUCH THESE FISH ARE WORTH,
THE AVERAGE VALUE OF LIVE FISH IS 18 DOLLARS PER POUND.
THEY TYPICAL FISH LANDED RANGES BETWEEN 2 AND 4 POUNDS:
SO YOU'RE TALKING 36 TO 72 DOLLARS PER FISH.
THAT IS A VALUABLE RESOURCE.
SO AS YOU CAN IMAGINE,
THIS FISHERY WAS HAMMERING THESE POPULATIONS PRETTY HARD
BECAUSE IT WAS VERY LUCRATIVE FOR FISHERS.
SO ONE OF THE KEY SPECIES WE WANT TO LOOK AT THAT DIFFERS
FROM ALL THE REST IS THIS CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD.
SO THE CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD IS A LOCAL SPECIES.
THOSE COLORS.
I'M COLORBLIND.
DOES THAT LOOK ROUGH TO YOU?
[ LAUGHTER ]
OKAY, SO ABOUT THE FONT.
THEY RANGE FROM BAJA TO MONTERREY, CALIFORNIA
BUT A HEART OF THEIR POPULATIONS ARE FOUND
IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
THEY'RE FOUND AT DEPTHS OF ABOUT 150 METERS
WHICH IS ABOUT 300 FEET.
THEY'RE TYPICALLY FOUND OVER ROCKY REEFS AND KELP BEDS.
THEY EAT THINGS LIKE SEA URCHINS, CRABS, BRITTLE STARS,
AMPHIPODS, EATING PRIMARILY THE LITTLE INVERTEBRATES
THAT LIVE ON THE REEF.
MALES CAN REACH 3 FEET IN LENGTH.
SO MOST OF THESE -- ONLY THE BIGGEST INDIVIDUALS WILL GET
THAT BIG.
MOST OF THEM STAY AROUND 12 INCHES OR SO.
SO THERE ARE 2 FISHERIES FOR THIS SPECIES IN CALIFORNIA.
ONE IS THE SPORT FISHERY WHICH TARGETS PRIMARILY USING HOOK
AND LINE OR SPEAR FISHERS
AND THEY TARGET PRIMARILY THE BIG, LARGE MALES.
AND AS A RESULT OF DEPLETION OF THE STOCKS,
CALIFORNIA STATE FISHING
AND GAME IMPLEMENTED A MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT OF 12 INCHES IN 1999.
BUT THERE'S ALSO A COMMERCIAL FISHERY -
THIS IS THE LIVE FISH FISHERY -
THAT TARGETS THE SPECIES USING BOTH TRAPS
AND WHAT'S CALLED STICK [INAUDIBLE]: HOOK AND LINE GEAR.
AND THEY'RE GENERALLY TARGETING THE FEMALES
WHICH ARE PLATE SIZE: SMALL ENOUGH TO FIT ON A PLATE.
SO THEY ALSO IMPLEMENTED A MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT IN 1999
AT 12 INCHES AND THEN THEY RAISED
THAT TO 13 INCHES IN 2001.
SO THE STATE WAS TRYING TO MITIGATE
FOR THE POPULATION DECLINE.
SO IF WE TAKE A LOOK AT THIS GRAPH,
YOU CAN SEE THAT THE COMMERCIAL LANDINGS -
TOTAL COMMERCIAL LANDINGS -
WERE ACTUALLY VERY LOW UP UNTIL THE 80S.
AND RECREATIONAL FISHING
OF SHEEPHEAD WAS THE MOST PROMINENT PART OF THE FISHERY.
BUT STARTING IN THE LATE 80S
WHEN THE LIVE FISH FISHERY TOOK OFF,
COMMERCIAL FISHING EXCEEDED THE SPORT FISHING LANDINGS.
AND THESE 2 FISHERIES COMBINED WERE LANDING
OVER 370 THOUSAND POUNDS OF SHEEPHEAD A YEAR.
PROBLEM WAS, WE DIDN'T REALLY KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE BIOLOGY
OF THIS SPECIES SO FISH AND GAME WAS SCRAMBLING TO GET A HANDLE
ON HOW TO MANAGE THIS WHEN WE DON'T THOROUGHLY UNDERSTAND
ITS BIOLOGY.
SO ONE OF THE WAYS THEY GO
ABOUT DOING THIS IS MANAGERS WILL IMPLEMENT BAG LIMITS.
A FISHER CAN ONLY TAKE X NUMBER OF FISH PER DAY, PER ANGLER.
OR THEY'LL SET QUOTAS FOR THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY.
THEY CAN ONLY TAKE SO MANY TONS
AND THEN THE FISHERY GETS CLOSED FOR THAT YEAR.
THEY'LL IMPLEMENT RESTRICTED ACCESS
WHICH MEANS ONLY A CERTAIN NUMBER
OF COMMERCIAL BOATS CAN ACTUALLY FISH IN THE FISHERY.
OR YOU'LL HAVE SEASON CLOSURES.
YOU CAN SAY, "OH YOU CAN ONLY TAKE THEM OUTSIDE THEIR
BREEDING SEASON."
AND THEN OF COURSE THERE ARE SIZE LIMITS.
SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS ALL
OF THESE HARVEST CONTROL TECHNIQUES REQUIRE A CATCH A
RELEASE WHICH WAS SOMETHING THAT WE WERE VERY INTERESTED IN.
SO THE WAY SIZE LIMITS WORK IS YOU HAVE SMALL FEMALES;
THOSE SMALL FEMALES REACH A SIZE
WHERE THEY REACH SEXUAL MATURITY.
SO AT MINIMUM SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY YOU WANT
TO ALLOW ALL THE FISH IN THE FISHERY TO HAVE
AT LEAST 1 SEASON TO SPAWN.
SO IF YOU'RE GOING TO SET A MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT,
YOU WANT TO SET THAT JUST BEYOND THAT MINIMUM SIZE.
THAT WILL ALLOW ALL THE INDIVIDUALS IN THE POPULATION
AT LEAST 1 SEASON TO SPAWN BEFORE THEY CAN BE HARVESTED
WHICH MEANS ANY OF THE FISH BELOW THAT SIZE,
YOU HAVE TO THROW BACK.
BUT ALL THE FISH BIGGER THAN THAT SIZE YOU CAN KEEP.
QUESTION IS AND THE PROBLEM IS FISH
AND GAME WAS IMPLEMENTING THESE MINIMUM SIZE LIMITS
AND THEY DID NOT KNOW WHETHER THE FISH THAT WERE CAUGHT
BY ANGLERS AND THROWN BACK ACTUALLY SURVIVED.
SO FISHERS ARE GOING, "WAIT A MINUTE.
YOU'RE GOING TO MAKE ME THROW BACK FISH THAT COULD DIE?
WHY CAN'T I JUST KEEP THOSE?
THAT DOESN'T SEEM RIGHT."
SO WE FIGURED THIS WOULD BE A VERY FRUITFUL AREA OF RESEARCH.
SO CATCH AND RELEASE IS BASED IN THIS CONCEPT OF SURVIVAL.
SO IF YOU FORCE FISHERS TO THROW BACK FISH,
SOME OF THOSE FISH MAY NOT LIVE BECAUSE OF THE IMPACTS
OF ACTUALLY CATCHING AND BRINGING IT UP FROM THE BOAT,
MEASURING THEM AND SAYING, "OH THEY'RE TOO SMALL.
THROW THEM BACK."
BUT SOME OF THEM MAY SURVIVE.
FISHERIES MANAGERS GO, "THAT'S GOOD."
BUT THERE CAN BE PROBLEMS.
JUST BECAUSE THEY SURVIVE DOESN'T MEAN THERE AREN'T
SUB-LETHAL EFFECTS.
THERE COULD BE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
THAT COULD IMPAIR GROWTH, THAT COULD AFFECT THEIR REPRODUCTION,
THAT COULD IMPAIR THEIR IMMUNE FUNCTION.
SO EVEN THOUGH THEY LIVE, THEY COULD BE SET BACK
AS THE RESULT OF THIS PRACTICE.
