Российская Империя: Александр I. Часть 1. [07/16] [Eng Sub]


Uploaded by TheComradeRussia on 26.04.2012

Transcript:
NTV Television Company presents
Dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the Russian Empire
and to the 300th anniversary of St.Petersburg
Politically, the murder of Paul the First on the night of March 12,1801,
marked the end of the eighteenth century.
lt was the last palace revolution in Russia.
The crime committed in the Mikhailovski Castle
will hang heavily on Alexander the First during his 25 years in power.
ln his first decree on the accession to the throne
Alexander covers his father's murderers,
and says that Emperor Paul died of apoplectic seizure.
As a mourning son, he is supposed to be loyal to his father.
But no - Alexander mentions directly the goal of the plot.
He promises ' to follow the law and the heart of our grandmother Katherine the Great' .
After lvan the Terrible and Peterthe Great who killed their sons,
After Katherine ll who killed her husband, the Russian throne goes to a patricide,
Alexander the First.
His first years in power are described by poetic exclamations,
the most famous among them belong to Pushkin: 'The great beginning of Alexander's reign' .
The young emperor reinstates in their offices
12 thousand disgraced officers and officials, dissolves the Secret Service
and allows Russians to travel abroad.
He is the most handsome Russian emperor.
Tall and slim - unlike his father -
with a charming smile on his angel - like face,
Alexander, strolling along the boulevard, excites general admiration.
Professor Klutchevsky:
''The nerves, after being long tense of fear,
were now relaxed; and everyone was moved to tears.'
lt's allowed to subscribe to foreign editions,
while Russian press enjoys the most liberal censorship in the history.
All the political prisoners are amnestied.
All the political prisoners were kept here,
in Peter and Paul Fortress.
One of the released is said to write on the gates:
' No quarterage'', meaning that the Russian Bastille is now empty.
Alexander who got to know about that, was said to reply: ' Hopefully, forever' .
Out of his friends, descendants of the best families -
Kochubei, Stroganov, Novosiltsev, Chartoriysky -
Alexander made up an informal committee under his own chairmanship.
ln the Winter Palace they were drafting a plan for state reforms.
They're discussing personal immunity, and even the abolition of serfdom,
they substituted Colleges with Ministries and reformed the Senate,
created educational system, and opened 4 new universities.
The law on free farmers freed only 0.5% during Alexander's reign.
Prince Chartoriysky:
''The emperor would easily agree to free everyone,
should they volunteer to follow his will only' .
Russian problems seem so difficult to solve,
that he is attracted by confusing European politics.
Alexander is dreaming of the international acclaim of Katherine the Great.
At the night when Paul was murdered,
the Cossacks sent to fight in lndia, a British colony,
turn back halfway following Alexander's order.
He signs an amicable agreement with England, and a peace treaty with France.
But Napoleon gets ready to a new war,
while England equips a new anti - Napoleon coalition.
Russia will be its driving force.
A plot is exposed in Paris.
Royalists were going to pull down Napoleon and enthrone the Bourbons again.
A brigade of French dragoons kidnap Duke d'Engien.
He didn't actually claim the throne,
but out of all representatives of the overthrown dynasty he was the closest to the border.
He lived only 4 miles away, in the German princedom of Baden.
As cruel as the Jacobins could be, they shot down the Duke.
Napoleon Bonaparte:
''l am the French Revolution!''
Russia, a stronghold of monarchism, was indignant at that act of intimidation.
As an emigrant, the Duke spent some time in St.Petersburg,
while the wife of Alexander l, Russian Empress Elizaveta Alexeevna,
was Princess of Baden.
7 days of official mourning, Napoleon is proclaimed a brigand.
The catholic cathedral of St.Katherine in Nevsky prospect
sees the orthodox tzar heading the imperial family
at the burial service.
ln response to the demonstrated protest,
Bonapart recalls his ambassador from St.Petersburg
and on the next day he declares himself the emperor.
Now they are peers, Alexander l and Napoleon l.
They will meet and reward each other,
they will say ' brother' and embrace, forthey are great politicians.
But when he comes out of this cathedral, Alexander l knows that
Napoleon is his archenemy and rival.
Napoleon aggravated the hostility with a mortal offence.
His response to the Russian note of protest
was a rhetoric question published in an official newspaper:
''Should the murderers of Paul l be 4 miles away
from the Russian border would you not attempt to catch them?'
And it is an accepted fact that Paul died of apoplectic seizure.
