Wild Game Food Safety- Fish


Uploaded by OkStateDASNR on 02.12.2011

Transcript:
- GOOD MORNING.
THIS MORNING, WE'RE AT LAKE KEYSTONE
UP BY TULSA, OKLAHOMA,
AND MEETING MR. BRENT GORDON.
HE'S THE NORTHEAST REGIONAL DIRECTOR OF FISHERIES
FOR THE OKLAHOMA DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE.
TALKING ABOUT FOOD SAFETY, HOW BIG OF AN IMPACT,
WHAT KIND OF NUMBERS OF FISHERMEN DO WE HAVE
HERE IN OKLAHOMA?
- YOU KNOW, THE DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE IS STRICTLY FUNDED
BY OUR LICENSE SALES OF BOTH OUR HUNTERS AND FISHERMEN.
WE HAVE ABOUT 800,000 ANGLERS HERE IN THE STATE.
THAT'S A PRETTY LEVEL--
OVER THE YEARS, THAT'S STAYED PRETTY LEVEL.
IT HASN'T GONE UP OR GONE DOWN, EITHER WAY.
BUT THAT'S INCLUDING OUR PART-TIME FISHERMEN
OR THREE-DAY FISHERMEN AND OUR ANNUAL LICENSES,
AND ALSO IT'S INCLUDING OUR LIFETIME
AND OUR SENIOR CITIZEN LICENSE.
SO THEY'RE ONE OF OUR BIGGER STAKEHOLDERS; THAT'S FOR SURE.
- WELL, WITH 800,000 LICENSED FISHERMEN
AND THEN SOME EXEMPT FISHERMEN,
WE'VE PROBABLY GOT UP CLOSE TO A MILLION PEOPLE FISHING.
LOOKS LIKE THERE'S A BIG OPPORTUNITY
FOR THIS FRAGILE TYPE OF FOOD PRODUCT,
ONCE WE REMOVE IT FROM THE POINT OF HARVEST
UNTIL WE GET IT TO THE TABLE, FOR SOME PROBLEMS TO OCCUR.
- THERE IS A LOT, AND AS IN FOOD SAFETY,
THE WHOLE H.A.C.C.P. THING APPLIES TO FISHING ALSO
AND GETTING YOUR CATCH TO THE TABLE
AND HANDLING IT CORRECTLY
AND MAKING SURE THAT YOU DON'T HAVE ANY PATHOGENS
THAT GO THROUGH IT.
- WELL, HANDLING THIS FISH,
WE'LL TALK ABOUT A LITTLE BIT LATER.
HOWEVER, IN THIS SEGMENT,
WHAT KIND OF IMPACT DOES WATER QUALITY HAVE
ON THE TYPE OF PRODUCT THAT WE HAVE?
- WATER QUALITY'S A BIG ISSUE
AND ALSO IN HOW WE MANAGE THESE FISH.
WE'RE TAKING A LOT MORE CONCERNS AND LOOKS
AT WHAT'S IN THAT WATER, WHAT'S IN THE SOIL,
AND THINGS LIKE THAT, SUCH AS MERCURY.
MERCURY'S ONE THING THAT WE TEST OUR FISH FOR REGULARLY WITH DQ,
SENDING IN LIVER SAMPLES AND MEAT SAMPLES
AND MAKING SURE THAT WE'RE BELOW THAT MERCURY LEVEL.
SO WATER QUALITY'S A BIG ISSUE WITH US.
USUALLY, FISH ARE A VERY GOOD INDICATOR
OF WHAT'S GOING ON WITH THAT WATER QUALITY,
SO WE MONITOR IT PRETTY HEAVY.
- AS AN AVERAGE FISHERMAN, IF I WERE TO SHOW UP HERE
AND THERE WERE SOME WATER QUALITY ISSUES,
SUCH AS MERCURY OR SOME KIND OF CONTAMINANT,
HOW WOULD I KNOW OR HOW WOULD YOU ALERT ME TO THIS?
- YOU KNOW, WHEN WE DO OUR TESTING--
DQ PUT OUT AN ALERT ON A COUPLE OF OUR LAKES THIS YEAR.
MOST OF THEM ARE IN THE SOUTHEAST.
WE DO HAVE ONE HERE IN THE NORTHEAST, HEYBURN,
WHICH HAS PRETTY HIGH MERCURY LEVELS.
BUT WE GET THOSE OUT TO THE NEWSPAPER.
WE HAVE A GROUP OF-- IN THE DEPARTMENT,
A DIVISION OF INFORMATION EDUCATION,
AND THEY MAKE SURE ALL THAT STUFF GETS OUT
TO THE PROPER MEDIA.
- I KNOW THAT AS A FISHERMAN, THE DEPARTMENT SETS LIMITS
ON NUMBER OF FISH YOU CAN CATCH, SIZE OF FISH YOU CAN CATCH.
WHAT'S THE PURPOSE OF THAT?
AND TELL US A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT HOW YOU MANAGE THE FISH
FOR THE PUBLIC IN OKLAHOMA.
- OVER THE YEARS, WE'VE GOT A LOT BETTER
ABOUT TARGETING FISH IN OUR SAMPLING PROCEDURES.
THIS IS AN ELECTRA FISHING BOAT.
WE USE THAT TO GO OUT
AND LOOK AT OUR LARGEMOUTH BASS POPULATIONS.
