Sự Tích Đức Phật 1 - The Life of Buddha 1


Uploaded by 48adidaphat on 23.12.2011

Transcript:

At one time,
Great Brahmās in the five Pure Abode heavens
have come down to the world and announced
that the Buddha will come to be born in the earth after one hundred thousand years from now.
And those who want to see him should always observe the precepts and do meditation.
Both human beings and divine beings are curious to know as to whether who would become Buddha;
however, no one could find a correct answer until one significant event takes place
when Devas and Brahmās assemble to discuss the matter.
Meanwhile,
they observed the following five decay signs in Santusita Deva:
the divine flowers decorating his body withers;
the color of his divine clothe looks fade;
sweat flows from his armpits;
his complexion looks dark;
he feels bored with everything in the heaven.
After observing these signs,
all Devas invite him to descend from Tusita heaven to be reborn in the mortal world.
The Bodhisattva then considers five great choices, namely,
time,
continent,
country,
family
and mother.
The time should not too short or too long
for human beings to get enlightenment;
the continent should be Jambudīpa;
the country should be central area;
the family should be royal family
or Brahmin family only;
the mother should be virtuous woman.
After considering the perfection of these five great choices,
the Bodhisattva then accepts the invitation of Devas.
At Kapilavatthu
Teachers,
how do you interpret the dream of the queen?
Her dream implies that
she would give birth to the glorious,
mighty and unequal son.
Ten months later
My Lord, it is customary that I have to go back to my hometown, Devadaha, to give birth to a baby.
My queen, I allow you to do so.
Ministers, I would like to rest here because we have almost travelled half a way.
Lumbinī Garden is pleasant and splendorous indeed.
You might feel tired because you have travelled for half of the day;
so please take a rest.
Queen, please go and rest under that tree over there.
I think I am going to deliver.
Let's come to help the Queen now! She is going to deliver.
At the time Queen Mahāmāyā gives birth to the son,
four Brahmās from Pure Abode heavens
carry a golden net to hold the body of the little prince.
The full moon day of the sixth lunar month,
80 years before the Buddha Era
I would be the World Honored One;
this is my last birth,
and I would no longer come to reborn again.
Sādhu!
The little prince was born three days.
I have heard the news of birth of the little prince;
therefore, I come to pay a visit.
I am so grateful for your present, hermit Asita.
You are respected by Sākya Clan for a long time.
Could you please foretell the destiny of my son so that my relatives could hear it?
My Great King,
please lay down the little prince in the cradle so that I can clearly see him.
Your little prince has charismatic characteristics which I have never seen in my life.
What is it, hermit Asita?
After seeing the special characteristics of the little prince,
I can foretell that the prince,
when growing up,
if he leads the worldly life,
he would be the Wheel-Turning Sagely King.
On the other hand,
if he leads the spiritual life, he would become the Great Teacher.
But what's a pity for me!
What's a pity, hermit Asita?
It is pity for me that I could not live long to see this great One.
My son would be the great and mighty person in the future.
The little prince was born five days.
There are 108 Brahmins attending the predicting ceremony,
but only eight of you who are well versed in Vedas are selected to foretell my son's characteristics.
Could you please tell me?
I examined the characteristics of the little prince and would like to predict
that if he rules as the king, he would be the Wheel-Turning Sagely King
who will rule the four continents.
On the other hand,
if he renounces the world, he would become the Buddha, the teacher of all, unequal teacher.
Revered Aññā-Kondañña,
you are the last one.
Are you agreed with these seven Brahmins who all foretell in two paths
that my son would become either the Wheel-Turning Sagely King
or the Great Teacher?
My Great King,
I have examined carefully the characteristics of the little prince and would like to foretell only one path.
He would leave the worldly life and leads the life of hermit and would certainly become the Buddha.
You have predicted that my son would certainly enter the monastic life.
What would inspire him to choose that path?
The Prince would see four divine messengers, namely,
the old man,
the sick man,
the dead man
and the ascetic.
Then he would leave the royal treasure and renounce the world and eventually enlightened as the Buddha.
I personally would like my son to stay on the throne and become the Wheel-Turning Sagely King,
ruler of all the four continents,
which is the greatest honor of all kings.
From now onward,
I will not allow my son to see these four signs.
After completing the prediction ceremony,
the eight Brahmins give the prince an auspicious name
"Siddhattha",
which means one who attains everything he wishes.
When the ceremony is over,
Brahmins return home
and ordered their sons
to become monks in the future
whenever Prince Siddhattha renounced the world.
When Prince Siddhattha was born seven days,
his mother, Queen Mahāmāyā passed away
and took rebirth as Deva in Tusita Heaven.
King Suddhodana then assigned Mahā-pajāpatī, the prince's aunt, to take care of him.
Subsequently, King Suddhodana promotes her to status of his queen.
The Queen Mahā-pajāpatī has her own son and daughter,
yet, she loves Prince Siddhattha as her real son.
The Plowing Festival
Both of you would like to see the Plowing Festival.
Today my father has ordered servants to decorate the palace tremendously.
You can only see this festival once a year,
so you can go and need not worry about me.
I will sit here.
If so, we ask for your permission to see for a while
and we will be back as soon as the festival is over.
While Prince Siddhattha stays alone amidst the peaceful atmosphere, sitting in a meditation under a rose-apple tree,
he could reach the first absorption in the late afternoon.
Shady trees naturally must blend following the sunshine,
but strange indeed,
the shadow of the rose-apple tree remains the same.
When the royal attendants come back from the ceremony to find the prince,
they surprisingly see this miracle
and go back to inform this to King Suddhodana.
The King hurriedly comes to see the miracle.