AND IN ADDITION,
THESE PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS CAN INFLUENCE THEIR BEHAVIOR.
AND THESE BEHAVIORAL THINGS CAN INFLUENCE HOW FAST THEY MOVE,
HOW MUCH THEY EAT, ALL SORTS OF FACTORS.
THESE ARE THINGS THAT WE DON'T KNOW BEFORE FISH
AND GAME IS IMPLEMENTING THESE REGULATIONS.
THEY DIDN'T KNOW THE ANSWER TO THESE QUESTIONS.
SO WHAT WE WANT TO KNOW IS WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF CATCH
AND RELEASE ON SHEEPHEAD?
FISHERS HAVE TO THROW THEM BACK BUT DO THEY EVEN LIVE?
DO THEY SURVIVE THAT PROCESS?
SO WE WANTED TO QUANTIFY THEIR BEHAVIORAL STRESS THAT COMES
FROM BEING CAUGHT IN EITHER A TRAP ON A HOOK AND LINE.
WE WANTED TO QUANTIFY THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS
AND I'M A PSEUDO PHYSIOLOGIST.
I HAVE TO COLLABORATE WITH FOLKS
LIKE KELLY WHO'S A REAL PHYSIOLOGIST
OR KEVIN KELLY [ASSUMED SPELLING] WHO'S OUR
FISH ENDOCRINOLOGIST.
AND I THINK HE'LL BE TALKING AT THE NEXT FELLOWS' BREAKFAST.
SO I ENLISTED THEIR HELP TO HELP ME WITH THE PHYSIOLOGY
BUT I WAS WORKING ON THE BEHAVIOR AND I GOT SOME HELP
FROM THEM TO DO THE PHYSIOLOGY.
AND WE WANTED TO COMPARE BOTH THE COMMERCIAL PRACTICE
OF CATCHING FISH IN TRAPS AND THE RECREATIONAL PRACTICE
OF CATCHING THEM ON HOOK AND LINE.
IF YOU CATCH THEM, IF YOU THROW THEM BACK, ARE THEIR IMPACTS?
SO AND THE QUESTION WAS TO DETERMINE HOW MANY SURVIVE?
FISH AND GAME DIDN'T EVEN KNOW
THAT BEFORE THEY IMPLEMENTED THESE REGS.
SO TO MEASURE THE BEHAVIORAL STRESS, WHAT WE DO
AND WHAT MY LAB SPECIALIZES IN IS WE PUT ACOUSTIC TRANSMITTERS
ON FISH OR IN THEM - SPY TECHNOLOGY I CALL IT -
AND WE CAN LET THE FISH GO AND WE FOLLOW THEM AROUND
AND SEE WHERE THEY GO.
SO OF COURSE THE PROBLEM IS WHEN YOU CATCH A FISH
AND YOU SURGICALLY IMPLANT THESE TAGS, YOU AFFECT ITS BEHAVIOR.
SO WE NEEDED A CONTROL FOR THAT.
SO THE CONTROL THAT WE USE
FOR THAT IS SOMETIMES WE HIDE THE BAIT - WE HIDE A TRANSMITTER
IN A PIECE OF BAIT - AND THEN WE FEED IT TO THEM.
WE DON'T HAVE TO TOUCH THEM.
FISH DOESN'T KNOW IT HAS A TRANSMITTER
AND WE CAN FOLLOW THE FISH AROUND
AND WE CAN COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR THAT WE SEE
FROM FISH FED TRANSMITTERS TO THOSE THAT WE HANDLED
AND THEN SURGICALLY IMPLANT TRANSMITTERS.
AND THEN WE CAN MEASURE THINGS LIKE HOW FAST THEY MOVE,
HOW MUCH AREA THEY USE
TO DETERMINE THE IMPACTS IF CATCH AND RELEASE.
AND THEN USING KEVIN KELLY'S TOOLS,
WE CAN TAKE A BLOOD SAMPLE FROM THESE FISH AND WE CAN LOOK
AT THINGS LIKE SOME OF THEIR ENDOCRINE RESPONSES
OR BIOCHEMICAL ASSAYS
TO DETERMINE THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS
AS A RESULT OF CATCH AND RELEASE.
SO ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE CAN DO IS WE CAN RAPIDLY CATCH A
FISH, TAKE A BLOOD SAMPLE AND BEFORE THE STRESS HORMONES BEGIN
TO CIRCULATE, WE CAN DETERMINE ITS PRE-STRESS LEVEL.
AND THEN WE CAN HOLD FISH FOR 10 TO 15 MINUTES.
THOSE HORMONES BEGIN TO CIRCULATE;
THEN WE CAN GET A MEASURE ON HOW STRESSFUL THAT PRACTICE IS.
SO WHAT WE DID WAS WE WENT OUT AND WE CAUGHT FISH ON HOOK
AND LINE AND WE USED THE SAME METHODS THAT MOST ANGLERS USE.
AND THEN WE'D PULL THE FISH UP AND TAKE A BLOOD SAMPLE,
WE'D TAKE A MEASUREMENT, PUT A TRANSMITTER IN THE FISH,
HOLD IT FOR 15 MINUTES,
TAKE ANOTHER BLOOD SAMPLE, AND LET THE FISH GO.
SOME OF THE FISH WE ACTUALLY CAUGHT IN COMMERCIAL TRAPS JUST
LIKE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN USE.
WE'D BRING THOSE UP AND SAMPLE THE EXACT SAME WAY.
SO WE'RE COMPARING BOTH RECREATIONAL
AND COMMERCIAL TYPE FISHING.
SO THE FISH WERE BROUGHT UP.
WE WOULD ANESTHETIZE THEM.
WE'D DO SURGERY.
MANY OF MY STUDENTS HAVE BEEN TAUGHT HOW TO DO SURGERY.
WE CAN MAKE AN INCISION IN THE BODY WALL.
WE CAN INSERT THESE TRANSMITTERS WHICH COST
ABOUT 300 BUCKS A PIECE SO THEY'RE NOT CHEAP.
WE'D STITCH THE FISH UP, ROLL THE FISH OVER,
PUT AN EXTERNAL TAG IN ITS BACK SO WE COULD IDENTIFY IT
IF WE SAW IT AGAIN UNDERWATER AND THEN RELEASED THE FISH.
AND THEN THE STUDENTS COULD THEN FOLLOW AROUND AND TRACK THE FISH
FOR PERIODS OF UP TO 72 HOURS.
IN ADDITION, WHILE THE FISH WAS
OUT WE COULD TAKE A SMALL BLOOD SAMPLE FROM THE CAUDAL VEIN.
THIS IS LIKE GOING TO THE PHLEBOTOMIST
AND GETTING A LITTLE BLOOD SAMPLE.
WE WOULD TAKE A BLOOD SAMPLE AS SOON AS WE BROUGHT THE FISH OUT.
AND THEN AFTER THE SURGERY,
WE'D TAKE ANOTHER BLOOD SAMPLE AND HOLD THAT FISH.
THEN WE'D RELEASE THEM.
SO HERE'S A FISH THAT WE WOULD -- DONE SURGERY ON.
HERE YOU CAN SEE THE TAG.
THE FISH IS SWIMMING AROUND.
AND THEN WE CAN EVEN FOLLOW FISH UNDERWATER USING
UNDERWATER HYDROPHONES.
SO QUITE OFTEN NOT ONLY COULD WE TRACK THE FISH FROM THE BOAT,
WE COULD FOLLOW THEM AROUND UNDERWATER
AND MAKE SURE THEY LOOKED OKAY.
SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS THE TRACKING PART IS VERY LABORIOUS.
I HAVE A STUDENT HERE THAT'S DOING THIS NOW.
SHE SPENDS A LOT OF TIME IN THIS BOAT.
SO THE BOTTOM LINE IS YOU PUT THE TRANSMITTER IN THE FISH.
THE FISH IS UNDERWATER.
THE TRANSMITTER PRODUCES AN ACOUSTIC SIGNAL
THAT CAN BE DETECTED BY A HYDROPHONE.