WE ALSO LOOK AT OUR BLUE CAT AND CHANNEL CAT POPULATIONS
WITH THIS.
BUT WE GO OUT EVERY SPRING AND FALL
TO LOOK AT THESE POPULATIONS, AND WE DO IT RANDOMLY
SO STATISTICALLY WE KIND OF KNOW WHAT'S GOING ON
WITH THAT POPULATION.
AND THAT'S SET-- OUR LIMITS ARE SET
FROM WHAT WE FIND OUT HERE IN OUR SAMPLING PROCEDURES
ON WHAT WE THINK THAT POPULATION CAN WITHHOLD.
IT ALSO DEPENDS A LOT
ON WHAT OUR STAKEHOLDERS, OUR ANGLERS WANT
OUT OF A CERTAIN POPULATION.
IF THEY WANT A TROPHY STRIPED BASS POPULATION,
YOU KNOW, THEN WE TRY TO MANAGE IT THAT WAY.
BUT, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE TO KEEP EVERYBODY IN MIND THERE.
WE DON'T WANT TO STOP THAT KID THAT CATCHES HIS FIRST FISH
FROM KEEPING IT AND TAKING IT HOME
AND EATING IT AND PREPARING IT,
BECAUSE THAT'S REALLY A BIG DEAL.
- WITH ALL THIS BEING SAID ABOUT FOOD SAFETY
AND MANAGEMENT OF FISH,
CAN WE GET YOU TO TAKE US OUT AND SHOW US SOME OF THIS HABITAT
AND SHOCK UP A FEW OF THESE GAME FISH?
- SURE, ABSOLUTELY.
LET'S GET TO THE FUN PART OF OUR JOBS.
- ALL RIGHT. LET'S GO SEE SOME FISH.
[upbeat guitar and fiddle music]
♪ ♪
WE'VE HAD A SUCCESSFUL MORNING SHOCKING UP A FEW FISH,
AND, MR. GORDON, IF I WAS AN ANGLER
AND I'M FISHING IN WATERS THAT THE WATER QUALITY'S GOOD,
WHAT SIGNS DO I SEE IN A FISH TO MAKE ME KNOW THAT HE'S HEALTHY?
- YOU KNOW, THE FIRST THING
YOU KIND OF START LOOKING AT A FISH
IS THE TAIL AREAS FOR PARASITE.
PARASITES ARE OUT HERE IN THE WATER CONSTANTLY.
IT'S JUST LIKE A LOT OF YOUR OTHER DISEASE
WITH CATTLE AND THINGS.
THERE'S DISEASES, AND EVEN THE COLD VIRUS,
IT'S OUT THERE ALL THE TIME.
IT'S WHEN YOU GET WEAK AND STRESSED AND RUN DOWN
THAT THEY KIND OF TAKE OVER.
SO IT STARTS SHOWING UP IN AREAS LIKE THE FINS,
AND YOU LOOK FOR PARASITES ON THERE.
THAT'S A GOOD PLACE TO LOOK.
A HEALTHY FISH IS ABLE TO WARD THOSE OFF
AND TAKE CARE OF THOSE.
ALSO, YOU START LOOKING AT THE GILL COLOR,
SEE HOW RED THAT IS.
THAT'S ANOTHER AREA.
THE SLIME ON A FISH IS VERY IMPORTANT.
THAT SLIME ON THAT FISH
KIND OF SERVES LIKE OUR SKIN DOES
IN KEEPING DISEASES OFF THAT FISH.
SO ANY WAY THAT YOU CAN PUT LESS STRESS ON THAT FISH
SO IT DOESN'T HAVE TO PRODUCE SO MUCH SLIME
TO WARD OFF THE PARASITES AND ET CETERA IS ALWAYS GOOD.
A LITTLE SALT IN THE WATER
KIND OF HELPS THAT SLIME COAT A LITTLE,
REDUCES THE STRESS ON THE FISH.
KEEPING IT WELL AERATED, THAT WATER,
WHEN YOU'RE HOLDING THAT FISH.
ANOTHER THING THAT HELPS A LOT
IS KEEPING THAT WATER TEMPERATURE COOL.
IN FACT, IN THE SUMMERTIME, THAT'S A LITTLE HARD TO DO,
BUT YOU CAN TRADE OUT YOUR WATER.
YOU CAN TAKE ICE WITH YOU, ET CETERA.
AND KEEPING IT AERATED,
THAT REALLY HELPS REDUCE THE STRESS ON THE FISH.
AND IF THAT FISH DOESN'T HAVE A WHOLE LOT OF STRESS,
THEN THAT FISH IS GOING TO REMAIN HEALTHY.
YOU CAN SEE THIS FISH RIGHT HERE.
ITS STOMACH AREA DOWN THROUGH HERE IS NOT GAUNT.
THIS FISH IS FEEDING WELL.
OUR WEIGHTS ON OUR FISH HERE IN KEYSTONE
ARE ALWAYS PRETTY GOOD.
IT'S A PRETTY FERTILE SYSTEM.
SO THOSE ARE SOME OF THE THINGS YOU LOOK FOR.
I BELIEVE WE HAVE A CRAPPIE IN HERE ALSO.
THERE HE IS.
I'LL SEE IF I CAN CATCH HIM AND--
- THAT'S A NICE-SIZED CRAPPIE TOO.