When my son was newly born,
hermit Asita came to pay a visit.
After examining him,
he then unexpectedly bowed to my son's feet.
At that time I also bowed to him once.
This is the second time I would bow to him for his miracle.
When Prince Siddhattha is seven years old,
King Suddhodana ordered his servants to dig a pond within the palace
for his son to play with his friends of the same age.
When Prince Siddhattha grows up,
he is sent to learn various arts with the renowned teacher "Visvamitra."
Within a short time
he has proficiency in all eighteen arts,
which are acknowledged by his teacher who has nothing more to teach him.
When he is sixteen years of age,
King Suddhodana orders his royal attendants to build three season palaces
where his son could spend time during each of the seasons.
His father comes up with every way to hinder him from entering the monastic life.
Eventually,
King Suddhodana consults with his ministers
to marry his son with a Princess Bimbā [Yasodharā].
Times pass by until Prince Siddhattha is 29 years old.
There is nothing worthy of sightseeing outside the palace, my son.
From my early childhood until now,
I have never gone outside the big and high wall of the palace.
I would like to see what is going on outside.
No other place else could offer you more gorgeous and pleasant life than our palace, my son.
Nevertheless,
I still would like to go and see with my two eyes;
father, could you please allow me to do so?
If you insist on going out,
I would not detain you.
I would order the royal attendant to prepare the chariot
and take you out tomorrow.
Thank you, father.
Wonderful indeed is the place outside the palace.
I don't understand why my father always tells me
that there is nothing pleasant outside the palace,
and does not want me to see it.
Channa, stop the chariot!
What is it, my Lord?
Look at that man!
Why his skin is wrinkled and he hardly walks by himself?
My Lord, he is an old man.
An old man!
My Lord, every man who lives for a long time would come to this stage.
Does everyone have to face this?
Channa, stop the chariot!
My Lord, what is it?
Why does that man sit shaking?
He is sick.
Really!
My Lord, sickness is common to all and everyone experiences sickness.
Prince, please come back and get on the chariot!
Prince, Prince!
Please come back and get on the chariot!
Is there any one within the cloth?
My Lord, it is a dead man.
Is it true that everyone must die?
Certainly, no one could escape from the death.
Even me!
Right, even the prince definitely must die.
Channa, stop the chariot!
Who is he?
He is an ascetic.
I see, he looks calm, self-controlled, and his manner is respectable.
Prince! The princess just delivers a little prince.
My dear son,
your father is finding out the way to end up suffering.
But when you were born,
you appear like a bond that strongly ties me.
I would give you a name "Rāhula", which means bondage.
For me, Bimbā [Yasodharā] is like my heart,
Rāhula is like everything.
Nevertheless, everyone cannot definitely keep away from aging, sickness, and death.
I must find any way to end up suffering for benefit of all
no matter how hard I would confront.
Channa, Channa!
Channa, Channa,
wake up now.
What is it, my Lord?
Bring Kanthaka Horse and wait for me at the gate of the palace.
Be careful;
do not allow others to see you.
Be as my Lord said.
While Prince Siddhattha is leaving the palace through the gate,
Vasavattī Māra appears to deter the prince
because he is afraid that he could no longer induce the prince to indulge in sensual objects.
You would rather return to the royal palace, prince.
Inside you are provided with a luxurious and comfort life.
Within seven days only
you are going to be a Wheel-Turning Sagely King,
so please do not abandon these things.
On the other hand,
life outside is full of sorrow and lonesome.
Neither I wish to be a Wheel-Turning Sagely King nor do I yearn for any treasure or lavishness
because none of these things can help the owners to eradicate suffering.
None of these things can help our beloved ones
and living beings to get away from the cycle of rebirth, oldness, illness and death.
Please don't obstruct me anymore!
Don't you think that you can get out of my control?
I would try to instigate you with lust, hatred and delusion,
and I would follow you every step like your shadow.
Let's see who is going to win.
At Anomā River
We reach the bank of Anomā River,
please stop here, Channa.
I would like to make a firm determination
that if I would get enlightenment,
may my hair fly on the air;
if not, may my hair fall on the ground.
It appears that when Prince Siddhattha throws his hair into the sky,
his tuft of hair flies on the air.
Then Sakka brought one casket to hold the tuft of hair of the prince
and kept it in the Cūlāmani stupa in Tāvatiṃsa heaven.
Then Ghatīkāra Brahmā brought the prince eight requirements for monks
and in turn the prince gave him clothes
which are kept by him in the Dussa stupa in the Brahmā world.
Don't be sad, Channa;
I have done it because I want to seek out the way to eliminate suffering for the sake of living beings.
You should go back and inform my father
that I would not go back to the palace until I could discover the truth
and the way to eradicate suffering.
Kanthaka Horse feels great sorrowful
and dies on spot due to heartbreak.
With the force of gratefulness to his master,
Kanthaka Horse is reborn as Deva in the Tāvatiṃsa heaven.
After leaving Channa,
hermit Siddhattha goes to reside at mango grove without having food for seven days.
Rājagaha City
On the eighth day,
he walks out of the mango grove
and enter Rājagaha City for almsround.
Citizen sees him so different from other ascetics in the sense
that he looks graceful, calm and respectable.
Everyone admires him and spreads the words among themselves
that hermit Siddhattha is as beautiful as Deva in the heaven who comes down to the earth.
After he receives enough alms food,
he then comes back.
He then sit down and reflects on variety of food mixed in the bowl
which is unpleasant to take.
I used to have food which was well-prepared and delicious.
Now I become an ascetic searching for noble truth,
why should I select food to take?
Food is merely vital for human beings to survive.