SOMEBODY HAS TO FOLLOW THE FISH AROUND BUT BY DOING
THAT WE CAN KNOW THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE FISH
OVER A PERIOD OF 24 TO 72 HOURS.
SO HERE IS A LOCATION OVER AT CATALINA,
WHERE WE DID ALL THIS WORK.
AND THIS IS AN AREA CALLED BIG FISHERMEN'S COVE
AND IT'S A MARINE PROTECTED AREA.
SO THIS RED DOTTED LINE YOU SEE IS PART
OF THE MARINE PROTECTED AREA.
EACH ONE OF THESE POLYGONS REPRESENTS A NEIGHBORHOOD
OF A CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD THAT WE TRACKED.
SO THE FIRST THING THAT THIS INDICATED
TO US WAS THESE WERE FISH THAT WE TRACKED
OVER PERIODS UP TO A MONTH.
WE NOTICED THAT ALL THE FISH THAT WE CAUGHT,
SURGICALLY IMPLANTED TRANSMITTERS IN, ALL SURVIVED.
NO PROBLEM WITH SURVIVAL.
EVEN THOUGH WE USED THE SAME PRACTICES
THAT NORMAL FISHERS USE PLUS WE DID SURGERY ON THOSE FISH.
SO THESE REPRESENT THE HOME RANGES.
AND THE OTHER THING I WANT TO POINT OUT IS THAT MOST
OF THESE FISH SPEND MOST
OF THEIR TIME INSIDE THIS LITTLE MARINE PROTECTED AREA.
SO OF THE 24 FISH THAT WE TRACKED -
SOMEBODY OUT IN THE BOAT FOLLOWING THEM AROUND -
WE DETECTED ALL THE FISH AND THE AVERAGE TIME
OF THE BATTERY LENGTH OF THE TRANSMITTER IS ABOUT 40 DAYS.
WE DETECTED ALL FISH FOR AT LEAST 34 DAYS.
WE ALSO USED LONG TERM ACOUSTIC TRANSMITTERS THAT LAST A YEAR.
AND WE HAD UNDERWATER RECEIVERS THAT ARE CONSTANTLY LISTENING
FOR THE FISH IN THE AREA.
WE DETECTED UP TO 16 FISH FOR 318 DAYS.
THAT WAS THE LIFE OF THE TRANSMITTER.
SO WE WERE ABLE TO CONFIRM BASICALLY A HUNDRED PERCENT
SURVIVAL REGARDLESS OF THE FISHERY METHOD THAT WE USED
AND REGARDLESS OF THE FACT
THAT WE ACTUALLY SURGICALLY IMPLANTED TRANSMITTERS.
FISHERS DON'T DO THAT.
WE WOULDN'T ENCOURAGE FISHERS TO DO THAT.
SO DESPITE WE DO ALL THESE THINGS TO THESE FISH,
WE KNOW THAT THEY'RE SURVIVING.
SO WHEN WE LOOK AT THEIR BEHAVIOR,
WE SEE SOME INTERESTING TRENDS.
SO REMEMBER, THESE ARE THE FISH THAT WE CAUGHT ON HOOK AND LINE.
THESE ARE FISH THAT WE CAUGHT IN TRAPS.
SO THESE FISH HAD TRANSMITTERS SURGICALLY IMPLANTED INTO THEM
BUT THOSE FISH OVER THERE ARE FISH THAT WE FED TRANSMITTERS.
WE DIDN'T TOUCH THEM.
SO THE FIRST THING THAT WE NOTICED,
IF WE LOOK AT THEIR RATES OF MOVEMENT,
HOW FAST THEY'RE MOVING OVER THE COURSE OF THE DAY.
FISH THAT WERE LINE CAUGHT
AND TRAP CAUGHT MOVED SIGNIFICANTLY SLOWER THAN THOSE
THAT WE JUST FED TRANSMITTERS TO.
SO THIS INDICATED TO US
THAT THERE ARE SOME BEHAVIORAL IMPACTS OF THIS CATCH
AND RELEASE AND THE SURGICAL IMPLANTATION.
IF WE COMPARE THAT WITH HOW MUCH AREA OR SPACE THEY USE,
WE NOTICED THAT FISH THAT WE CAUGHT
AND HANDLED USED LESS SPACE THAN - NOT ONLY SWAM SLOWER -
BUT THEY USED LESS AREA.
NOW AS YOU CAN IMAGINE WHEN YOU GET OUT OF SURGERY,
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO BE RUNNING MARATHONS, RIGHT?
YOU'RE GOING TO TAKE A DAY OR TWO OFF AND YOU'RE GOING
TO BE MOVING A LITTLE SLOWER.
SO WE DO KNOW THAT THERE ARE BEHAVIORAL IMPACTS
AS A RESULT OF THIS.
HOWEVER, IF WE TAKE THE FISH THAT WE DID SURGERIES ON
AND WE LOOK AT THEIR FIRST 6 HOURS OF TRACKING,
WE SEE THAT THEY'RE MOVING SIGNIFICANTLY SLOWER
THAN 48 HOURS LATER.
SO WITHIN 48 HOURS
AFTER SURGICAL IMPLANTATION THESE FISH ARE MOVING
AT THE SAME RATE AS THE FISH THAT WE FED THE TRANSMITTER TO.
SO WITHIN 48 HOURS, THOSE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CATCH,
RELEASE AND SURGERY ARE GONE.
SO IF WE COMPARE THAT TO KEVIN KELLY'S PHYSIOLOGY,
WE SEE SOME REALLY INTERESTING TRENDS.
SO ONE OF THE THINGS THAT DR. KELLY WAS LOOKING AT WAS -
AND MY ACCESS LABELS HAVE DISAPPEARED -
ON THIS ACCESS, WE HAVE CORTISOL.
SO EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT WHEN YOU GET STRESSED OUT,
CORTISOL IS A STRESS HORMONE THAT ENABLES YOUR BODY
TO DEAL WITH THE STRESS.
IF YOU WANT EXPERIENCE STRESS, COME HERE DURING FINALS.
YOU'LL SEE STUDENTS COUGHING AND SNEEZING
AND EXPERIENCING ALL SORTS OF IMMUNE DEPRESSION
AS A RESULT OF CORTISOL SPIKES.
SO WHAT KEVIN'S STUDENTS DID WAS WE TOOK THESE FISH,
WE BROUGHT THEM UP AND THAT FISHING PRACTICE STRESSES
THE FISH.
WE TAKE A BLOOD SAMPLE.
WE HOLD THEM FOR PERIODS OF UP TO A MONTH IN TANKS.
THIS IS WHAT MOST PEOPLE DO
WHEN THEY MEASURE PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS.
WHAT DO WE SEE?
CORTISOL SPIKES AND IT REMAINS ELEVATED
FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME.
IT ACTUALLY TAKES EVEN AFTER A MONTH,
THEY'RE STILL SHOWING SIGNS OF CHRONIC STRESS.
IF WE COMPARE THAT TO LACTATE -- SO REMEMBER, WE'RE CATCHING FISH
ON HOOK AND LINE, THEY'RE FIGHTING
AGAINST THE LINE, THEY'RE STRUGGLING.
REMEMBER, JUST LIKE GOING OUT AND RUNNING REALLY HARD.
YOU BUILD UP LACTIC ACID IN YOUR MUSCLES.
WE SEE A SPIKE IN LACTATE BUT THAT SPIKE IN LACTATE IS GONE
WITHIN 12 HOURS EVEN IN CAPTIVE HOLDING.
NOW HERE'S THE INTERESTING PART.
IF WE TAKE FISH THAT WE CAPTURE - REMEMBER WE HELD THESE FISH
IN CAPTIVITY SO WE COULD SERIALLY SAMPLE THEM AGAIN
AND AGAIN - LOOK AT THEIR CORTISOL LEVELS.
THEY'RE STRESSED OUT.
SO WE KNOW THAT NOT ONLY IS THIS CONTRIBUTED BY THE PROCESS
OF CATCH AND RELEASE, BUT SOME OF IT'S BEING STRESSED
OUT BY BEING HELD IN A TANK.