- IT'S A NICE CRAPPIE.
IF I CAN HANG ONTO HIM.
BUT ONCE AGAIN, YOU KNOW, YOU CAN SEE
THE FISH HAS GOT A LITTLE-- FEW LITTLE PARASITES
ON THE END OF IT, WHICH IS NATURAL OUT HERE.
BUT WHEN YOU START SEEING THAT COMPLETE TAIL
AND ALL THESE FINS
COMPLETELY ATE UP WITH THOSE PARASITES, ET CETERA,
THAT'S WHEN YOU GET WORRIED.
BUT THIS FISH IS IN GOOD SHAPE.
YOU CAN SEE ITS STOMACH.
IT'S A THICK FISH.
THE GILLS ARE GOOD ON IT.
LOOK HOW RED THOSE ARE.
THERE'S A LOT OF SLIME ON THIS FISH.
- SO THIS FISH SHOULD BE A GOOD FISH TO EAT.
- THIS'D BE A GREAT FISH TO EAT.
- ALL RIGHT.
- THIS IS A NONGAME FISH THAT WE HAVE HERE IN STATE.
IT'S A SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO.
YOU CAN SEE IT'S IN GOOD SHAPE.
BUT YOU REALLY DON'T THINK ABOUT THESE FISH RIGHT HERE
HAVING A LOT OF PROBLEMS.
THEY'RE MORE ON THE BOTTOM OF THE FOOD CHAIN, EATING--
SCAVENGER-TYPE FISH.
BUT YOU CAN SEE IT'S IN GOOD SHAPE TOO.
WE HAVE A FLATHEAD, WHICH IS ONE OF OUR TOP PREDATORS
HERE IN THE STATE,
PROBABLY IS THE TOP PREDATOR FISH.
THIS IS SIMILAR TO THE MUSKIE AND THINGS UP NORTH.
FLATHEAD.
STRICTLY EATS LIVE FISH.
THIS IS THE SORT OF FISH THAT YOU REALLY START TESTING FOR
AS FAR AS DISEASES
AND WHAT'S GOING ON WITH THE WATER QUALITY,
BECAUSE IT'S A TOP PREDATOR AND HANGS ONTO IT.
SO THIS IS ONE THAT WE'D PROBABLY TAG AND LOOK AT--
TAKE A LIVER SAMPLE AND TEST FOR MERCURY AND ET CETERA.
- SO THE BILE ACCUMULATION OCCURS MOSTLY
IN THESE PREDATOR FISH THAT FEED ON SMALLER FISH.
- YEAH, THEY'RE KIND OF THE TOP OF THE FOOD CHAIN.
- OKAY.
WELL, WE HAD A SUCCESSFUL FISH-SHOCKING SURVEY.
MR. GORDON SHOWED US SOME OF THE NICE GAME FISH
HERE IN OKLAHOMA
AND DESCRIBED THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF A HEALTHY FISH,
TALKED ABOUT WATER QUALITY.
THESE'LL HAVE TO BE RETURNED BACK;
THIS IS NOT A LEGAL MEANS OF TAKING THESE FISH.
BUT WE'RE GOING TO THANK MR. GORDON
AND GO SEE IF WE CAN CATCH A FEW OF THESE ON OUR OWN.
- OKAY.
♪ ♪
[plodding acoustic guitar music]
♪ ♪
- YOU KNOW, IT'S KIND OF LATE IN THE DAY,
AND THE FISHING'S A LITTLE SLOW.
WE'VE CAUGHT TWO OR THREE LITTLE FISH OUT HERE,
BUT THEY'RE NOT BITING ALL THAT WELL.
MY FAVORITE'S THE CURLY TAIL BLACK WORM.
HOWEVER, EVERY GOOD FISHERMAN
ALWAYS KEEPS THEIR SECRET WEAPON.
I CALL IT "CALLING ON PETE."
BIG FISH TREMBLE WHEN THEY HEAR ME CALL PETE FOR BACKUP.
[lively fiddle and guitar music]
♪ ♪
OH, YEAH, THERE HE IS.
OH, YEAH. OH.
I TOLD YOU PETE NEVER LETS ME DOWN.
NOW THAT WE'VE GOT SOME FISH ON THE STRINGER AND WE'RE THROUGH,
WE'RE READY TO GO BACK TO OUR FINAL DESTINATION
TO CLEAN THESE FISH,
THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT THING THAT WE CAN DO
TO PRESERVE THE QUALITY OF THIS MEAT
FOR GOOD FILLETS TO EAT IS TO GET 'EM ICED DOWN.
THESE FISH HAVE NATURALLY EXPIRED OUTSIDE THE WATER,
AND IF THEY SIT AROUND AND STAY WARM,
LACTIC ACID BUILDS UP, WE HAVE A CONDITION
MUCH LIKE DARK CUTTERS IN THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY.
BUT IF WE'LL PUT THESE FISH ON ICE JUST AS SOON AS WE CAN,
GET 'EM COOLED DOWN,
IT'LL PRESERVE THE TEXTURE AND THE FRESHNESS OF THIS FISH.
WE KNOW FROM THE COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY
THAT FOR EVERY HOUR A DEAD FISH SITS OUTSIDE AND NOT ICED DOWN,
IT DECREASES SHELF LIFE BY ONE DAY.