After receiving a message from the royal attendant who is sent by him to observe the hermit who is admired by citizen as graceful as Deva,
King Bimbisāra comes in person to see the renowned hermit and pleased with him.
The King feels highly delighted after having conversation with him.
However, King Bimbisāra thinks
that Prince Siddhattha might have quarreled with his royal relatives over the throne and then decided to renounce the world.
Hence, the King offers him the kingship which is refused by the hermit
who told the king that he had given up the kingship in order to end up suffering.
You have such a firm determination that I strongly believe
that you would certainly get enlightenment.
So, whenever you get enlightenment,
please come and teach me and people of Rājagaha City.
After that hermit Siddhattha visits hermit Ālāra Kālāma to learn his doctrine,
which he quickly completes within a short time.
Then he visits hermit Uddaka Rāmaputta to learn his doctrine,
which he again quickly completes.
Hermit Siddhattha then asks Uddaka Rāmaputta for higher spiritual attainment,
which he could not tell
and praise hermit Siddhattha in the place of teacher equal to his.
Hermit Siddhattha realizes
that the doctrines he had learned is not the way to reach liberation.
Thus, he leaves his teachers and continues his search for liberation.
At Uruvelā [Ascetic Forest]
Hermit Siddhattha reaches Uruvelā
and sees that the place is surrounded by the range of shady trees;
the place has the river running through it;
the place is located not far away from the village.
These things are suitable for doing meditation;
hence, he decides to reside here.
Brahmin Aññā-Kondañña who knows that Prince Siddhattha had renounced the world, feels pleased
and tells another seven Brahmins who used to join the prediction ceremony
to renounce the world along with hermit Siddhattha.
Nonetheless, only four of their sons decide to renounce the world and following hermit Siddhattha.
The Five Brahmins are
Aññā-Kondañña,
Bhaddiya,
Vappa,
Mahānāma
and Assaji
who are later on known as Pañcavaggiyā.
Then Pañcavaggiyā search for hermit Siddhattha in several places
until they met him who does meditation
and then serve him with the hope that when he gets enlightenment,
hermit Siddhattha would deliver his doctrine to them.
At that time, hermit Siddhattha believes that practicing self-mortification
could lead him to the end of suffering according to the belief of other ascetics.
His practice is divided into three methods:
The first method:
he uses his teeth to press teeth;
he uses his tongue to push palate so tightened that sweat flows throughout his body;
he then experiences suffering as if he is tightly squeezed at neck.
Then, he realizes that this is not the way to the path,
so he changes to another method.
The second method:
he holds his breath until air compressed in his ears;
he then gets headache, stomachache
and burning within his body.
Even then he is,
he never gives up his practice.
Again he realizes that this is not the way to the path,
so he changes to another method.
The third method:
he fasts until his body is emaciated.
His complexion is dark;
tendon appears on his body;
he is tired and experiences extreme suffering.
When he touches the body,
his hair falls down with bleeding.
I have been practicing self-mortification which no one else could surpass,
but why I still could not attain Enlightenment.
Or this way does not lead to the end of suffering.
Sakka views that Prince Siddhattha is anxious to know the way to get enlightenment.
How can I help him?
Yes, I shall do this.
Sakka appears with a three-string pin
and performs the musical instrument to release his stress.
He hits the first string
which is too tight, so it is torn.
The second string is too loose,
so this does not sound.
The third string is neither too loose nor too tight,
so it produces the melodious sound.
Now, I know that one must follow the Middle Path to get enlightenment.
Unfortunately,
I myself at this moment could not practice the Middle Path
with this feeble physical condition.
Hermit Siddhattha,
whom we admire, has been practicing self-mortification for six years,
yet he could not get enlightenment.
Now, he gives up his practice
and turns to take meals,
how can he attain Enlightenment?
Kondañña,
you are the most senior among us.
What do you think we should do then?
If so, doing service to him is useless.
I think we had better leave him here.
Bright night of the fourteenth day of the sixth lunar month
At dawn of the bright night of the fourteenth day of the sixth lunar month,
while sleeping, Prince Siddhattha has a dream of five great significant things.
When he gets up,
Prince Siddhattha interprets his dream as follows:
First, he would enlighten as the Buddha.
Second, he would deliver noble truth to divine beings and human beings.
Third, people from all places would come to him
and three gems, namely, Buddha, Dharma and Sangha would originate in the world.
Fourth, people from various castes would commonly have insight of four noble truths without distinction.
Fifth, people from various directions would offer him with gains, worship, through devotion.
However, he would no more have any attachment to the gains and worship.
At Uruvelā Senānīnigama,
Sujātā, the daughter of the millionaire,
in her early age used to make a vow to the Banyan tree,
if she married a man who was as wealthy as her
and her first born was a son,
when her wishes are accomplished,
she would prepare rich milk-rice to offer to the tree spirit residing in the Banyan tree.
My Lady, Sujātā! My Lady, Sujātā!
What has happenned Punnā?
Why are you so excited?
What a surprise!
I think the tree spirit is ready to receive your offering at that Banyan tree.
I saw him with my two eyes that he has ray around his body.
Hurry up!
Punnā, please bring me a golden bowl
to put in rich milk-rice and I will bring this food to offer to the tree spirit.
My wishes are already accomplished,
so I would like to offer you rich milk-rice
along with the golden bowl.
Please accept my offering.
At the Nerañjarā River
I make my determination
that if I could get enlightenment, may the golden bowl flow upstream.
In contrast,
if I couldn't, may the golden bowl flow downstream.
There have already been three Buddhas appear in the world.
Now, there might be another Buddha who is going to attain enlightenment soon.