HERE'S THAT SAME CURVE.
WE TOOK SOME FISH THAT WE CAUGHT, TOOK A BLOOD SAMPLE,
STRESSED THEM AND THEN LET THEM GO.
THEN WE WENT OUT FISHING AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN TRYING
TO RECAPTURE THOSE FISH.
WE DIDN'T KEEP THEM.
WE DIDN'T HOLD THEM.
WE LET THEM GO.
HERE ARE THE FISH THAT WE RECAPTURED OVER TIME.
SO WHAT -- THIS IS 18 HOURS AFTER WE CAPTURED
AND STRESSED THE FISH.
REMEMBER ACCORDING TO OUR DATA,
THIS IS WHERE THAT FISH SHOULD HAVE BEEN:
WITHIN 15 MINUTES AFTER HOLDING.
SO WHAT THIS MEANS IS WITHIN 18 HOURS AFTER CATCH AND RELEASE,
PHYSIOLOGICALLY CORTISOL'S BACK TO BASELINE.
AND IT REMAINS THERE.
THESE ARE ALL THE FISH WE CAUGHT AND RELEASED.
THIS HAS NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE.
EVERY STUDY THAT'S LOOKED AT STRESS
IN FISH HAVE KEPT FISH IN CAPTIVITY.
WE NOW KNOW THAT CAUSES CHRONIC STRESS.
YOU CAN'T USE THAT AS A SIGN OF RECOVERY.
SO THIS IS THE FIRST STUDY THAT'S ACTUALLY DEMONSTRATED
BOTH BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RECOVERY
FROM A CATCH AND RELEASE EVENT.
SO OUR CONCLUSIONS?
FIRST OF ALL, THIS CATCH AND RELEASE PRACTICE IMPLEMENTED
BY FISH AND GAME WORKS BECAUSE WE KNOW EVEN DESPITE THE FACT
THAT WE WERE DOING SURGERY ON THESE FISH,
A HUNDRED PERCENT SURVIVAL.
IN ADDITION, THERE'S BOTH A BEHAVIORAL
AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CATCH AND RELEASE BUT IT APPEARS
TO BE FAIRLY SHORT LIVED.
WITHIN 18 HOURS, FISH ARE BACK
TO NORMAL BOTH BEHAVIORALLY AND PHYSIOLOGICALLY.
ANGLING HAS SLIGHTLY HIGHER STRESS LEVELS THAN TRAP
BUT NOT SIGNIFICANTLY, AND BEHAVIORAL
AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RECOVERY WITHIN 12 TO 24 HOURS.
SO SEASONS, SIZE LIMITS, QUOTAS, THINGS THAT REQUIRE FISHERS
TO THROW BACK UNDERSIZED, IMMATURE FISH ACTUALLY WORK.
IT SHOULD HELP THE POPULATION RECOVER.
SO WITH THAT, I'M GOING TO TURN THINGS OVER TO KELLY WHO'S GOING
TO TALK ABOUT THE OTHER HALF OF THE STORY.
[ APPLAUSE ]
>> I HAVE TO APOLOGIZE FOR MY VOICE.
I'M REALLY SORRY.
BEFORE I START, IS THIS BETTER IF I HAVE A MICROPHONE ON
OR DO YOU -- DOES IT MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE?
>> KEEP THE MICROPHONE.
>> KEEP THE MICROPHONE ON?
OKAY. I NORMALLY HAVE
LIKE I SAID A VERY MELODIOUS VOICE SO I'M SORRY.
[ LAUGHTER ]
CHRIS HAS TOLD YOU QUITE A BIT ABOUT THE CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD.
HE'S TOLD YOU WHERE THEY LIVE.
HE'S SHOWN YOU SOME OF THEIR HOME RANGES.
AND HE'S TOLD YOU A LITTLE BIT
ABOUT THE FISHING PRESSURE ON THESE FISH.
BUT WHAT HE HAS GRACIOUSLY LEFT FOR ME TO DO IS
TO TELL YOU WHAT I FIND THE MOST COMPELLING PART
ABOUT CALIFORNIA SHEEPHEAD
AND THAT IS THEIR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY.
SHEEPHEAD ARE SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC.
THAT JUST MEANS MALES LOOK DIFFERENT FROM FEMALES.
SO HERE WE HAVE A TYPICAL FEMALE.
SHE'S GOT A SALMON COLOR THROUGHOUT WITH A WHITE CHIN.
AND THE TYPICAL MALE WITH THE SALMON COLOR IN THE MIDDLE
WITH A BLACK HEAD AND A BLACK TAIL.
MALES ALSO DEVELOP A MORE PROMINENT FOREHEAD.
WE CALL IT A NUCKLE [ASSUMED SPELLING] HUMP THAT THEY DEVELOP
AS THEY MATURE AS MALES.
SO THEY LOOK DIFFERENT.
THESE FISH ARE ALSO HAREMIC AND THIS MEANS JUST LIKE IT SOUNDS.
THE MALES RETAIN A HAREM OF FEMALES.
DEPENDING ON THE SOCIAL STATUS AND THE SIZE OF THE MALE,
HE MAY MAINTAIN A HAREM OF 1 FEMALE, 2, 4 MAYBE EVEN 15.
HE HAD SEXUAL ACCESS TO THOSE FEMALES BUT HE ALSO HAS
TO DEFEND THEM FROM OTHER MALES THAT MAY BE IN THE POPULATION.
FINALLY, SHEEPHEAD ARE PROTOGENOUS
SEQUENTIAL HERMAPHRODITES.
I KNOW IT'S EARLY BUT YES I SAID HERMAPHRODITES.
TYPICALLY AS HUMANS, WHEN WE HEAR THE WORD HERMAPHRODITE WE
THINK "OH, GENETIC MALFUNCTION."
AND IT'S TRUE.
HERMAPHRODITES OF COURSE WHERE YOU HAVE BOTH TESTES AND OVARIES
IN THE SAME INDIVIDUAL, THAT CAN HAPPEN IN HUMANS.
IT'S EXTREMELY RARE AND THOSE INDIVIDUALS ARE STERILE.
THEY'RE NOT FERTILE.
THIS IS A RESULT OF GENETIC MALFUNCTION.
BUT IN FISHES THIS IS NOT THE CASE.
IN FACT, THERE'S ABOUT 21 FAMILIES
IN FISHES INCLUDING THE [INAUDIBLE] FAMILY
WHICH SHEEPHEAD ARE A PART WHERE HERMAPHRODISM IS QUITE COMMON.
HERMAPHRODITES IN FISHES CAN BE EITHER SIMULTANEOUS
OR SEQUENTIAL.
SIMULTANEOUS HERMAPHRODITES HAVE BOTH OVARIES AND TESTES WORKING
IN ONE INDIVIDUAL AT THE SAME TIME.
SO THEY'RE PRODUCING EGGS,
THEY'RE PRODUCING SPERM AT THE SAME TIME.
SEQUENTIAL HERMAPHRODITES ARE ALL BORN ONE GENDER
AND THEN TRANSITION OR SEQUENCE INTO THE NEXT GENDER
AT SOME COURSE OF THEIR LIFESPAN OR THEY CAN DO THIS.
IF THE HERMAPHRODITES ARE SEQUENTIAL,
THEY CAN EITHER BE PROTANDROUS OR PROTOGENOUS.
PROTANDROUS OR PROTO ANDRO: SO FIRST MALE.
THEY'RE ALL BORN MALE AND THEN AT SOME POINT
IN THEIR LIFE THEY CAN TRANSITION INTO FEMALE.
THAT MEANS THOSE TESTES TURN INTO OVARIES.
THE MOST TYPICAL EXAMPLE OR THE MOST COMMON EXAMPLE OF THIS
THAT I'VE SEEN AT LEAST ARE THE ANEMONE FISH OF THE CLOWN FISH.
SO IT'S TRUE, THE RUMORS YOU'VE HEARD, NEMO WAS A HERMAPHRODITE.
[ LAUGHTER ]
WE CAN ALSO HAVE PROTOGENY.