WE HAD A FAIRLY PRODUCTIVE DAY FISHING TODAY.
I MENTIONED EARLIER I LIKE A LITTLE BREEZE
TO PUT A RIPPLE ON THE WATER WHEN I FISH,
BUT WE GOT THAT AND THEN MORE TODAY.
THE BIG FISH YOU SAW US CATCH AT THE END,
WE WENT AHEAD AND THREW HIM BACK,
BUT WE DID KEEP SEVERAL OF THESE SMALLER FISH
SO WE CAN DEMONSTRATE HOW TO FILLET FISH.
THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT WAYS,
PROBABLY AS MANY WAYS TO CLEAN A FISH
AS THERE ARE FISH TO CATCH,
AND YOU MAY HAVE A WAY OR TECHNIQUE
THAT WORKS WELL FOR YOU
THAT WE'RE NOT GOING TO DEMONSTRATE TODAY.
I'M SURE THERE ARE SOME OLD-TIMERS
THAT HAVE PROBABLY BEEN CATCHING FISH
LONGER THAN I'VE BEEN ALIVE
THAT HAVE METHODS THAT MAY BE DIFFERENT FROM THIS,
AND IF THAT WORKS FOR YOU, THAT'S GREAT.
NOW THAT WE'VE GOT THE FISH HERE AND WE'VE GOT 'EM ICED DOWN,
LET'S TALK ABOUT OUR FISH-CLEANING STATION.
A FISH-CLEANING STATION HAS FOUR COMPONENTS:
A CUTTING SURFACE, A KNIFE, A RECEPTACLE FOR WASTE,
AND SOME TYPE OF RECEPTACLE TO PUT THE CLEAN FILLETS IN.
THIS AREA HERE IS A VERY SIMPLE PIECE OF EQUIPMENT,
YET IT'S QUITE FUNCTIONAL.
I LOOKED ON THE INTERNET YESTERDAY,
AND FISH-CLEANING STATIONS FOR YOUR BACKYARD
CAN RUN UP TO $500 TO $600.
THEY WON'T DO ANY BETTER JOB THAN THIS.
THE FIRST COMPONENT TO OUR CLEANING STATION
IS A CUTTING SURFACE.
A LOT OF PROFESSIONAL GUIDES AND FISHERMEN LIKE TO USE PLYWOOD,
A THIN PLYWOOD BOARD AS A CUTTING SURFACE.
THEY CLAIM THAT IT ALLOWS THE FISH NOT TO SLIP AROUND AS MUCH,
IT'S EASIER TO CLEAN FISH ON THEM,
AND IT'S PRETTY EASY TO REPLACE IF IT BECOMES BROKEN OR TORN UP.
EVEN A SURFACE LIKE THIS-- IT'S MADE OUT OF CONCRETE--
IS FAIRLY EASY TO USE OR THE TOP OF A CONCRETE PICNIC TABLE.
HOWEVER, THE SAME PROBLEM ARISES WITH CONCRETE
AS IT DOES PLYWOOD.
IT IS NOT-- IT IS A POROUS STRUCTURE,
AND IT'S GOT LITTLE CRACKS, LITTLE KNIFE CUTS,
LITTLE CREVICES AND HOLES
WHERE BACTERIA AND DIRT AND THAT SORT OF THING CAN RESIDE.
SO IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO COMPLETELY DISINFECT THOSE TWO SURFACES,
LIKE PLYWOOD OR THIS CONCRETE,
WITHOUT PAINTING IT WITH A SEALER,
AND THEN WE DON'T WANT THAT TO GET ONTO OUR MEAT.
THE ONLY TWO FDA-APPROVED CUTTING SURFACES
FOR CLEANING FISH
IS A HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC LIKE THIS--
THIS IS VERY COMMON IN THE MEAT-PROCESSING INDUSTRY.
IT'S EASY TO CLEAN.
IT'S--YOU CAN COMPLETELY SANITIZE THIS AND CLEAN IT UP,
AND IT WORKS REAL WELL.
ALSO, IT'S MORE FORGIVING ON YOUR KNIVES
THAN A SURFACE LIKE CONCRETE.
ONE OTHER SURFACE IS A PYREX OR HARD GLASS.
THIS WORKS WELL AS A CUTTING SURFACE,
AND IT IS ALSO FDA-APPROVED.
IT CAN BE COMPLETELY SANITIZED AND CLEANED PROPERLY.
I LIKE TO KEEP SOME KIND OF SMALL BOWL
WITH A LITTLE BIT OF SOAP IN IT,
AND BEFORE I START, I LIKE TO CLEAN EVERYTHING UP.
WE'VE WASHED THE CLEANING SURFACE.
WE'VE WASHED THE INSTRUMENTS, THE KNIVES, THAT SORT OF THING
BEFORE WE STARTED, AND RINSED THEM WITH WATER.
PROBABLY IF WE'D BEEN HANDLING THESE FISH FOR A WHILE,
IT'S A GOOD IDEA IF WE WASH OUR HANDS ALSO.
WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE FISH, WE HAD A NICE, PRODUCTIVE DAY,
AND WE HAVE SOME LEFT HERE.
SO IF WE WERE TO TAKE A FISH OUT OF THE ICE CHEST,
WHAT DOES A HEALTHY FISH LOOK LIKE?
THE EYES SHOULD BE CLEAR.