I am Sotthiya.
I am pleased with you on seeing you and would like to worship you.
Please accept these eight bunches of Darba grass.
As long as I could not attain enlightenment, I would not leave this throne;
even when my body would remain only skin, tendon, and skeleton.
I have been watching on Prince Siddhattha every step
to deter him from finding the way to the end of suffering.
If I could let him do meditation,
he would stay out of my power.
Therefore, I have to hold him back
and destroy his firm determination.
The various merits Prince Siddhattha has accumulated through several past lives
protect him as if a crystal shield.
Prince Siddhattha is not afraid of anything and sits quietly.
Prince Siddhattha,
do you think that you could escape from my power?
If I could not conquer you by all my power and these weapons,
I would use other tactics.
Hermit,
the crystal throne you are now sitting on
exists by all my virtues,
and all my soldiers could be witness.
Please stand up and return the throne to me.
The evil one,
this crystal throne exists by force of merits I have performed in my past lives.
Who could be your witnesses?
I myself do.
The Mother Earth Spirit!
O Bodhisattva,
my bun which contains the pouring water
you have pour down while performing the meritorious deed
is sufficient to be evidence.
Victory over Vasavattī Māra allows Prince Siddhattha to have more concentration.
When he continues meditating in the late evening,
he could attain the first knowledge called Clarity of Past Lives,
which enables him to recall his previous lives.
Late at night, he could attain the second knowledge called Clarity of the Heavenly Eye,
which enables him to understand the cycle of births of all beings.
At dawn, Prince Siddhattha could attain the third knowledge called Clarity in Ending Outflows,
which is elimination of all defilements.
Thereafter he got enlightenment as the Buddha.
The full moon day of the sixth lunar month,
45 years before Buddha Era
Oh! Craving,
you have reared me for years.
Now, I find you and destroy you completely.
When Prince Siddhattha gets enlightened as the Buddha,
he rests under Bodhi tree experiencing the supreme bliss for seven days.
Then he goes out and stands without blinking his eyes in the open air
to observe Bodhi tree in order to recall its merit for seven days.
Then, he practices walk meditation between the Bodhi tree and the area he stands
to observe Bodhi tree for another seven days.
On the fourth week,
he sits crossed-legged in the crystal rest house which is created by Deva
and contemplates Abhidharma for seven days.
Week Fifth After Enlightenment
Sister Ragā, Sister Arati, there comes Sākya Gotama who attains enlightenment as the Buddha!
That's right, sister Tanhā!
That person is certainly Sākya Gotama.
Yet, our father, Vasavattī Māra, has been defeated by him
even though he came with his army.
So we have to revenge.
Sister Tanhā and Ragā,
in the mortal world I have never seen any single man who could defeat us,
three sisters, who represent desire, aversion and lust.
You are right, Sister Arati.
We would use our womanhood
to lure Sākya Gotama
and blind him in sensual object forever.
Prince, my dear prince!
Daughters of Māra,
return to where you came from!
What you are attempting to do could not induce me at all.
I had completely eradicated all my desire and pleasure.
My sisters and I do not pretend to use any charm to tempt you,
but we are really interested in you.
It's true that no man in this world could ever fascinate us like you.
We, three sisters, are ready to surrender our soul and life to you
without of anything in return.
We are really appreciated if you are satisfied with us even for a short time.
I have already told you
that I have completely eradicated all my craving and desire.
What else are you looking for then?
Leave here immediately!
From now onward, no one could get Sākya Gotama in control.
Week Sixth After Enlightenment
The Buddha rests under Mucalinda tree experiencing supreme bliss.
When he rests there,
it rains for the whole week.
Dragon King Mucalinda, who is pleased with the Buddha,
surrounds him and expands his seven hoods over the head of the Buddha to protect him from rain and storm.
When the storm and the rain stop,
Dragon King transforms his original form to the form of a young man and pays respect to the Buddha.
I am Mucalinda.
I salute you with respect.
Calmness is happiness of the righteous man.
Delight in secluded place;
non violence toward all beings,
extinction of passion, and elimination of all sensual objects are supreme bliss in the world;
eradication of egoism is supreme bliss.
The End of Week Seventh After Enlightenment
O Blessed One,
you have experienced supreme bliss for seven weeks without taking any food.
Therefore, I have brought this cherry-plum fruit from heaven for you.
Please take this.
These two merchants used to perform merit along with me in the previous birth.
It is appropriate for me to help them meet the Buddha.
Look at the carts, brother Tapussa!
All our cart stops moving
as if their wheels are stuck on the ground.
No matter how hard our men whip the cows,
still the carts do not move.
What's a strange! What is the cause of this?
Hey! Merchants, do you know that the great beings has just now enlighted as self-enlightened Buddha
and rested under the Rājāyatana tree over there.
Both of you should worship him and give him with meal cakes you have brought along with you.
Then you will be blessed with happiness and prosperity.
Both of us would like to offer you with meal cakes.
Please accept our offering.
My alms bowl just disappeared before I got enlightened
and the golden plate that contains rich milk-rice given by Sujātā also disappeared when I made firm determination.
Now these two merchants want to offer food to me.
The cultivator should not have more than one alms bowl.
We are Tapussa and Bhallika,
we would like to become the lay disciples and would like to take refuge in Buddha and Dharma throughout our lives.
O Blessed One!
Both of us wish to get one thing for worshipping.
Would you please kindly give us one?
I have discovered doctrine which is so subtle and profound
that common people could hardly understand and practice.
Living beings are divided into four groups as follows:
The first group is the most intelligent person
who could understand doctrine quickly,
who could be compared to the lotus that blooms immediately when it is touched by the sunlight.