SO PROTO [INAUDIBLE]: SO FIRST FEMALE.
THIS MEANS THAT THE FISH ARE ALL BORN FEMALE IN A POPULATION
AND AT SOME POINT THAT OVARY THAT WAS PRODUCING ESTROGEN,
THAT WAS PRODUCING EGGS, TRANSITIONS AND BECOMES A SPERM
AND TESTOSTERONE PRODUCING TESTIS.
A GREAT EXAMPLE OF THIS ARE THE SHEEPHEAD.
SO HERE YOU SEE THIS GORGEOUS MALE WHO -
JUST TO CLARIFY THIS ONE - THAT USED TO BE A FEMALE.
RIGHT? HE WAS BORN A FEMALE.
AND AT SOME POINT TRANSITIONED.
THIS IS WHY I FIND THIS FEEDBACK SO INTERESTING.
HOW THEY CAN SWITCH THEIR SEX LIKE THIS.
SO YOU NOW KNOW WHAT THIS PHRASE MEANS TECHNICALLY:
PROTOGENOUS SEQUENTIAL HERMAPHRODITES.
RIGHT? BUT LET'S THINK ABOUT THIS FOR A MINUTE FROM THE POINT
OF VIEW OF MANAGING THE FISHERY.
CHRIS TOLD YOU THAT THE FISHERY,
THE POPULATION LEVELS ARE GOING DOWN.
TO MANAGE THIS FISHERY - SORRY ABOUT MY VOICE -
TO MANAGE THIS FISHERY, USUALLY YOU USE MODELS
WITH A MALE AND A FEMALE.
SO YOU HAVE 2 GENDERS.
BUT REMEMBER HERE IN SHEEPHEAD WE HAVE MALES, WE HAVE FEMALES
AND NOW WE HAVE A THIRD GENDER: AND INTERSEX FISH
THAT WE CALL TRANSITIONAL FISH.
THIS THROWS A LOT OF THOSE COMPUTER MODELS OUT THE WINDOW.
YOU CAN'T MANAGE THIS IN A TRADITIONAL WAY
BECAUSE NOW YOU HAVE THIS ADDITIONAL GENDER TO DEAL WITH.
NOW IF YOU WERE MANAGING A FISHERY YOU MIGHT ALSO BE
INTERESTED IN WHAT INDUCES A FEMALE TO TRANSITION TO A MALE?
WHAT WOULD CAUSE THIS?
IN FACT, THIS HAS BEEN VERY WELL STUDIED.
IT'S NOT AGE.
IT'S NOT SIZE.
IN FACT IT'S CHANGES IN SOCIAL STRUCTURE.
CHANGES IN THE POPULATION STRUCTURE.
HERE WE HAVE OUR HAREM.
SO WE HAVE A LARGE MALE.
HE'S GOT A LARGE HAREM OF FEMALES.
IF THAT MALE WERE TO DIE OR TO BE REMOVED FROM THE POPULATION,
THEN THE MOST DOMINANT FEMALE WOULD TRANSITION INTO A MALE.
SO THAT SAME INDIVIDUAL WOULD BECOME A MALE.
SO HERE SHE'S GOT HER HAREM.
HER OVARIES BECOME TESTES.
HER FEMALE SEX BEHAVIOR BECOMES MALE SEX BEHAVIOR.
SHE BECOMES A MALE.
NOW SHEEPHEAD HAVE BEEN DOING THIS FOR CENTURIES:
THIS IS WHAT SHEEPHEAD DO.
RIGHT? THIS HAS BEEN GOING ON WITH NO PROBLEM.
BUT NOW WE HAVE TO HAVE THIS ADDED LENS WHEN WE LOOK
AT THIS POPULATION CHANGE
THROUGH THE LENS OF FISHING PRESSURE.
NOW CHRIS TOLD YOU ABOUT THE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISHING:
SPORT FISHERY AND THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY.
SO -- AND THEIR DIFFERENT TARGETS OF LARGE MALES
OR PLATE SIZE FEMALES.
SO IF WE LOOK AT THIS HAREM AGAIN, IN AN AREA WITH A LOT
OF RECREATIONAL PRESSURE
WHERE THEY'RE TARGETING THOSE LARGE MALES
AND YOU WOULD SEE LARGE MALES BEING REMOVED
FROM THE POPULATION AT A VERY RAPID RATE DURING THE FISHING
SEASON, WHAT YOU MIGHT FIND HAPPENING AS THIS CONTINUES
TO OCCUR THAT THE FEMALES MIGHT NOT HAVE TIME TO GAIN THE SIZE
AND THE BODY MASS THAT THEY WOULD HAVE BEFORE TRANSITIONING.
AND YOU MIGHT SEE CHANGES IN THE SIZE OF MALES AT TRANSITION.
BECAUSE OF THIS, THIS IDEA
THAT FISHING PRESSURE MAY ACTUALLY BE CHANGING THE
POPULATION STRUCTURE OF SHEEPHEAD.
IN ADDITION TO THE FACT THAT THE SHEEPHEAD FISHERY MANAGEMENT IS
BASED ON DATA COLLECTED IN THE 1970S.
EXCELLENT DATA BUT DATA COLLECTED IN THE 1970S.
AND AS CHRIS SHOWED YOU, FISHING PRESSURE HAS CHANGED
SUBSTANTIALLY SINCE THEN.
THIS REALLY LED US TO THIS COLLABORATION
TO UNDERSTAND WHAT DO SHEEPHEAD --
WHAT DOES THE POPULATION LOOK LIKE NOW?
WHAT'S OUT THERE RIGHT NOW?
SO OUR OBJECT -- WHOA, WHOA.
SORRY. OUR OBJECTIVE WAS MULTI-FOLD.
FIRST OF ALL WE WANTED TO GET AN UPDATED REPORT
ON THE SHEEPHEAD POPULATION.
WE WANT TO KNOW HOW MANY MALES ARE OUT THERE, HOW MANY FEMALES,
HOW MANY TRANSITIONALS?
BECAUSE AGAIN, IF WE HAVE INCREASED FISHING PRESSURE,
PERHAPS WE HAVE AN INCREASE IN THIS TRANSITION RATE.
WE WANTED TO COMPARE THIS TO THIS HISTORIC STUDY IN THE 1970S
TO SEE IF ANYTHING HAS CHANGED WITH FISHING PRESSURE.
AS A REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGIST I WANTED TO KNOW
IF THEY WERE FUNCTIONAL DURING TRANSITION.
WHAT IS THAT INTERSEX GONAD DOING?
AND FINALLY, WE WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT THE DIFFERENT POPULATIONS
ACROSS THE CALIFORNIA COAST.
THE HISTORIC STUDY WAS DONE AT CATALINA ISLAND, BUT OF COURSE
AS CHRIS TOLD YOU THE RANGE OF SHEEPHEAD -
AT LEAST IN CALIFORNIA - SPANS THE WHOLE CALIFORNIA COAST
UP TO THE NORTHERN CHANNEL ISLANDS.
SO WE GOT AT THE TIME OUR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCHERS
OUT THERE AND THEY SET OUT TO QUANTIFY THE NUMBER OF MALES,
FEMALES AND TRANSITIONALS.
AND OUR INITIAL PART OF THIS STUDY WAS TO START
AT SANTA CATALINA ISLAND RIGHT OFF OUR COAST.
SO HERE WE ARE.
SO RIGHT OFF OUR COAST BECAUSE THAT'S
WHERE THE HISTORIC STUDIES WERE DONE.
THE FIRST THING THAT OUR STUDENTS CAME BACK WITH US
AFTER THEY STARTED CATCHING FISH WAS A LITTLE BIT OF A ROADBLOCK.
YOU SEE, IT TURNS OUT THAT YES SHEEPHEAD ARE SEXUALLY
DIMORPHIC, BUT JUST LIKE HUMANS
WHO ARE SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC, THERE'S A RANGE.
SO IT'S NOT THAT TEXTBOOK PERFECT FEMALE VERSUS MALE.
HOW MANY MALES DO YOU THINK ARE HERE?
THREE. ONE MALE.