Academician Tarle:
''lt was impossible to find a more official, public and clear way
to say that Alexander Pavlovitch is a patricide.
To fund the continental war
England provides Russia and Austria with 3 miln. pounds sterling.
Alexander enjoys the most friendly relations with King of Prussia,
Friedrich Wilhelm, and a hectic love affair with Queen Luise.
The Russian tzar goes to Berlin to contract an alliance.
During the farewell dinner in Potsdam, Alexander recalls
that he didn't make a bow to the ashes of Friedrich the Great.
Grandfather of the King, he was considered a military genius of Prussia.
''You can still do it!'', Luise cried.
All this seems an episode taken from a novel
poorly written by some German visionary writer.
Late in the night, the three of them, Alexander l, King Friedrich Wilhelm
and Queen Luise come out of the Potsdam Palace, cross the yard,
and go to the tomb of Friedrich the Great.
Alexander approaches the graveyard of a man,
whose feats were admired by his grandparents and father.
The clock chime midnight. Alexander kisses the grave - stone,
then the three of them join hands and swear eternal friendship
and deadly enmity to Napoleon, their common enemy.
lnspired and confident of victory,
Alexander immediately visits the Army in the field.
Napoleon's army was disposed along the Channel waiting forthe good weatherto descend.
England was in imminent danger.
Should the French cross the Channel, and its fate would be determined.
The English fleet won the Battle of Trafalgar,
but the English Army would surely lose a land warfare to Napoleon.
At this critical point, Russia enters the war.
Under Kutuzov's command the Russian army goes to the West.
lt is supposed to join the Austrian Army underfield - marshal Mack
to advance together and fight Napoleon.
Bonaparte leaves his camp at the Channel and rushes to face the Russians.
England is saved.
Before Kutuzov can join Mack,
Napoleon manages to circle the Austrian Army, makes it surrender,
and enters Vienna. The Austrian capital was never rendered to enemies before.
Napoleon releases commander Mack and let him talk to the allies.
You see the poor Mack.
Now Kutuzov is in face of being circled. But he gets out of the French clutches,
joins the Russian reserve army and wants to proceed retreating,
but the Army is visited by Alexander l and Austrian Emperor Franz l.
They considerthis as a timorous plan.
The decision is taken to give battle at the town of Austerlitz.
After the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is a Czech town of Slavkov u Brna.
but ' Austerlitz' is still used as a historical name of the place.
The surrounding fields witness one of the most devastating Russian defeats.
The problem is in these hills, Pratzen heights,
where the Russians and Austrians were disposed.
Below, a shred of mist, as high as a human body, covered the cavalry,
and the French, unseen from above, came close to the heights.
When, according to the Austrian plan, the allies descended the heights,
the French attacked them immediately.
Kutuzov foresaw this trap, but could do nothing.
He could only slow down the descent of the Russian regiments,
and this was the reason for his famous contention
with Emperor Alexander.
' You are not in the meadow of Tsaritsino, Mikhail lllarionovitch,
where they don't start the parade, unless all the regiments are there' .
' We don't start precisely because we are not in the meadows, and it's not a parade' .
The French storm the heights and smash the Russians
and the remnants of Austrian army. Franz l left the battlefield immediately.
Kutuzov didn't, and barely escaped to be taken captive.
Alexander l even tried to stop the fleeing army.
Emperor Alexander at Austerlitz:
''Stop! l'm with you! l'm also risking my life!'
But even his retinue ran off, and Alexander rode away in tears.
Forthe first time in 100 years Russia lost a battle royal.
And forthe first time, since Peterthe Great, the army was led by a King.
After Austerlitz, people believed that it's a bad sign to have an emperor in the field.
Alexandertried to send away all the witnesses of his shame.
Kutuzov was sent to Kiev as a governor.
There are two observations that have to do with astronomy:
the sun of Austerlitz, a sign of Napoleon's victory,
that he invoked afterwards, at Borodino and Waterloo,
and the sky of Austerlitz that Andrew Bolkonski is starring at
in ' War and Peace' by Leo Tolstoi.
With the flagstaff in his hand, injured Prince Andrew Bolkonski collapsed
on the Pratzen Heights, where this monument to heroes will be erected later.
He fell on his back and saw the skies that he hadn't seen before.
Serene and lofty high sky of Austerlitz.
The serenity of the sky makes him feel that all that battle and war,
all that competition between the two conceited emperors
was nothing more than an evil vanity.