IF THEY'RE HAZY AND GRAY,
IT MEANS THAT THE FISH DRIED OUT.
THE EYES SHOULD BE NICE AND CLEAR.
SLICK, SHINY SURFACE.
IT ALSO SHOULD BE VERY TURGID, WHICH MEANS
IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S INFLATED AND STILL HAS PRESSURE.
IF IT'S FLAT OR COLLAPSED,
IT MEANS THE FISH IS PROBABLY DEHYDRATED.
THE OTHER THING WE LIKE TO LOOK FOR IS GILL COLOR.
EVEN THOUGH THIS FISH IS DEAD,
WE'VE STILL GOT SOME NICE GILL COLOR HERE.
AND OUR SLIME LAYER.
EVEN THOUGH THE FISH IS PUT ON ICE AND KEPT THERE,
THE SLIME LAYER'S STILL INTACT.
I LIKE TO BRING TWO ICE CHESTS WHEN I GO FISHING,
ONE TO CARRY MY FAVORITE COLD BEVERAGE,
AND THEN TWO IS THE OLD FISH ICE CHEST,
THE ONE YOU CAN THROW THE FISH IN.
TAKE A LITTLE ICE OUT OF YOUR ICE CHEST WITH THE COLD DRINKS,
AND ICE DOWN YOUR FISH.
SECOND THING TO A CLEANING STATION
IS A KNIFE.
THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF KNIVES.
THIS IS A HAND FILLET KNIFE.
FILLET KNIVES ARE MADE THIN
SO THAT THEY DO HAVE SOME FLEXIBILITY,
AND WE'LL SEE WHY
WHEN WE START TAKING THE SKIN OFF THIS FISH.
FILLET KNIVES HAVE TO BE KEPT EXTREMELY SHARP,
SO IF YOU'RE GOING TO USE A MANUAL FILLET KNIFE LIKE THIS,
YOU HAVE TO HAVE A SHARPENER.
THIS KNIFE, I BOUGHT YESTERDAY,
AND IT COMES WITH ITS OWN SET OF SHARPENING STICKS
RIGHT HERE IN THE BOTTOM.
THIS IS HANDY,
BECAUSE IT'S NOT EASY TO FORGET THE SHARPENING WITH THIS.
IF YOU DON'T HAVE A SHARPENER ON THE BOTTOM,
A STEEL WORKS BEST.
I ACTUALLY LIKE A STEEL A LITTLE BETTER
THAN THE CERAMIC STICKS.
IT SEEMS TO GIVE ME A BETTER EDGE.
THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS FILLET KNIFE
IS THAT IF YOU'RE DOING THIS ON A FISHING STRIP
OR IN THE MOUNTAINS OF COLORADO
AND THERE'S NOT A TREE TO PLUG YOUR ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE INTO,
THIS WILL WORK REAL WELL FOR YOU.
WE HAVE OTHER KNIVES THAT HAVE GAINED POPULARITY RECENTLY,
AND THAT'S ELECTRIC FILLET KNIVES.
THESE KNIVES CAN DO A LOT OF FISH REALLY QUICKLY.
THEY WORK WELL.
THEY DO REQUIRE ELECTRICITY.
I PRICED THESE YESTERDAY
ANYWHERE FROM ABOUT $30 TO $50 FOR AN ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE.
YOU CAN BUY THESE KNIVES.
THESE ARE THE OLD ELECTRIC KNIVES YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD.
YOU CAN PICK 'EM UP FOR $2 AT A GARAGE SALE.
AND THIS IS ACTUALLY MY KNIFE THAT I USED TO CLEAN FISH WITH.
THE THIRD THING FOR A GOOD FISH-CLEANING STATION
IS A WASTE RECEPTACLE.
A LOT OF PEOPLE ADVOCATE PLASTIC TRASH BAGS.
I TRY AND REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF PLASTIC THAT WE USE
AND PUT IN LANDFILLS.
IF YOU HAVE TO USE A PLASTIC,
I LIKE TO USE MY--RECYCLE MY PLASTIC ICE BAG.
THIS WORKS REAL GOOD
TO PUT THE FISH GUTS, THE FISH HEADS, AND ENTRAILS INTO.
OR MY FAVORITE IS ACTUALLY JUST A FIVE-GALLON BUCKET.
THAT WAY, I CAN KEEP IT ALL IN THERE AND POUR IT OUT.
A QUESTION ARISES, AND I'M COMMONLY ASKED,
"WELL, IF YOU'RE GOING TO USE A FIVE-GALLON BUCKET,
WHAT DO YOU DO WITH THE HEADS AND THE FISH ENTRAILS?"
I LIKE TO THROW THEM BACK IN THE POND.
SOME PEOPLE MAY SEE THIS
AS ADDING MORE WASTE INTO A BODY OF WATER.
HOWEVER, RECYCLING THE CARCASS OF THIS FISH
TO THE LITTLE FINGERLING AND THE LITTLE BAIT FISH IN HERE
IS A REAL NATURAL WAY OF TAKING CARE OF THIS
WITHOUT GENERATING MORE PLASTIC FOR OUR LANDFILLS.
AND THE FOURTH AND LAST THING IS,
WE NEED SOME KIND OF RECEPTACLE FOR OUR FILLETS.
I JUST LIKE TO USE ZIPLOC BAGS.