OH, THEY'RE ALL MALE.
TURNS OUT THAT THERE'S 2 MALES, 3 FEMALES AND 3 TRANSITIONALS.
SO YOU SEE, OUR STUDENTS ACTUALLY BECAME QUITE EXPERT
AT JUDGING THIS BUT IT'S VERY DIFFICULT.
OF THE 116 INDIVIDUALS THAT WE CAUGHT DURING THAT FIRST YEAR,
THEY SEXED 59 OF THEM CORRECTLY JUST BASED
ON THIS EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY ALONE.
AND THAT'S A PERCENTAGE RATE OF 50 PERCENT.
ANY [INAUDIBLE] STUDENT HERE WILL TELL YOU THAT'S NOT
WHERE YOU WANT TO BE.
THAT THAT'S NOT GOOD.
SO HOW WERE WE ABLE TO KNOW WHAT THEY REALLY WERE?
WELL, WE WENT TO THE GONADS.
THIS IS NOT A SHEEPHEAD.
THIS IS A CROSS SECTION OF A FISH SO YOU COULD SEE THE GONAD
AND SEE TOO WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IN THE BODY HERE.
HERE'S AN OVARY.
GONADS WERE REMOVED AND THEN SECTIONS WERE TAKEN
FROM THE GONAD.
THEY WERE EMBEDDED IN WAX
AND THE STUDENT SECTIONED THE GONADS SERIALLY
INTO 6 MICRON SECTIONS.
THIS TOOK THOUSANDS OF HOURS.
THEY DID THIS FOR HUNDREDS OF FISH TO DO THIS --
QUITE A LABORIOUS PROCESS.
ONCE THEY WERE ABLE, THEY TOOK THE SLICES AND THEY PUT THEM
ON SLIDES SO WE COULD LOOK AT WHAT THE GONAD LOOKED
LIKE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE.
AND THEIR RESULTS WERE BEAUTIFUL.
THEY DID AN EXCELLENT JOB.
IT'S CLEAR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AND OVARY AND A TESTIS.
THAT'S FOR SURE.
SO HERE WE HAVE AN OVARY AND HERE WE HAVE A TYPICAL TESTIS.
IN THE OVARY YOU CAN SEE THESE PALE CIRCLES HERE.
THESE ARE THE [INAUDIBLE] THAT WILL EVENTUALLY COMBINE
WITH SPERM TO PRODUCE A NEW INDIVIDUAL.
THOSE [INAUDIBLE] ARE SURROUNDED BY SUPPORTING CELLS
AND I'VE CIRCLED THE WHOLE STRUCTURE IN BLUE.
IT'S CALLED THE FOLLICLE.
SO OUR OVARIES ARE FULL OF FOLLICLES.
IN TESTES, YOU HAVE DEVELOPING SPERM SPERMATOCYTES HERE:
SO LESS MATURE AND MORE MATURE.
AND THIS IS TYPICAL OF A TESTIS --
OF A FISH TESTIS WHERE THEY DEVELOP IN PACKETS.
THE TRANSITIONAL GONADS LOOKED SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT.
THESE ARE AT THE SAME MAGNIFICATION
SO THE FIRST THING YOU CAN SEE IF THAT THEY'RE QUITE ATROPHIED.
WE DO SEE FOLLICLES.
WE DO SEE PACKETS OF THE DEVELOPING SPERMATOCYTES
BUT NOTHING IS MATURE.
SO OUR STUDENTS ANSWERED THAT --
ONE OF THOSE FIRST QUESTIONS RIGHT -- WELL NOT RIGHT AWAY.
IT TOOK THEM A LONG TIME BUT ONE OF THE FIRST PIECES OF DATA
THAT WE GOT WAS THAT THE TRANSITIONALS ARE NONFUNCTIONAL.
THERE'S NOT A -- THEY'RE NOT OVULATING
AND THEY'RE NOT RELEASING SPERM WHICH IS IMPORTANT --
WELL, IT MAY HAVE BEEN IMPORTANT.
YOU MIGHT THINK, "WELL IS THIS SOMETHING THAT MATTERS
TO HAVE THE TRANSITIONALS NONFUNCTIONAL?"
YOU MIGHT EVEN EXPECT THAT.
IN FACT, IF YOU LOOK AT THE HISTORIC DATA, THE DATA TAKEN
IN THE 1970S, YOU MIGHT NOT THINK
THAT THAT'S A BIG DEAL AT ALL.
BECAUSE THE HISTORIC DATA
AT CATALINA ISLAND SHOWED NO TRANSITIONALS DURING THE
BREEDING SEASON.
SHEEPHEAD HAVE A BREEDING SEASON.
THEY HAVE A NON-BREEDING SEASON.
WHEN YOU'RE IN BREEDING SEASON AND YOU ARE IN THE WILD,
YOU MUST SEIZE THE DAY, RIGHT?
YOU HAVE TO TAKE THAT CHANCE AND YOU HAVE TO BREED.
THIS IS IT.
THIS IS YOUR ONE SHOT TO PASS YOUR GENES
TO THE NEXT GENERATION.
YOU DON'T TRANSITION.
YOU DON'T HAVE NONFUNCTIONAL GONADS.
YOU NEED TO BREED.
SO WHEN WOULD YOU TRANSITION?
YOU WOULD TRANSITION IN THE NON-BREEDING SEASON
AND THAT'S WHAT THEY FOUND --
WARNER [ASSUMED SPELLING] FOUND IN THE 1970S.
HOWEVER, OUR [INAUDIBLE] UNDERGRADUATES FOUND
AT CATALINA ISLAND WHEN THEY COLLECTED IN 2004
THROUGH 2006 A 26 PERCENT TRANSITIONALS
IN THE BREEDING SEASON.
THESE DATA ARE FROM THE BREEDING SEASON ONLY IS THIS PERCENT
OF THE CATCH, IMMATURE FISH, FEMALES,
TRANSITIONALS AND MALES.
THE FEMALES, TRANSITIONALS AND MALES ARE ALL MATURE FISH:
26 PERCENT OF THIS CATCH IS NONFUNCTIONAL
FOR BREEDING SEASON AND THAT'S A BIG DEAL IF WE'RE TRYING
TO MANAGE THIS FISHERY.
THAT'S A REALLY BIG DEAL.
WHAT WE WANTED TO DO THEN IS TO SEE WELL YOU KNOW,
CATALINA HAS A LOT OF SPORT FISHING PRESSURE.
IT'S EASY ACCESS TO LOS ANGELES, TO LONG BEACH,
SO MAYBE CATALINA WAS UNIQUE.
SO WE WANTED TO EXPAND OUR STUDY THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE CALIFORNIA
COAST TO THE NORTHERN CHANNEL ISLANDS WITH DIFFERENT
OR LESS REDUCED FISHING PRESSURE
OR DIFFERENT [INAUDIBLE] PRESSURES.
BUT BEFORE WE COULD DO THAT, WE REALLY NEEDED TO GET A HANDLE
ON THE SEXING OF THESE FISH BECAUSE TAKING THE FISH,
KILLING THEM, TAKING THE GONADS, GOING THROUGH SERIAL SECTION,
THAT WOULD BE AN ENORMOUS TASK.
AND ALSO BESIDES THAT I MEAN WE HAVE STUDENTS WHO WOULD DO IT,
BUT WE WANTED SOMETHING THAT WOULD BE APPLICABLE:
SOMETHING THAT WE COULD TAKE TO THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT
OF FISH AND GAME AND SAY, "HERE'S A QUICK TEST.
HERE'S SOMETHING YOU COULD DO."
NOT "WELL YOU COULD TAKE OUT THE GONADS AND SPEND THOUSANDS
OF HOURS SECTIONING THEM."
NO, THEY DON'T WANT THAT.
SO THE FIRST THING THAT WE NEEDED TO DO WAS
TO DEVELOP AN EASIER LESS INVASIVE, LESS EXPENSIVE METHOD
FOR SEXING THESE SHEEPHEAD.