Everything was meaningless and deceitful, apart from this infinite clear sky.
What a fine death!
Prince Andrew understood, that it was said of him.
He heard the speaker addressed as Sire.
Then, he was Napoleon, his idol, but it didn't matter,
because Prince Andrew was still gazing at the lofty infinite sky
with the clouds flying over it.
British Prime - minister Pitt lost his sanity and died out of despair.
His haunted look was called ' the look of Austerlitz' .
But Russia's spirit was not broken and the dropped out Austria
was substituted by Prussia in the next anti - Napoleon coalition.
But they counted in vain upon the heiress of Friedrich the Great's glory.
Prussia follows the steps of Austria.
Napoleon defeats the Prussian army in one week and occupies Berlin.
Heinrich Heine:
''Napoleon blew on Prussia, and it disappeared.''
King Friedrich Wilhelm flees to the outskirts of his country,
to Memel (now Klaipeda) closerto the Russian border.
Russia lost its major ally before even entering the war.
The campaign is short, half a year only. lts climax is in Eastern Prussia,
in today's Kaliningrad region.
Just as Koenigsberg was renamed Kaliningrad,
were all the other cities here.
There was some historical ambiguity in the changed names.
Preisish - Eilau, the place of a slaughterous 'stand - off' , is now Bagrationovsk,
named afterthe general who had covered the retreating Russian army.
Friedland, where Napoleon defeated the Russians, is now Pravdinsk.
Tilsit, where they had to sigh a peace treaty with Napoleon,
is now Sovietsk.
Thus, they went from Bagrationovsk to Pravdinsk through Sovetsk.
Peace of Tilsit was so disgraceful that upon hearing the mere name of it
' Every Russian must turn pale' , as Pushkin put it.
The disgraceful Peace of Tilsit was signed in today's Sovietsk.
ln Tilsit, the debris of the Russian Army cross the only bridge survived
to the other side of Neman. lt's impossible to continue the war.
Entering the city on the way to Russia,
Napoleon insists on personal negotiations with Emperor Alexander.
They decide to meet on the line of demarcation in the middle of the river,
French sappers built a raft overnight,
installed a pavilion there decorated with ciphers ' N' and ''A''.
The French epigram rendered by Denis Davydov:
' For England, the entire fleet is not as scary as this raft' .
When they first see each other, the emperors compete in courtesy
and come fast to the agreement.
Alexander needs a respite, Napoleon - his support in the war with England.
Everything changes. This used to be Napoleon's side of Neman.
Now it is the Russian Federation, Kaliningrad region.
And that used to be the Russian Empire. Now it is a foreign country, Lithuania.
But the border itself is still follows the middle of the river,
cuts the bridge into two parts, and only the heads of two states
may allow themselves to install a pavilion on the raft.
Afterthe defeats Russia suffered in Eastern Prussia,
the thing, Alexanderfeared most of all, happened.
The Russian and French empires now share the border.
lt may seem astonishing now. lt's a real nightmare for Germany and Poland.
Russia and France share the border. lt's like an old joke
about small firefights at the border between China and Finland.
Alexander makes King of Prussia participate in the negotiations.
Crushed and reduced Prussia
serves a kind of counterbalance to the excessive French might.
Napoleon writes to Alexander:
''Forthe fact that Prussia still exists it owes you only' .
For convenience, Napoleon suggests to hold negotiations on land.
He divides Tilsit, a Prussian city not long ago, into a French and a Russian parts.
Mamin - Sibiryak street, Prussians used to called it Wasserstrasse,
served a demarcation line between the French on this side, and the Russians - on that.
The first password for crossing to the other side was suggested by Napoleon:
''Alexander. Russia. Greatness''.
The second, suggested by Alexander, was: ' Napoleon. France. Courage' .
They exchanged more substantial compliments as well.
Thus, Alexander was awarded the Legion of Order,
while Napoleon got the highest Russian award, the Order of St.Andrew the First - Called.
Just recently, the same order was handed overto Commander - in - chief Beniksen
for a ' stand - off' he got in the battle with Napoleon at Preisish - Eilau.
And now, Russia declares its archenemy a national hero,
who is now its arch friend.
Apart from the tzar, Napoleon gave the Legion of Orderto 4 more Russians,
but not to the suggested Beniksen.
He hinted that the lattertook part in the plot against Paul l.