THEY KEEP REAL WELL.
THEY DON'T GO BAD.
IF I HAVE A GLASS BOWL, I BREAK IT,
AND A METAL BOWL, I LOSE IT, SO THESE WORK WELL.
YOU CAN PUT THE FILLETS IN HERE, COVER THEM WITH A LITTLE WATER,
AND THROW THEM RIGHT BACK IN THE ICE CHEST
WHERE YOU HAD THE FISH
UNTIL YOU CAN RINSE THEM OFF IN THE SINK AT HOME
FOR FINAL FREEZING.
AS I SAID EARLIER,
THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT WAYS OF CLEANING FISH.
A TRADITIONAL WAY OF PREPARING FISH,
ESPECIALLY ON THE COAST,
IS TO BAKE OR COOK FISH WITH THE HEAD ON.
THAT WAY, YOU JUST GUT THE FISH,
REMOVING THE INTESTINALS FROM THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY,
REMOVE THE GILLS, AND YOU BAKE THE ENTIRE FISH.
HOWEVER, IN RECENT YEARS, WE'VE BECOME MORE AWARE
OF HEAVY METALS AND TOXICANTS THAT ARE IN OUR WATER SUPPLY.
NOT ALL OF THESE CONTAMINANTS AND HEAVY METALS
ARE FROM MAN-MADE POLLUTION.
ESPECIALLY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST,
THEY HAVE HIGH LEVELS OF MERCURY, LEAD,
AND OTHER COMPOUNDS IN THE WATERS
JUST BECAUSE IT LEACHES OUT OF THE GROUND.
SO WE HAVE A TECHNIQUE IN WHICH WE CAN PREPARE THIS FISH
AND ELIMINATE A LOT OF THOSE CONTAMINANTS.
THE CONTAMINANTS THAT THE FISH ABSORBS FROM THE WATER
AND FROM THE OTHER FISH IT EATS
CAN BE CONCENTRATED IN CERTAIN AREAS OF THE FISH,
ESPECIALLY THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY AND THE FAT.
SO WHERE ARE THESE AREAS OF FAT IN A FISH?
A FISH TENDS TO ACCUMULATE FAT IN THE SKIN, IN THE ABDOMEN,
ALONG THE BELLY, AND ALONG ITS DORSAL FIN HERE.
SO AS WE FILLET THIS FISH,
WE'RE GOING TO TRIM THOSE AREAS OFF.
ALSO, MANY OF YOU HAVE PROBABLY EXPERIENCED,
WHILE YOU WERE EATING FISH,
A REAL MUDDY OR A REAL BAD TASTE IN A PIECE OF FISH.
THAT'S A PIECE OF FISH THAT CAME FROM ONE OF THESE AREAS,
A PIECE OF MUSCLE THAT THE FAT WASN'T TRIMMED FROM.
THAT REAL MUD TASTE THAT WE GET IN A LOT OF OKLAHOMA FISH
COMES FROM THE FACT THAT THE FAT WASN'T TRIMMED OFF THE FISH,
AND THAT'S WHAT IMPARTS A BAD FLAVOR.
A LOT OF FISH, ESPECIALLY CATFISH,
THAT TEND TO BE BOTTOM-FEEDERS AND TEND TO HAVE A MUDDY TASTE,
IF YOU'LL CLEAN THE FAT OFF OF 'EM,
YOU CAN AVOID A LOT OF THAT DISTASTE AND BAD FLAVOR.
I'M GOING TO GO AHEAD AND FILLET THIS FISH.
I'M GOING TO FILLET THIS FIRST FISH
WITH A MANUAL FILLET KNIFE,
AND THEN WE WILL GO TO THE ELECTRIC KNIVES AFTER THAT.
THE MANUAL FILLET KNIFE HAS TO BE KEPT EXTREMELY SHARP,
AND IT DOESN'T KNOW THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN FISH BONES AND FINGERS,
SO WE TRY AND ALWAYS CUT AWAY FROM OURSELVES
WHEN WE USE THIS FILLET KNIFE,
AND ALSO WE TRY TO AVOID OPENING THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
IF A LOT OF THESE CONTAMINANTS AND FAT ARE LOCATED IN THERE
AND WE CAN FILLET THIS FISH
WITHOUT EVER OPENING THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY,
WE CAN PREVENT ANY KIND OF CONTAMINATION.
I'M GOING TO SHOW TWO DIFFERENT FILLET TECHNIQUES.
THE FIRST ONE, WITH THIS MANUAL KNIFE,
WILL TAKE IT OFF WITHOUT OPENING THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY,
AND THEN THE MOST COMMON AND THE MOST POPULAR,
IN WHICH WE USE AN ELECTRIC KNIFE
AND SOMETIMES THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY IS OPENED.
ALL OF OUR EQUIPMENT--
OUR CUTTING SURFACE, OUR KNIVES, OUR HANDS--
WE'VE ALL WASHED AND RINSED IN WATER BEFORE WE STARTED.
THE FIRST CUT YOU WANT TO MAKE WHEN YOU'RE FILLETING A FISH,
WHETHER YOU'RE USING A MANUAL FILLET KNIFE OR AN ELECTRIC,
IS ALWAYS RIGHT HERE BEHIND THE PECTORAL FIN,
AND WE WANT TO ANGLE OUR CUT TOWARDS THE HEAD.