The second group is the one whose intelligence is moderate,
who could understand doctrine when he is taught and trained,
who could be compared to the lotus that arises to the surface of water,
which is going to bloom next day.
The third group is the one whose intelligence is less,
who could understand the doctrine when he is taught and trained continually,
who could be compared to the lotus that grows up in water
which gradually arises up to the surface of water
and blooms finally.
The last group is the one who could not learn or get anything
even when he is listening to doctrine,
by which he could be able to attain enlightenment in the next birth,
who could be compared to the lotus in the mud
which become the food of turtles and fishes.
Thus, I would take care of my life to deliver my doctrine to all living beings
until my doctrine gets established for the benefit to all.
It's a pity
that hermit Ālāra Kālāma has just passed away seven days ago,
and hermit Uddaka Rāmaputta just departed yesterday.
If hermit Ālāra Kālāma would have lived for another seven days
and hermit Uddaka Rāmaputta for even one day,
they should certainly have attained enlightenment.
The Buddha enables to know through Omniscience Wisdom
that hermit Ālāra Kālāma and hermit Uddaka Rāmaputta had passed away.
Then he recalled five ascetics, who used to serve him
while he was practicing self-mortification.
He believes that ascetics Pañcavaggiyā are intelligent enough to attain enlightenment in a short time after listening to his Dharma.
At the Deer Park
Isn't that Sākya Gotama whom we used to serve before?
Yes, he is Sākya Gotama.
But he just gives up his practice without any reason.
When he comes to see us, we shall not greet nor welcome him anymore.
We should only leave a mat for him to sit.
Our delight on seeing him makes us completely forget about what we have already agreed upon.
Even I absolutely could not remember.
Sākya Gotama, why do you come in search of us in this park?
Don't call me like that.
Now, I could attain the enlightenment.
You all should pay attention to my Dharma.
If you follow my teaching,
you also could become enlightened one soon.
While you were practicing self-mortification for a long time,
you still could not become enlightened one.
You had abandoned that practicing
which intrigues us to leave you,
how come you could accomplish?
Have I ever told this to you before?
No, you have never told that word before.
Indulging in sensual objects
and practicing self-mortification
are not the ways to lead to the Truth
and should be avoided by cultivators.
The Middle Path is the way toward Nibbāna.
The Four Noble Truths is explained as follows:
Dukkha is physical and mental suffering, which is to be understood.
Accumulation is craving which is the cause of suffering, which is to be avoided.
Extinction is cessation of suffering, which is to be cultivated.
The Path is the way leading to cessation of suffering, which is to be cultivated.
After the three times turning the Dharma-wheel of the Four Noble Truths,
ascetic Kondañña is the first among five ascetics
to attain the vision of truth,
which is the state of Stream-Enterer.
Kondañña had understood it!
Kondañña had understood it!
O Blessed One,
I would like to ask for your permission to be ordained as a Bhikkhu.
Come, O Bhikkhus.
Doctrine is well expounded by me.
You should practice Dharma for the sake of extinction of suffering.
The full moon day of the eighth lunar month
The Buddha ordains Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahānāma and Assaji on the first day, the second day, the third day, the fourth day respectively.
In the fifth day,
the Buddha delivers discourse called No Mark of Self,
which can be explicated as follows:
There are five skandhas, namely,
form,
feeling,
cognition,
formation,
and consciousness.
Form does not have the self.
Feeling does not have the self.
Cognition does not have the self.
Formation does not have the self.
Consciousness does not have the self.
These five skandhas are not I and you;
they are not mine or yours;
they are not myself or yourself.
These are impermanent
because they exist, subsist and disappear.
At the end of discourse,
the five Bhikkhus attain the Arahantship.
My father has built up three mansions and provided many women to entertain me.
I used to think that I am nourished with happiness.
However, now I myself feel disgusted of the worldly life.
Was I born only to lead life like this?
Are only these things that could make me happy?
If that's true,
why do I still feel fed up and annoyed?
Alas! What distress! Alas! What danger!
Here is neither distress nor danger.
Come, Yasa, follow me
and I will speak Dharma for you.
Generosity is the means to train the mind in giving.
Observing precepts is the way to cultivate the mind in good action.
The danger of desire is the mind that is anxious when it attaches to five skandhas.
The benefit of renunciation is state where this suffering ends and other suffering ceases to exist.
After that, the Buddha has explained the Four Noble Truths to Yasa.
At the end of discourse,
Yasa could attain Sotāpanna.
These are my son's shoes.
I am going to find him, so all of you wait for me here.
Here comes the millionaire!
If he could see his son at this moment,
he would impede his son from attaining the enlightenment.
O Sir, have you seen the young man called Yasa who is my son, while you are sitting here?
Please sit down first and listen to my Dharma,
and then you could find your son.
The Buddha has repeated the same discourse to Yasa.
O Blessed One!
You make me attain the vision of truth.
I would like to become an Upāsaka and take refuge in three gems throughout my life.
Yasa,
you please go back home.
Your mother keeps on crying as she worries about you.
Yasa has listened to the doctrine for the second time and become Arahant.
Therefore, he would not return to the worldly life.
Yasa, you have earned the best thing in your life.
O Blessed One,
I would like to request you to take food at my house tomorrow.
When father of Yasa has returned home,
Yasa then requests the Buddha to ordain him as a Bhikkhu.
Mother and wife of Yasa become Sotāpanna after listening to discourse.
Both women are considered the first pair of the Upāsikās in Buddhism.
Vimala,
Subāhu,
Punnaji,
Gavampati,
you are all my closed friends when I lived the worldly life.