Napoleon wrote in his memoirs:
''lt was disgusting, that the son is asking award for his father's murderer' .
Alexander got the hint,
but, a brilliant hypocrite, he swallows his pride
and pretends to be still charmed by his genius.
Real conciliation between them is impossible.
But both emperors pretend to believe in the stability of their union.
Gagarina Street ,6.
Now, here is the best home supply store in the town of Sovietsk,
while in 1807 this house was occupied by Alexander, Emperor of all Russia.
The facade was rebuilt, but the yard still bears the traces of the past.
Almost every day, after official meetings, parades and dinners,
Napoleon comes here to visit Alexander at 10 - 11 p.m.
He comes by walking, alone, without his retinue and guards.
The two emperors drink tea and sit togetherfar into the night.
They discuss tete - a - tete, forthe Russian Emperor
speaks French better than the French one.
Napoleon speaks an unbearable Corsican dialect.
Historians call these discussions 'mysteries of Tilsit' .
But one thing is clear: in 1807 Europe was divided in this house.
Russia accepts Napoleon's conquests and him as the French Emperor,
and joins the continental blockade of England.
France gives carte blanche to Russia, as far as Sweden is concerned.
This means, Russia is free to conquer Finland.
lt was a longtime dream to move the border away from St. Petersburg,
and Sweden is Russia's traditional rival in the North.
Russia has been fighting it since Alexander Nevsky.
After Tilsit, only Sweden does not support the blockade of England.
King Gustav gives the Order of St.Andrew the First - Called back to Alexander.
He does not want to wearthe same order as Bonaparte does.
The last war between Russia and Sweden comes in 100 years afterthe Poltava battle.
Napoleon says to Alexander in Tilsit:
''Sweden is our enemy just because of its location' .
Taking this opportunity, Alexander declares the accession of Finland,
Eastern and Southern parts of the Kingdom of Sweden.
The army crosses the border, the enemy retreats without much fighting.
There lies the island of Suomelina, Sveaborg in Swedish.
The biggest fortress in the Kingdom of Sweden, the Russian take it by talking.
They agree with the governor:
' lf the Swedish fleet does not come to help by a set date,
the fortress will surrender' .
The fleet did come. The fortress surrendered.
The garrison was made promise
not to take part in warefare anymore,
and let go home.
Blitzkrieg didn't work. Local people went guerrillas,
the Aland islands saw a real revolt.
The war last a year and a half.
The most well - known episode of this war
is when the Russians crossed the Botnic Bay overthe ice
and entered Sweden.
Although there were fears, that the ice might break,
Bagration said to Minister of War Arakcheev, who came from St. Petersburg:
''lf they give an order, we go''. The order was given.
General Kulnev comes as far as Grisselgam, Barclai de Toli as far as Umeo.
When they see Russians 100 miles from Stockholm, Swedish negotiate fortruce.
According to the agreement, Sweden loses 1/3 of its territory.
Russia comes into eternal possession of Finland.
' We turned against a week neighbor and a close relative to please the Corsican' .
Alexander and King Gustav married full sisters.
But the rebukes were muffled by the victory.
There is a Finnish fly in the Tilsit's ointment.
The King, brother - in - law, has been pulled down.
The Emperor of all Russia is now also Great Prince of Finland.
The town of Porvoo, but Russians use Swedish names, not Finnish ones.
One parent state transfers them to another.
Helsinki is called Gelsingforce in the Russian Empire,
while Porvoo has the name of Gorgo.
Here, Alexander l makes a start to 108 years of the Russian history in Finland.
Representatives of all estates come together in this church
to take part in the sessions of the Finnish Sejm.
First time in the history Russia has a colony
politically more advanced than Russia itself.
Alexander's address to the deputies has been translated by governor - general Strengford.
' l promised not to change your constitution, your major laws,
and your assembly here acknowledges my promise.'
Finland gets even more rights that it had when being part of Sweden.
Not exactly rights, privileges.
The Grand Finnish Princedom is exempted of the central taxes.
Finland does not send soldiers to the Russian army.
' Not to serve and not to pay' is the Finnish motto in the Russian Empire.
Nearthe altar, there is a sculpture of Alexander, Great Prince of Finland,
king - benefactor.
England is a majortrade partner of Russia.
When Alexander joins Napoleon's blockade of the country,
the ruble rate drops by 50% .
The Army humiliated by its defeats grows contentious,
the nobility resents the union with the Corsican squirt,
Alexander is even hinted that he can suffer his father's fate.