THERE'S A LOT OF MEAT-- IT'S REALLY THICK--
RIGHT HERE BEHIND THE SKULL PLATE.
DOWN HERE, MOST OF THIS BELLY MEAT
WILL BE DISCARDED ANYWAY,
BECAUSE OF THE RIBS THAT ARE LOCATED IN IT,
WHEN WE'RE THROUGH.
SO WE WANT TO MAXIMIZE ALL THE EDIBLE PRODUCT,
SO WE'RE GOING TO MAKE OUR CUT...
UNTIL WE ENCOUNTER THE BACKBONE, AND IT'S GOING TO STOP US.
THE NICE THING ABOUT FILLETING FISH
IS THAT MOST OF THE BOUNDARIES
THAT WE NEED TO DEFINE WHERE WE CUT
ARE LIMITED BY BONE.
SO WE CAN CUT, A LOT OF TIMES, UNTIL WE REACH THE BONE.
THEN WE WANT TO TAKE OUR FILLET KNIFE
AND FLOAT IT DOWN THE BACKBONE, MOVING IN A FASHION LIKE THIS.
ONCE WE GET HERE, WE CAN GO AHEAD AND--
ONCE WE'RE BEHIND THE RIBS,
WE CAN GO AHEAD AND COME ALL THE WAY THROUGH.
AND AS WE FOLLOW THE BACKBONE, WE FLOAT OUR KNIFE
RIGHT ON TOP OF THE BACKBONE TO THE VERY END,
STOPPING ABOUT RIGHT HERE AND NOT CUTTING THIS LOOSE.
WE'LL THEN OPEN THE FISH UP, AND WE'LL PEEL THIS FILLET BACK.
AND WHAT WE'RE DOING
IS JUST FLOATING OUR KNIFE RIGHT ALONG THE RIB BONES.
THE RIB BONES COME OFF AND ANGLE TO THE SIDE.
NOW, THE ADVANTAGES OF FILLETING A FISH IN THIS MANNER
IS THAT WE WILL NEVER OPEN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
YOU WILL NEVER HAVE ANY CONTAMINATION
FROM THE INTESTINAL TRACT OR FECES.
AND ALSO IF YOU DO LIVE IN AN AREA
WHICH HAS A HIGH LEVEL OF CONTAMINANTS,
YOU WON'T GET ANY OF THE ABDOMINAL FAT
OR THAT TYPE OF TISSUES ONTO THE FISH.
WHEN YOU'VE COME TO RIGHT HERE, WE'LL CONTINUE THIS ON BACK.
NOW, THERE'S THREE STEPS TO FILLETING A FISH.
ONE IS FILLETING, THE SECOND IS SKINNING,
AND THE THIRD IS DEBONING.
WHEN YOU FILLET A FISH IN THE MANNER WE HAVE HERE,
YOU WON'T HAVE TO DEBONE IT,
BECAUSE WE LEFT THE BONES ON THE FISH.
RIGHT HERE IS THE BELLY, OR THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY,
AND IT HASN'T BEEN OPENED.
WE CAN'T SEE THAT.
SO THIS IS PROBABLY THE SAFEST WAY TO PREPARE FISH,
BECAUSE THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY HAS NEVER BEEN OPENED.
THE SECOND PART OF FILLETING IS SKINNING,
AND THAT'S WHY FILLET KNIVES ARE MADE FLEXIBLE.
WE CAN HOLD THIS FILLET KNIFE DOWN
AND MOVE IT IN A SAWING MANNER.
ALL AT THE SAME TIME, WE'RE PUSHING DOWN.
AND WE HAVE ESSENTIALLY REMOVED THE SKIN FROM THE FILLET.
HERE WE HAVE A BONELESS, SKINLESS FILLET OF MEAT.
IT SHOULD BE SOMEWHAT TRIANGULAR-SHAPED.
WHEN YOU PREPARE THE FISH LIKE THIS,
THERE'S NO FAT ON THIS FISH, NO BONES, NO SKIN.
IT MAKES PERFECT TABLE FARE.
THERE ARE A FEW SPECIES OF FISH IN OKLAHOMA--
THE STRIPER, THE HYBRID, AND WHITE BASS--
THAT HAVE WHAT WE CALL A LATERAL LINE
THAT RUNS DOWN RIGHT THROUGH HERE.
ALL FISH HAVE IT.
THESE FISH SPECIES TEND TO DEPOSIT SOME FAT
AROUND THAT NERVE TRUNK,
AND IT'LL BE NECESSARY TO TRIM THIS OUT.
ANY RED MEAT NEEDS TO BE TRIMMED OUT,
BECAUSE IT WILL IMPART A BAD FLAVOR.
AND WE HAVE A WHITE BASS IN HERE
THAT I WILL DEMONSTRATE THAT TO YOU LATER.
I'M GOING TO BAG THIS FILLET AND THEN FLIP THIS FISH OVER
AND FILLET IT WITH THE RIBS IN IT.
I ALWAYS LIKE TO START FILLETING A FISH
WITH THE FISH'S BACK TO ME.
THE TISSUE, THE MEAT'S THICKER HERE,
AND IT'S EASIER TO KEEP YOUR KNIFE CLOSEST TO YOU
DOWN AGAINST THAT BACKBONE.