Now, I become a monk
and could not involve in the householder's affair.
Why do you come to see me here?
We have heard about the news of your ordination,
and we believe that your decision should be based on good justification.
That's why we are here to see you.
If so,
I would like to take all of you to meet with the Buddha
who shows me the way to liberation.
Moreover,
I would request the Buddha to preach discourse to all of you.
Disciples,
whenever you realize unwholesome and root cause of unwholesome,
wholesome and root cause of wholesome;
whenever you realize old age, death,
the cause of old age and death,
end of old age and death,
way to the end of old age and death;
whenever you realize suffering,
the end of suffering
and the paths to end suffering;
you then have a right view.
Fifty of you are my village friends;
if you have any trouble, I will help you as much as my monkhood could permit.
We all have heard about the news of your ordination
and we have faith in you,
so we would like to get ordained as well.
Okay!
I would take you to the Buddha
and then you yourselves should request him to ordain you.
O Bhikkhus,
in this doctrine and discipline you have learned
that we should not have any attachment in all states;
when you hear them and should know them with your own wisdom;
you contemplate all states in this manner:
We experience either happiness or suffering
or neither happiness nor suffering.
When you experience feelings,
you should understand that these feelings are impermanent
as they exist, remain and disappear again and again.
When you see that these feelings are impermanent,
you feel disgusted
and do not have any attachment to them;
you then look for renunciation
and consider the extinction of feelings.
O Bhikkhus,
now you all get enlightened
so please go to various directions to deliver the doctrine to living beings for the benefit of the world.
But you should not travel in two persons.
I myself would go to Uruvelā Senānīnigama to propagate the doctrine as well.
We are thirty Bhaddavāggiyā, who are induced by a foolish girl,
and we have been trouble walking to the cotton garden.
She had stolen the clothes and ornaments of one friend in our group.
If I find her, I would punish her.
Look!
There is a monk sitting under the shady tree over there.
Let's go to ask him whereabouts that foolish girl had gone.
Cultivator!
While you are sitting here,
have you seen the girl dressed up in green color passing by?
She took away our friend's clothes and valuable ornaments.
We try to find her but we could not.
Bhaddavāggiyā,
would you prefer to search for that girl
or to search for yourselves?
We'd better search for ourselves.
If so,
I will speak Dharma for all of you.
The wise man throws off his own self from involvement in five sensual objects
and attachment to these objects
because he understands
that searching for happiness in the short time is nothing but having attachment to sensual objects.
Consequently, this result in experiencing suffering which could be compared to a fish trapped with the hook and struggles to get rid of it.
Bhaddavāggiyā, now you all become the Bhikkhus;
so please travel to various directions to preach the doctrine for the benefit of living beings.
Nerañjarā River, Rājagaha City
Cultivator, why do you enter into my hut?
Cultivator,
I would like to spend night here.
We have devoted ourselves to fire worship, while this monk has different belief.
Why should I allow him to stay here?
At this moment, there are no vacancies for you to live in,
so I would suggest you find other places.
But I have to tell you that you have to walk far away to find your settlement
since these areas along the bank of Nerañjarā River belong to us, three brothers.
This area belongs to me Uruvela Kassapa who has 500 followers;
next area belongs to the second brother Nadī-Kassapa who has 300 followers;
next area belongs to the youngest brother Gayā-Kassapa with 200 followers.
You could see that all places are fully occupied.
But I have seen one empty place.
Where?
It is your house for fire worship.
Could you please allow me to stay there?
If you think so,
I don't mind permitting you to stay there.
But I have to tell you
that there is the malicious and venomous dragon residing inside.
You are going to take risk of yourself.
Uruvela-Kassapa,
I believe that dragon will not do any harm to me.
You please allow me to stay there.
Cultivator, if you believe so, then make yourself comfortable.
Now, that monk might have been destroyed by the dragon.
That monk has supernatural power as well;
however, he is not Arahant like me.
This monk is very powerful
since all deities visited him and listened to his Dharma every night.
Though he has great power, he is still not Arahant like me.
It rains heavily and floods.
That monk might have drowned in the flood.
Teacher! Teacher! Look at that!
That monk has such a great supernatural power indeed.
Yet, he is not Arahant like me.
This ascetic is so arrogant
that he thinks that he is Arahant.
He is stubborn one indeed.
Uruvela-Kassapa,
the path you have taken could not lead you to liberation.
Why do you still think that you are Arahant?
You yourself not only misunderstood,
but also misled others.
Should you abandon egoism and follow my teaching,
you could become Arahant sooner or later.
O Blessed One!
I felt very remorseful.
Could you ordain me as a monk and teach me your Dharma?
You are the great teacher who has a large number of followers,
so you should inform this matter to them first.
These offerings flow along the river
belong to my two elder brothers who dwell near riverbank upstream.
What's happened to them?
Uruvela! Nadī!
Gayā, both of us now have already seen the way to liberation.
You should promptly take your two hundred followers to pay respect to the Buddha
who has shown us the way to liberation.
O Bhikkhus,
all these things are burning,
which take place due to contact with our six sense organs,
namely, eyes,
ears,
nose,
tongue,
body
and mind.
These internal sense organs when contacted with external dusts
produce various feelings such as
happiness or sorrow,
neither happiness nor sorrow.
You experience these feelings
due to fire of desire, hatred and delusion.
These dusts are burning
because of birth, old age, death;
these dusts are burning
because of suffering, sorrow, remorse.
Noble disciple,
who realizes this fact will feel disgusted with these dusts.
When they feel disgusted,
they give up attachment;
when they give up attachment,
their mind gets rid of defilement.
Fortunately, the Buddha comes to stay here.