But the tsartakes it. He plays fortime.
Ayear after Tilsit, Napoleon suggests another meeting.
Alexangder agrees to it. Petersburg is terrified.
Spanish Bourbons were recently invited to see Napoleon.
The whole family was simply hold hostages,
and made vail the Spanish crown to his brother.
Queen dowager Maria Fyodorovna thinks
that her son is being snared.
Maria Fyodorovna says to Alexander:
''You will lose your empire. Please stop before it's too late!''
Alexander is adamant. He goes there.
As a meeting point he was suggested a place equidistant from Paris and Petersburg.
Clearly, it will be the territory occupied by France,
but formally this suggestion was totally correct.
Passing by German states invaded by Napoleon,
Alexander goes to Erfurt, capital of Thuringia.
The main hall of the Erfurt Palace is now called ' the lmperial'
to mark that meeting.
Concerts and performances are also being held here now.
At that time, the famous ' Comedie Francaise' was invited from Paris
to perform every night.
The emperors chat about lovely actresses.
Alexander admits that particularly like one of them.
But Napoleon, as a real connoisseur, talks him out of the affair
and advices him to take care of his morality and health.
Heads of the conquered states come to Erfurt.
Napoleon glories in his role as the owner of the continent.
ln Europe, he either has feodaries or a great ally, the Emperor of all Russia.
Napoleon writes to his wife Josephine about his meeting with Alexander:
''Everything is going well...
Should l be a woman, l would probably be in love with him.'
Meanwhile, Taleiran assumes the role of a secret agent of Alexander.
Napoleon removed him from his position as Minister of Foreign Affairs,
but he still serves as his counselor.
The famous French diplomat explains his betrayal
by the wish to save the world from being totally enslaved by Napoleon.
Later, Taleiran will also serve an informerfor Austria,
but forthat, he will be paid.
lt's difficult to make Alexander sign the convention.
Following Napoleon orders, Taleiran edits the convention in the morning,
while in the evening he explains to Alexander,
which articles are disadvantageous for Russia.
Napoleon is irritated with Alexander's hard line.
He tries to convince and threaten him. He resorts to his favorable trick,
that he used to infuse fear in so many courageous men:
Napoleon pretends to be furious.
During an especially hot argument Napoleon bounds up,
takes his famous tricorn, otherwise resting on his knees,
thumps it upon the floor and kicks it.
Alexander is all smiles.
So what? You are harsh, but l am stubborn. Let's discuss or l'm leaving.
Finally signed, the convention turns their union into a military one.
But Russia will neverfight on the French side.
Napoleon thinks of founding his dynasty and is going to divorce Josephine,
whose health forbids herto deliver an heir.
lt's important to marry a descendant of a great royal family.
The Romanovs fit the best, and, being in Erfurt, Napoleon tries to find out
whether he can marry Alexander's sister,
Great Princess Ekaterina Pavlovna?
Probably informed by Taleiran in advance,
Alexander is evasive.
Napoleon sees Alexander off.
They ride side by side, and dishorse outside the Efrut limits.
They keep talking while walking along the road.
lt's their last meeting. They both feel how unstable their union is.
The threats of 1812 are near at hand.
The farewell.
The competing emperors embrace.
Later, when Alexanderfraternizes Emperor of Austria and King of Prussia,
historians will only mention ' cordial embrace' , but here...
When giving a friendly kiss French only touch
one cheek, then, another one.
Russians at that time must make three kisses,
as they now do during the Easter celebrations only.
Alexander gets into his carriage, Napoleon is standing here, on the road to Weimar,
and is looking after him, till the carriage disappears from his sight.
When he comes back to Erfurt, he is so gloomy,
that, as his retinue put it, 'nobody dared to approach the Emperor' .
ln St.Petersburg, as soon as Alexander comes back from Erfurt,
they announce the engagement of Great Princess Ekaterina Pavlovna
and German Prince George of Oldenburg.
The French ambassador in Russia informs Napoleon of his rival:
''Prince is ugly, ridiculous, his face is all pimples''.
When he was an artilleryman, Bonaparte wanted to serve in Russia.
He changed his mind, only because foreign officers would be relieved one rank
before being accepted to the Russian Army.
Napoleon was persistent in his intention to take a Russian wife.
The Pavlovsk Palace, near St. Petersburg,
residence of Empress Dowager Maria Fyodorovna. The Mother Empress.