AND THIS IS WHAT OUR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT KARI LOAK
[ASSUMED SPELLING] STARTED
AND NOW SHE'S A GRADUATE STUDENT IN OUR PROGRAM.
SHE CAME UP WITH A VERY COMPLEX SERIES OF MEASUREMENTS
THAT SHE TOOK ON THE FISH.
MAYBE WE COULDN'T TELL AT FIRST GLANCE,
OKAY BLACK HEAD BLACK TAIL,
MAYBE THAT DIDN'T WORK FOR SEXING.
BUT MAYBE THERE'D BE A MEASUREMENT LIKE 4 HEAD DEPTH
BECAUSE REMEMBER, THEY DEVELOP THAT [INAUDIBLE] HUMP.
OR SOMETHING ELSE THAT IF WE JUST HAD A DIGITAL IMAGE
OF THE FISH WOULD BE EASY TO TELL IF IT WAS MALE,
FEMALE OR TRANSITIONAL.
KARI SPENT A LOT OF TIME DOING THIS,
DIGITALLY ANALYZING HUNDREDS OF FISH AND SHE LEARNED SOMETHING
THAT IS TRUE OF SCIENCE THAT IT DOESN'T ALWAYS WORK.
IN FACT SHE FOUND NO DIFFERENCE FOR ANY MEASUREMENT.
AND I'M SHOWING YOU 5 --
SHE ACTUALLY DID 15 DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS.
NOTHING WORKED.
SO THIS IS STANDARD LENGTH ON THE BOTTOM.
WE HAVE HEAD, AREA HEAD, OUTLINE, FOREHEAD LENGTH,
FOREHEAD DEPTH, BODY DEPTH -- SHE HAD TONS OF MEASUREMENTS.
NOTHING WORKED.
WHAT THESE GRAPHS ARE SHOWING YOU ARE SYMBOLS FOR MALES,
FEMALES AND TRANSITIONALS ALL PILED ON TOP OF EACH OTHER.
NOTHING STOOD OUT.
SO KARI SET OUT TO DEVELOP AN EASIER, LESS EXPENSIVE,
LESS INVASIVE METHOD OF SEXING AGAIN.
THIS TIME SHE WENT TO THE ENDOCRINE SIDE OF THINGS.
WE HAD BLOOD SAMPLES LIKE CHRIS SHOWED YOU
FROM ALL OF THOSE FISH.
AND YOU SAW THAT BLOOD SAMPLES COULD BE WITHDRAWN.
YOU DON'T HAVE TO KILL THE FISH.
YOU COULD CATCH AND RELEASE.
AND THIS WILL BE A GREAT THING FOR DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME.
SHE SET OUT TO MEASURE ESTROGEN WHICH IS MADE IN HIGH AMOUNTS
BY OVARIES AND TESTOSTERONE
WHICH IS MADE IN AMOUNTS BY TESTES.
AND HERE SHE SCORED.
SO THIS IS A GRAPH OF 17-BETA ESTRADIOL.
SEVENTEEN BETA ESTRADIOL'S SIMPLY THE MOST DOMINANT
ESTROGEN IN FISHES AND IN HUMANS AND MOST ANIMALS.
SO WE HAVE 17-BETA ESTRADIOL
AND [INAUDIBLE] PER MIL IN THE BLOOD.
YOU CAN SEE THAT IMMATURE,
TRANSITIONAL MALES HAVE VERY LOW ESTROGEN
BUT FEMALES HAVE HIGH AMOUNTS.
AND YOU WOULD EXPECT THIS.
FOR TESTOSTERONE, SHE MEASURED 11-KETO TESTOSTERONE,
THE MOST DOMINANT TESTOSTERONE IN FISHES:
NOT IN HUMANS BUT IN FISHES.
AND WE SEE IMMATURES HAVE A NOMINAL AMOUNT:
FEMALES HAVE NONE OR VIRTUALLY NONE.
TRANSITIONALS AND MALES BOTH HAVE TESTOSTERONE.
SO THIS IS A GOOD START.
WE CAN TELL FEMALES.
SHE WOULD HAVE HIGH ESTROGEN, NO TESTOSTERONE.
BUT WE CAN'T TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSITIONALS AND MALES
AT THIS POINT WITH OUR ENDOCRINE ASSAYS.
HOWEVER, IF WE THINK ABOUT THIS REPRODUCTIVELY,
THIS DOES GIVE US AN INSIGHT
INTO THIS TRANSITION OF THE GONAD.
NUMBER 1 IT MEANS THAT THOSE FEMALES, ONCE THEY COMMIT
TO TRANSITIONING, SHUT DOWN THAT PRODUCTION OF ESTROGEN
AND IMMEDIATELY CRANK OUT TESTOSTERONE.
THIS MUST BE AN EARLY RESPONSE.
SO WE'RE ACTUALLY LOOKING MORE INTO THAT STUDY SEEING HOW SOON
THAT THIS TESTOSTERONE BEGINS AS A POSSIBLE CLUE
TO HELP US UNDERSTAND THE TRANSITION.
KARI AND MIKE AND A NUMBER OF UNDERGRADUATES
IN OUR LABORATORIES HAVE SHOWN
THAT TRANSITIONALS ARE NONFUNCTIONAL.
DURING THAT BREEDING SEASON, THEY'RE THERE AT CATALINA
AND THIS IS A BIG DEAL.
THEY FOUND THAT MORPHOLOGY - WHAT THE ANIMALS LOOK LIKE -
IS NOT NECESSARILY THE BEST WAY TO SEX THEM
BUT THAT WE CAN USE HORMONE ANALYSIS TO PROVIDE ALTERNATIVE,
NON-LETHAL METHODS FOR SAMPLING THE POPULATIONS.
KARI HAS GONE ON.
SHE'S ACTUALLY SAMPLED SHEEPHEAD FROM SAN DIEGO
TO THE NORTHERN CHANNEL ISLANDS.
SHE'LL BE DEFENDING HER THESIS IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS.
I INVITE YOU ALL TO COME AND LISTEN TO HER DATA.
SHE'S DONE A FABULOUS JOB.
AND WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO REPORT OUR FINDINGS TO THE DEPARTMENT
OF FISH AND GAME LETTING THEM KNOW ABOUT THESE TRANSITIONALS
AND THE BREEDING SEASON.
LETTING THEM KNOW THAT THE POPULATION
OUT THERE IS NOT WHAT IT APPEARS.
AND THAT WE'VE GOTTEN GREAT FEEDBACK FROM THEM.
AND SO THIS IS EXCITING THAT OUR RESEARCH HAS BEEN SO APPLICABLE
AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE APPLICABLE.
NOW I AM OUT OF TIME BECAUSE WE STARTED LATE.
I HAVE 4 MINUTES OR 3 MINUTES OF WHAT YOU CAN DO AS A CONSUMER
TO PICK THE BEST ECO-FRIENDLY FISH.
IF YOU'D LIKE ME TO DO THAT, I CAN OR I CAN STOP.
>> [ INAUDIBLE AUDIENCE RESPONSE ]
>> OKAY, OKAY, ALRIGHT.
[ APPLAUSE ]
LET'S GO. SO USUALLY WHEN I START TALKING ABOUT -
BECAUSE I'M NOT A FISH PERSON EVEN THOUGH I GUESS IT SORT
OF DOESN'T SAY THAT - BUT I START TALKING ABOUT FISH,
GONADS, AND PEOPLE START -- THEY SAY, "OKAY, YEAH, YEAH.
YOU ALWAYS TALK ABOUT GONADS BUT TELL ME WHAT CAN I DO?
DO I BUY SHEEPHEAD OR NOT?
DO I EAT SHEEPHEAD OR NOT?"
THAT'S WHAT THEY WANT TO KNOW SO THAT'S WHY I WANTED TO END
WITH SOMETHING THAT YOU GUYS COULD TAKE HOME A LITTLE BIT
OF INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT YOU CAN DO AS A CONSUMER.
SO I HAVE A FEW SLIDES - SOME SHOPPING TIPS - ON BUYING FISH.
SOME OF THIS IS FROM SUNSET MAGAZINE.