When I was young prince,
I had made five wishes as follows:
First, I wish to be the King of Magadha Kingdom.
Second, I wish the Awakened One could come to visit my country first.
Third, I wish I could sit near the Awakened One.
Fourth, I wish the Awakened One would teach me the Dharma.
Fifth, I wish I could understand the teachings of the Awakened One.
Now, all my wishes almost come true.
All of you should follow me to pay respect to the Buddha
and then I would request him to speak Dharma to us.
Dana is generosity;
forgiveness is the best Dana.
One who always performs generosity
becomes soft, self-controlled and calm
since he/she has abandoned sensual objects and arrogance.
O Blessed One,
now, all my wishes are accomplished.
I am very much appreciated with Buddha's Dharma.
Tomorrow, I would request the Buddha together with all disciples receive food at my palace.
O Blessed One,
the Palm Grove where you reside in is far away from the Rājagaha City.
It is not convenient for people to pay respect to you.
Therefore, I would like to offer the Veluvana Garden to be the royal monastery
because this bamboo garden is shady, large, quiet, and not far from the Rājagaha City.
Please give me a permission to build vihāra for you and your disciples.
Bamboo Grove Vihāra
Oh! This place is proper place indeed.
Building monastery here is considered as establishment of Buddhadharma in the world from now onward.
After I, Assaji, departed from the Buddha at the Deer Park in order to propagate Dharma, I have not met him at all.
At Nālandā near Rājagaha City
Upatissa,
do you enjoy drama, don't you?
Your face implies that you get bored.
Kolita,
why don't you ask your self first?
Your face implies that you get bored as well.
Both performers and spectators do not live more than a hundred year;
eventually they all must die.
It is useless for us to enjoy drama.
Instead, it is better for us to search for the path to end suffering.
I think so, too.
We shall try to find teachers from different schools.
Do you think what are the best schools and best teachers?
At present, there are several schools,
but we should become the disciples of teacher Sañjaya.
This is because his school is big and his disciples are large.
Moreover, his school is located in Rājagaha City.
Besides us,
we should also persuade our followers to become his disciples as well.
Alright! Let's go tomorrow.
Both of us have completed all what the teacher has taught us.
That's true,
but what the teacher has taught us
is still not the way to remove suffering.
If so,
we have to continue finding the new teacher and the new school.
We have been closed friends for a long time.
Let's make a promise
that who could first find the way to end up suffering should tell another.
I do agree.
Manner of this monk is respectable.
He is different from other monks I have ever seen.
I should take this opportunity to arrange him a seat and take care of him.
When he has finished his meal,
I then could ask him as to which school he belongs.
My name is Upatissa,
however,
people used to call me Sāriputta
after my mother's name.
I would like to ask you some questions.
Which school do you belong to;
and who is your teacher
and who doctrine are you followed?
I am Bhikkhu Assaji.
Sākya Gotama Buddha is my Teacher.
I am his disciple
and I followed his Dharma.
What does your teacher teach?
I was ordained as a monk recently,
so I could not preach a profound doctrine.
However, I can explain it to you briefly what my teacher teaches.
All dharmas arise from conditions, all dharmas cease because of conditions. The Buddha, the Great Samaṇa, often spoke of this.
Upatissa,
you merely utter a few sentences,
yet I could understand its essence.
Let's go to persuade our teacher to meet the teacher of the monk, Assaji.
Who do you think is more in this world, wise or foolish?
Teacher, there is foolish man more than wise man.
If so, the wise man would go to the Buddha
and I would welcome the foolish man here.
O Bhikkhus,
those coming two friends will be my two chief disciples.
When one observes complete precepts,
they always have mindfulness to keep up with every objects of sense.
When they realize the existence and cessation of these objects of sense,
they feel disgusted.
When they feel disgusted,
they abandon attachment;
when they abandon attachment,
their mind gets emancipation.
At the end of discourse,
all followers of those two friends become Arahant excepting Upatissa and Kolita who have not yet attained Arahantship
because this couple has great wisdom
and they do not promptly believe in anything.
Now, both of you are the Bhikkhus
and I will name you after your mothers' names
as Sāriputta
and Moggallāna.
Seven days later
Moggallāna,
you should apply the techniques of eliminating drowsiness as I mentioned.
Moggallāna,
you should contemplate that feelings are either happiness or suffering.
They are impermanent
because they exist and perish by their natures.
Because they are impermanent,
therefore they are suffering.
Because they are suffering,
therefore they do not have a self.
Thus, these feelings are impermanent, suffering and not self.
The full moon day of the third lunar month, fifteen days later
Master Gotama,
I think all those things are not suitable for me
and I am not satisfied with all those things either.
If so, you do not comply with your thoughts, Dīghanakha.
Someone have views that those things do not suit them;
whereas others have views that those things are appropriate for them.
Yet some believe that those things are suitable to them
and others believe that those things are not suitable to them,
they all still experience feelings
because they have clinging in the self.
When they understand that these are not permanent,
they feel disgusted.
When they feel disgusted,
they are free from attachment.
When they are free from attachment,
they get emancipation.
When they get emancipation,
they understand that they have reached liberation.
O Blessed One, your Dharma appears like turning objects up; opening the objects;
showing the way to those who lost the way; kindling the light in the dark place.
Hence, I would like to take refuge on Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha for the whole of my life.
Now, Sāriputta is the right chief disciple
who is foremost in wisdom,
while Moggallāna is the left chief disciple
who is foremost in spiritual powers.
From that onward,
the Buddha has more capable disciples to propagate the Dharma.
Venerable Assaji,
today is very auspicious day indeed!