Her opinion Alexander l refers to during the winter of 1809 - 1810,
when Napoleon asks hand of the Russian tsar's other sister,
Anna Pavlovna.
Alexander says that if he were to decide,
he would say ' yes' , without even leaving his office,
but his sisters' fates are fixed by their mother, he needs to get her decision,
and this will take 10 days.
They will answer him after40 days, however.
No doubt, Maria Fyodorovna and Alexander made the decision together.
Maria Fyodorovna agrees to this marriage,
but as Great Princess Anna is 15 years only,
the wedding is to be postponed fortwo years.
Their consent sounds like a refusal.
The Peace of Tilsit set Alexander against his circle of aristocrats,
his friends - young reformers.
The emperor's closest collaborator now,
and later, even a second important person in the country,
is a village priest's son from Vladimir region, Mikhail Speransky.
He has a genius for management. He structures the established ministries,
drafts the first Russian plan for separation of powers
and elective representation, up to the State Duma.
He suggests a highest advisory and administrative body,
the State Council. The both titles were suggested by Speransky.
lt's a kind of constitutional monarchy, but without a constitution.
Speransky:
''To endow governance with all the external forms of law,
but preserve the same power and space of autocracy' .
They established only the State Council,
and Speransky became first Russian Secretary of State.
ln winter 1810, forthe first time in the Russian history,
he resorts to shock therapy in the field of economy.
A record budgetary gap, unstable financial situation -
one ruble banknote is equal to 25 silver kopecks.
The Speransky therapy includes lower expenses, no emission
and higher excises on vodka.
Budget revenues doubles.
The country escapes default and acquires funds to get ready to the war.
Napoleon offers Alexander
one of his invaded states in exchange for Speransky.
But who likes to have a shock therapist in one's country?
Speransky is thought to be a traitor,
while the State Secretary does not hide his skepticism to
the tsar's personal qualities.
This house was thoroughly reconstructed. Speransky used to live in here.
The career of a brightest Russian bureaucrat was finally ruined here.
After not finding Speransky at home, a messengerfinds him on visit
and urgently invites him to come to the Winter Palace at 8 p.m.
At that meeting the Emperor discusses private issues in detail.
Not a single world about his betrayal and a subsequent punishment.
Speransky comes home very late.
He is met here by Balashov, Minister of Police,
with the tsar's orderto send him in exile.
The carriage is set and ready.
Everyone is sleeping. Speransky writes a note to his family and leaves.
He will live in Nizhny Novgorod, then, in Perm.
The exile won't be long. Speransky will be included in the amnesty to honorthe victory.
But the innovations that took place during the first half of Alexander's reign
on the outskirts of the country were even more spectacular
than the projects of the great reformer in the center.
Right in the spirit of Katherine's Restoration, Alexander affords
trade privileges - deprived by Emperor Paul - to Odessa,
a city established by his grandmother.
The city founder, de Ribas, was substituted by its constructor, Duke de Richelieu.
The intersection of two streets: de Ribas and de Richelieu,
is a tough district.
Duke de Richelieu escaped the horrors of the Great French Revolution.
ln Russia, first in the history,
he was appointed a special city governor -
administrator of Odessa.
ln this position, Richelieu, first in the history
shows that it's beneficent to reduce taxes.
' You take less, and you'll get more in the end' .
Alleviation of taxes immediately creates a trade boom.
By 1805, a relatively new Odessa port
is visited by as many ships as that of St. Petersburg,
just celebrated its 100th anniversary.
The South of Russia carries on trade through Odessa.The major item of export is wheat.
One tenth of all customs duties is spent on the development
and, after Petersburg, Odessa is the second regular city of the empire.
Richelieu erects a cathedral, a hospital, a theater, expands the port to coverthree havens.
The famous bronze Duke,
legendary administrator, is still admiring his doings.
Duke de Richelieu:
''We don't need too many regulations, as we are standing on a new base' .
lt's the only survived wall of the quarantine
built by Richelieu in Odessa.
There is also a quarantine mole, but it was thoroughly rebuilt.
Sanitary conditions of all cargoes from all ships,
entering Odessa, were surveyed.
Except most perishable goods, like fish and oysters,
all the other goods were quarantined,
as many ships came to Odessa through lstanbul,
famous for it plague epidemics. The same applied to people.
All sick people were quarantined, as soon as the came.
Here, behind the wall of the quarantine,
usually lived about 100 - 120 people.