I'LL HAVE THAT WEBSITE UP AS LONG WITH A NUMBER
OF OTHER WEBSITES THAT YOU CAN USE FOR INFORMATION.
SO NUMBER 1, THE THING TO DO IS MAKE IT WESTERN: CALIFORNIA,
OREGON, WASHINGTON, EVEN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
WE HAVE THE MOST RESTRICTIVE,
THE MOST ECO-FRIENDLY FISHING POLICIES
OF ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD.
SO LOOK TO SEE WHERE YOUR FISH COME FROM.
IT'S BETTER HERE THAN ATLANTIC.
IT'S BETTER HERE THAN IN OTHER COUNTRIES.
MAKE IT WESTERN AND YOU'RE MAKING A GOOD ECO-CHOICE.
EAT A VARIETY OF FISH.
I LIKE SALMON.
YOU MAY LIKE -- A LOT OF PEOPLE LIKE SALMON
BUT IF WE ONLY EAT SALMON, THAT'S NOT GOOD FOR THE SALMON.
SO THERE'S A NUMBER OF FISH OUT THERE THAT ARE TASTY,
DELICIOUS AND HEART HEALTHY.
AND WHEN YOU BUY THEM IN SEASON, THEY'RE CHEAPER, THEY'RE FRESHER
AND IT'S BETTER FOR THE FISH.
IT'S BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENT.
FINALLY, I GET ASKED THIS QUESTION A LOT:
WILD VERSUS FARMED.
AND THE ANSWER IS, IT DEPENDS.
SALMON, WILD: WILD ALASKA SALMON.
IMPRINTING THAT ON YOUR BRAIN.
WILD ALASKA SALMON.
THAT'S THE BEST.
THAT'S THE MOST ECO-FRIENDLY THING YOU CAN DO.
OR WILD PACIFIC SALMON AT LEAST.
DON'T BUY FARMED BECAUSE IT'S NOT ECO- FRIENDLY
BUT FARMED RAINBOW TROUT,
THE RAINBOW TROUT FISHERY IS ACTUALLY VERY ECO-FRIENDLY.
SO YOU HAVE TO KIND OF LOOK IN AND SOME
OF THESE WEBSITES I'LL GIVE YOU
AT THE END WILL GIVE YOU MORE INFORMATION.
A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT TOXINS.
MERCURY LEVELS, YOU'VE HEARD THIS IN YOUR FISH,
MERCURY LEVELS IN THE FISH.
WELL A VERY QUICK PRIMER ON BIOACCUMULATION,
MERCURY IS UBIQUITOUS.
IT'S EVERYWHERE IN OUR RIVERS, STREAMS, OCEANS.
IT'S REPRESENTED BY THE RED DOTS IN THIS DIAGRAM.
IF YOU'RE A SMALL INDIVIDUAL,
YOU'LL TAKE UP SMALL AMOUNTS OF MERCURY.
IF YOU'RE A LARGE INDIVIDUAL, YOU'LL ALSO TAKE UP MERCURY
FROM YOUR ENVIRONMENT.
BUT ALSO IF YOU EAT OTHER INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE TAKEN
UP MERCURY, YOU GET THEIR MERCURY LOAD AS WELL.
SO THE FARTHER UP YOU GO ON THE FOOD CHAIN,
YOU NOTICE THAT THE MERCURY LEVELS INCREASE.
YOUR FISH SHOPPING TIP: DON'T BUY TOP PREDATORS.
TOP PREDATORS HAVE MORE MERCURY LOADS.
DON'T BUY SHARK.
DON'T BUY SWORDFISH.
IT HAS THE MOST TOXINS.
STAY LOWER ON THE FOOD CHAIN IF YOU CAN LIKE SARDINES.
OR IF YOU WANT TO EAT A TOP PREDATOR LIKE SALMON,
GO FOR SOMETHING LIKE SALMON THAT'S SHORT LIVED.
SALMON MATURE AT 3, 4, 5 YEARS AS OPPOSED TO SOMETHING
LIKE TILE FISH WHO HAS 10 OR 15 YEARS TO ACCUMULATE MERCURY.
SO THIS IS A WAY TO REDUCE THE TOXINS THAT YOU GET.
FINALLY, IT DEPENDS ON HOW YOU COOK IT;
TOXINS ARE STORED IN THE FAT IN FISH.
IF YOU GRILL, THE FAT DRIPS OFF, RIGHT?
IT GOES AWAY.
IF YOU DEEP FRY THE FISH THEN THE FAT SEALS IN THE TOXINS.
IT ALSO I THINK CANCELS OUT THE HEART HEALTHINESS
IF YOU DEEP FRY.
[ LAUGHTER ]
SO, OKAY SO NO FISH AND CHIPS.
I'M RUINING YOUR WHOLE MORNING BY TELLING YOU THERE'S NO --
NO, THERE ARE PLENTY OF FISH LEFT TO EAT.
THERE'S PLENTY OF WONDERFUL CHOICES OUT THERE:
BEAUTIFUL FISH THAT ARE HEALTHY, THAT ARE SAFE,
AND THAT YOU CAN EAT ECO-CONSCIOUSLY.
YOU KNOW? WITHOUT TOO MUCH GUILT.
SO JUST A FEW OF THE CHOICES.
IF YOU FORGOT WHAT I JUST SCROLLED REALLY QUICKLY FOR YOU,
YOU CAN GO TO MONTEREY BAY AQUARIUM.
THEY HAVE A LITTLE PRINTOUT.
IT'S NOT THIS LARGE.
IT'S ACTUALLY POCKET SIZE.
SO YOU COULD TAKE IT WITH YOU.
AND THEY HAVE BEST CHOICES FOR SEAFOOD THAT SAYS,
"BEST CHOICES, GOOD ALTERNATIVES AND THINGS TO AVOID."
THEY ALSO HAVE BEST CHOICES IN SUSHI.
SPEAKING OF SUSHI, IF YOU LIKE TO GO OUT AND YOU DON'T COOK,
THE LONG BEACH AQUARIUM HAS ACTUALLY PARTNERED WITH A NUMBER
OF RESTAURANTS IN LONG BEACH THAT PROMISE
THAT THEY WILL ONLY USE SUSTAINABLE FISH.
AND THAT'S A BID DEAL.
SO YOU CAN SPEND YOUR MONEY AS A CONSUMER
AND ACTUALLY MAKE A GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICE.
SO HERE ARE THE WEBSITES THAT I PROMISED YOU.
I WILL LEAVE THESE UP HERE.
THE SEAFOOD FOR THE FUTURE, THIS IS FROM THE AQUARIUM
OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR WEBSITE.
MONTEREY BAY AQUARIUM,
IF YOU WANT TO DOWNLOAD THOSE LITTLE CARDS
TO TAKE WITH TO THE STORE.
THE WWW.EDF.ORG WILL GIVE YOU THE MERCURY PCB LOADS
AND IT'S A VERY USER FRIENDLY WEBSITE.
AND FINALLY, I GOT ALL OF THOSE BEAUTIFUL PICTURES FROM WWW.
SUNSET.COM AND THEIR SHOPPING TIPS.
SO I WANT TO THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE, FOR BEING HERE EARLY,
FOR LISTENING TO MY HORRIBLE VOICE.
I'M SO SORRY.
I WANT TO THANK OUR FUNDING AGENCY.
CHRIS AND I HAVE A GRANT THROUGH CALIFORNIA SEA GRANT.
WE'VE HAD A GRANT THROUGH DEPARTMENT OF FISH
AND GAME, [INAUDIBLE].
THE SETC AND THE LA ROD AND REEL ARE GROUPS OF FISHERMEN
IN THE COMMUNITY THAT SUPPORT OUT STUDENTS
AND THAT IS A HUGE DEAL.
WE REALLY THANK THEM.
THERE'S BEEN ABOUT A MILLION STUDENTS WORKING
ON THIS PROJECT.
THEY'VE ALL DONE A GREAT JOB AND WE APPRECIATE THEM.
AND I APPRECIATE YOUR TIME TODAY.
[ APPLAUSE ]