Yes,
after hearing that the Buddha has resided at Bamboo Grove,
all the disciples are coming to pay homage to him.
Amazingly, four significant events took place today.
Four significant events took place as follows:
First,
all 1,250 monks came to meet the Buddha without prior appointment.
Secondly,
all these monks were ordained by the Buddha himself.
Thirdly,
all these monks attained Arahantship.
Fourth,
the day falls on the full moon day of the third lunar month.
Today is the day of Great Meeting.
I would speak Pātimokkha to all monks,
the essence of which is shown as follows:
Not doing evil deed, doing only good deed, purifying one's mind, these are the teachings of the Buddha.
At Kapilavatthu City
Kāludāyī,
I have heard that my son had attained Enlightenment;
I wish to see him once.
However, my attempt failed.
I used to send out a minister along with one thousand attendants to invite Buddha to visit Kapilavatthu.
Yet, I have not received any message from anyone.
I sent out nine ministers
along with nine thousand attendants nine times,
but no one return to inform me.
Now is your turn
as you are chief minister
and closed friend of my son.
You should go to Veluvana along with your attendants to invite Buddha again
and this time I believe that Buddha would accept the invitation.
I will try to invite the Buddha to visit Kapilavatthu.
May I ask for your permission to be ordained this time?
I allow you to do so, Kāludāyī
and you had better go there quickly.
I will wait here to receive good news from you.
O Bhikkhus!
Train yourselves not attach to six sense organs;
namely, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind,
and not attach to six external dusts;
namely sights, sounds, smells, tastes, objects of touch, and dharmas.
Do not attach yourselves to tangible objects;
do not attach to feelings;
do not attach to five aggregations;
do not attach to this world and next world.
Whenever you do not have attachment to what you have seen,
what you have heard,
what you have known,
what you have perceived,
what you have discovered,
or what you have wandered about by your minds,
these things could not affect your mind.
O Bhikkhus!
One is purified by
meditation,
wisdom,
righteousness,
moral,
but not by family or wealth.
Tomorrow is going to enter summer.
When the season of harvest is over,
the way to Kapilavatthu is convenient.
Your father has a strong intention to meet you together with all your disciples.
Could you please kindly visit Kapilavatthu to preach your father and relatives?
I accept your request, Kāludāyī.
Hence, you should inform this news to all the disciples so that they can prepare to travel.
The distance between Rājagaha to Kapilavatthu is about sixty milestones.
The Buddha together with 20,000 monks is travelling each day one milestone,
so it would take sixty days to reach Kapilavatthu.
At Nigrodhārāma
My relatives have selected this park for building Nigrodhārāma for the sake of Buddha.
This is the sixtieth day from the day they have heard the news from Kāludāyī about the visit of the Buddha who had left Rājagaha City.
The Buddha together with 20,000 disciples has already arrived.
The relatives are so arrogant
that Buddha is younger than them.
Hence, they ordered their children to sit in front,
so that they don't need to pay respect to the Buddha.
When you were born,
hermit Asita came and pay respect to you.
That was the first time I paid respect to you.
At the Plowing Festival when you sat under the tree,
but its shadow did not move forward on the same line of the sunlight;
hence I paid respect to you for the second time.
This time also you present a magical power,
so I would pay respect to you for the third time.
This rain is called Red Rain
because its color is red.
It is different from other rains
in the sense that whoever wishes to get wet, they will get wet
and whoever does not wish to get wet, they will not get wet even with a single drop.
It is like the drop of water that falls in lotus petal and rolls down.
Relatives,
this Red Rain is not only in this time
but also in the time of relatives in the past
when I was born as the King Vessantara.
People go to heaven by means of observing precepts,
people get wealth by means of observing precepts,
and people get Nibbāna by means of observing precepts.
Therefore, you should purify your precepts.
Why do you embarrass me by going for almsround?
Don't you remember that your lineage is kingship?
Do you think that I could not provide you and your disciples with food?
Father,
the lineage of kingship ends
when I attained Enlightenment
and established lineage of Buddha.
Almsround is the tradition for all monks in the Buddhadharma.
Father, please listen to my Dharma.
When one still has attachment to their form,
feeling, cognition, formation and consciousness,
they are bound by evil
and encounters all sufferings.
On the other hand,
when one has detachment to those things,
they free themself from all suffering.
Tomorrow,
I would like to request the Buddha together with disciples
to receive alms in the royal palace.
The fourth day of visiting Kapilavatthu City
Since you have visited the royal palace,
Mahā-pajāpatī and I have developed the high spiritual attainment gradually after listening to the Dharma.
You already stayed here many days,
however, Princess Bimbā [Yasodharā] does not come to meet with you
as she is sorrowful and keeps herself in the room.
Hence, I request the Buddha to visit and teach Bimbā [Yasodharā].
All right, father.
I would also like to bring Moggallāna and Sāriputta,
my left and right chief disciples along with me.
Why did you leave Bimbā [Yasodharā]?
Even when you decided to be ordained;
you did not tell me at all.
Did I do anything wrong?
What's wrong with our son, Rāhula?
Why did you leave him like an orphan?
Bimbā [Yasodharā],
don't be so sad.
What I have done is to help you and all living beings to end up suffering.
Bimbā [Yasodharā],
we are born as Dharma friends because both of us have accumulated merits for several births.
You should contemplate in this manner:
one has to become old
and no one could escape old age;
one has to get sick
and no one could escape the sickness;
the one has to die
and no one could escape the death;
one has to leave the beloved ones;
everyone has one's own individual action;
everyone is master of one's own action,
everyone has one's own origin as per action;
thus, whatever one has done,
be it good action or bad action,
one has to get its fruition.