The poor ones, who came to Odessa, but died in the quarantine
before being accepted to the city, were buried here, at the wall.
This was the first cemetery in Odessa. Now it's poet Shevchenko Garden.
As a contemporary classic of Odessa put it:
''New trees in place of old graveyards, keep their pensive silence.'
The quarantines do not help.
The severest plague epidemic swept off a quarter of the city's population.
But nothing affected the trade boom.
Richelieu's successor, Count Longeron, was another French serving Russians.
He got the Manifest on establishing
a free harbor in Odessa from Alexander.
Thus, first in the history, a free economic zone was established in Russia.
Odessa was surrounded by the border,
that could be crossed through the two land customs stations only.
One was the Khersonskaya, on the skirts of Peresy,
and another was Tiraspolskaya, here, in the street bearing the same name.
Here is a borderline ditch. Now it's Staroportofrankovskaya street.
Everything here, including the sale of sunflower seeds,
is the sphere of commodity - money relations.
And here is the free trade borderline, while further away lie thousands miles
of the country with quite limited business opportunities.
This trend will continue for 30 years, with some small breaks,
and will make the region prosper,
and provide Odessa with the status of the third Russian city after its two capitals.
Onegin visits this flourishing free - trade Odessa during his trip.
Puskin:
''Everything there breathes the spirit of Europe, everything sparkles
and shines with vivid diversity''.
Smugglers were hustling at the borderline of the Odessa free - zone.
The most peculiartrick was driving sheep through the customs.
The animals had Belgian lace hidden undertheir wool.
ln the early 19th century, there comes Russian American company,
the biggest in the world, on parity with the East - lndian one.
The front office is in Petersburg, in a mansion on the bank of Moika River.
Kondraty Rileev, one of the five executed Decembrists,
used to have his official housing here, before he took place in the plot.
Before the Revolt of Decembrists, Kondraty Rileev was a top - manager.
He is Manager of Secretariat and a stock - holder of the company.
Among the other stockholders of the Russian American company, who got dividends,
were Emperor Alexander l
and Empress dowager Maria Fyodorovna.
The stocks are kept in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.This is a skillfully made copy.
We didn't dare to use original copies for shooting.
These are the most valuable Russian stocks.
Neither before, nor after, a Russian company will not be the biggest in the world.
The Russian American company is the Russian America,
which is nowadays the State of Alaska.
The huge transoceanic colony served a private corporation.
The main business is valuable fur of kalans.
Kalans are sea beavers, who actually live in the ocean.
ln Russia they are also called 'beavers of Kamchatka' .
lt's main fur of the northernmost empire in the history at its heyday.
lt's appreciated for its shine and thickness.
There are more than 100 thousand hairs on a square centimeter.
This fur is for gentlemen only, it's used to make coats and collars.
When Pushkin says in ' Eugene Onegin' : 'His beaver collar is touched with frost' ,
he means, of course, sea beavers. River beavers were not much valued.
Let's see what Encyclopedia has to say about kalans:
''Best fur have a silver glimmer, as if they were covered with frost.'
There is no Russian administration in Alaska.
Nor any other state institutions. Everything is run by the company.
lt lt has military communities there, organizes expeditions,
including the first Russian round - the - world voyage of Kruzenshtern.
All this is in exchange forthe fur monopoly.
The Alaska head - quarters of the Russian American company
is the capital city of the imperial colony.
The town of Sitka is the former capital of the Russian Alaska.
The town is renamed, it was called Novoarchangel before.
The town is located on a rather big island in the Atlantic Ocean.
The island has not been renamed for some reason.
lt's still called Baranov lsland, USA.
lt's strange to see it on the map: ' Baranov lsland' ,
USA,in brackets.
Alexander Baranov was a merchant from Kargopol.
Over 30 years, he was manager of the company in Alaska,
and, thus, ruler of the Russian America. He was sometimes called governor.
Baranov island has Baranov street and Baranov Hotel.
At first, Russians didn't come along with Native Americans.
Here is the place of the hottest battle
between Native Americans and white newcomers from Russia.
There, on the lawn, one can see a totem pole to mark this event.
Taking the chance that Baranov was away, lndians attacked the Russian settlement
and killed all its dwellers. Here, on that lawn, they built theirfort.
Baranov came back. There, in the bay, he had his frigate ' Neva' .
But instead of storming the fort right away, as the lndians expected,
Baranov conducted a long siege. The lndians, unacquainted with the tactics,
didn't stand the breathless expectation and run away.
Peace followed that incident.
The company had its spiritual mission, and the lndians embraced Orthodox Christianity.
The biggest church here is still the Russian one.
Baranov married a baptized daughter of an lndian chief.
Nikolai Rezanov says about Baranov:
''His name is well - known even in California. Bostonians respect and admire him.
Americans from most distant places offer him theirfriendship' .
White Americans were called Bostonians at that time,
while lndians were called Americans.
Nikolai Rezanov was head of the first Russian round - the - world voyage
and a co - founder of the Russian American company.
He came to Alaska from Novoarchengel
and then went to California
to negotiate food deliveries.
Bread didn't mature in the Russian America.
This was a business trip:
he got there aboard of ' Yunona' , and went back aboard of ' Avos'' .
A heart - piercing story known in the US thanks to ' Rezanov' novel by Atherton.
ln Russia, it's famous due to ' Yunona and Avos' staged by the Leninsky Komsomol Theater.
''This Admiralty and the stock - exchange' .
California was a Spanish colony at that time.
ln San Francisco, Rezanov fell in love with Concepcion Arguello, daughter of the commandant.
ln the Russian play she is called Concitta.
The ocean is there, while here was the fort of the Spanish commandant.
lt closed the entrance to the bay.
Here, in place of the fortress that was built here later,
and even more famous Golden Gate Bridge,
Nikolai Rezanov, Russian state councilor, stayed as a guest.
ferent confessions.
Here comes their love story:
they were engaged in the interconfessional cathedral in San Francisco.
Concepcion waited forthe Pope's approval of her marriage with an orthodox Christian.
Rezanov brought food to Alaska and then rushed to Petersburg
to finish his business and go back to his bride.
But they had no chance to meet again.
San Francisco is now thought to be the most romantic city in America.
Nikolai Rezanov died in 1806, on the way to St.Petersburg,
in a guesthouse of Krasnoyarsk.
Concepcion was faithful to her beloved. She retired to a cloister.
She died in 1857 and is buried here, on the outskirts of San Francisco,
in the cemetery of Dominican Order.
These flags are to commemorate her 50 years of loyalty to her Russian groom.
The Russian National flag, the flag of the State of California,
St.Andrew flag of the Russian Navies and the flag of the Russian American Company,
run by Russian State Councilor Nikolai Rezanov.
Local researchers went recently to Krasnoyarsk,
they brought back soil from the grave of Rezanov and added it to the grave of Concepcion.
A smart colonialist, Rezanov planned to invade free lands
to the North of San Francisco and even drafted the report.
But Petersburg was to busy forthat.
Baranov, head of Alaska, organizes an expedition by himself.
On the seashore of California he founded Fort Ross.
Ross, at that time, was a synonym for a Russian citizen.
There was a famous march of the 18th century:
''Lets hear sounds of victory, a brave Ross enjoys himself!'
Such forts were established by brave Rosses in Chukotka 200 years ago,
in the Far East, at the Sea of Okhotsk, in Alaska,
Fort Ross is, probably, the only to survive.
Renovated by Americans, it is now part of their history.
Still it's one of the oldest buildings in California.
lt used to have 12 canons on its walls, foreign ships were not allowed in the bay.
To hunt kalans, Aleuts were brought from the Russian North.
But they didn't want to live in wooden houses, and put on theirtents.
Fort Ross is a military and administrative settlement.
lt is a Russian center in California.
lt covers lands inside the continent.
From the archives of the Russian American company:
''ln California, they not only promise to feed the colonies,
but also supply food to Kamchatka and Okhotsk.''
Russian River, 20 miles away from Fort Ross.
First Russian settlers called it Slavyanka.
Here they established their ranchos.
What else could one call farmlands of California?
Pasture farming was practiced here all the year round,
wheat was harvested here twice a year.
lt was planted in May and at this time of the year, in December.
From here, food was delivered to Alaska.
This river valley is the main granary of the Russian America.
The management of the Russian American company
is strong for extension of its lands in California.
Baranov would even suggest to buy bondsmen in destitute
regions of Russia and resettle them in California.
But at that time business also was not supposed to interfere with politics.
Alexander l responded suggestions by the Russian American company:
''Strict order: not to overstep the limits set forthe merchants'.
Russia would always be too busy with Europe to deal with America.
For Baranov sent his ' seizure party' to California in the very 1812.