IF YOUR KNIFE RIDES UP, IT'LL RIDE UP OVER HERE,
AND THIS IS THE PART WE'RE GOING TO TRIM OFF ANYWAY.
IF I DO THIS THE OTHER WAY,
A LOT OF TIMES THE KNIFE WILL RIDE UP
AND I'LL LEAVE A THICK STRIP OF MEAT DOWN THE BACK.
ONCE AGAIN, WE START RIGHT HERE BEHIND THE PECTORAL FIN.
WE ANGLE OUR CUT FORWARD...
AND CUT DOWN TILL WE FEEL THE BACKBONE.
WITHOUT REMOVING THE KNIFE, WE TURN IT SIDEWAYS,
AND WE'RE CUTTING THE RIBS AS WE FLOAT THE KNIFE DOWN.
FLOAT IT RIGHT ON TOP OF THE VERTEBRAE
OF THE SPINAL CORD, THE BACKBONE.
WE FLOAT IT TILL WE GET RIGHT HERE.
WE'LL FLIP THIS OUT.
YOU'LL NOTICE THAT BY DOING THAT AND CUTTING THROUGH THE RIBS,
WE ACTUALLY ENCOUNTERED
JUST A LITTLE BIT OF THE ABDOMINAL CONTENTS.
THESE ARE EGGS.
THIS IS A FEMALE, AND THERE ARE THE FISH EGGS.
THE OTHER THING IS,
IS THAT BY ENTERING SOME OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY
AND SOME OF ITS CONTENTS,
IT'S POSSIBLE TO INTRODUCE SOME CONTAMINATION.
NOW, WE'RE GOING TO GO AHEAD
AND TAKE THESE FILLETS BACK TO THE HOUSE AND THE SINK
AND WASH THEM OFF
AND GET 'EM PRESERVED OR COOKED PRETTY QUICK,
SO THAT'S NOT A REAL THREAT.
BUT IF YOU ARE FROM AN AREA
THAT THERE ARE LARGE AMOUNTS OF CONTAMINANTS,
THEY'RE CONCENTRATED IN THE ABDOMEN.
THE OTHER WAY, WHERE YOU DON'T CUT THE RIB BONES,
IS ACTUALLY A LITTLE--
AND ONCE AGAIN, THE SKINNING OF THE FISH.
WE PUT OUR FILLET KNIFE DOWN UNDER THE FILLET,
AND WITH EVEN STROKES, WE SKIN THE FISH.
ONCE AGAIN, WE'RE CUTTING AWAY FROM US MOST OF THE TIME.
YOUR FINISHED PRODUCT HAS ALMOST NO MEAT,
AND WE LEAVE THE ABDOMINAL CONTENTS IN IT.
WE'RE NOT THROUGH WITH THIS FILLET, THOUGH.
WE HAVE FILLETED IT, WE HAVE SKINNED IT,
AND NOW WE NEED TO GET RID OF THE BONES.
YOU WANT TO PUT YOUR KNIFE
AND FLOAT RIGHT BEHIND THESE RIB BONES--
AND YOU CAN FEEL THEM WITH YOUR KNIFE--
AND REMOVE THOSE.
AND HERE WE HAVE AN IDENTICAL-LOOKING FILLET
TO THE ONE THAT WE DID PREVIOUSLY
EXCEPT THAT WE CUT THE RIB BONES OFF ON THIS ONE,
OFF THE FISH, AND THEN REMOVED THEM.
AND THE OTHER ONE, WE ACTUALLY TOOK THE FILLET OFF THE FISH.
SOME PEOPLE WILL KEEP THESE RIBS,
AND THEY USE IT FOR STOCK IN FISH SOUP
AND THAT SORT OF THING.
IT'S NOT A PRACTICE I'M FAMILIAR WITH,
SO I WILL LEAVE THAT TO OUR KITCHEN EXPERT, BARBARA.
I'M GOING TO DISCARD THE RIB PORTION
WITH A LITTLE BIT OF MEAT, RINSE OFF OUR CUTTING SURFACE.
IT'S NOT NECESSARY TO DO THIS BETWEEN EACH FISH,
BUT IT JUST MAKES IT A LITTLE NICER,
AND YOU DON'T HAVE TO CLEAN THE FILLETS UP QUITE AS MUCH
WHEN YOU GET THEM HOME.
THE NEXT FISH, I'M GOING TO GO AHEAD AND FILLET THEM
WITH THE ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE.
AND YOU'LL BE ABLE TO SEE
THE SPEED AND EASE AT WHICH THESE FILLET KNIVES WORK
AND WHY THEY'RE VERY POPULAR NOW AMONG FISHERMEN.
YOU CAN COME IN WITH QUITE A LARGE CATCH
AND BE ABLE TO FILLET FISH.
I SEE A LOT OF HOMEMADE CLEANING STATIONS
AT THE LAKE OR AT HOME
WHERE THEY HAVE AN OLD KITCHEN SINK
THAT HAS A WATER SUPPLY AND A BENCH ON EACH SIDE.
AND ONE PERSON'LL BE FILLETING FISH.
THE OTHER WILL BE DEBONING AND BAGGING THEM.
AND YOU CAN GO THROUGH A LOT OF FISH
IN JUST A VERY SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME.
ONCE AGAIN, THE ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE
DOES NOT KNOW THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN YOUR FINGER AND A FISH BONE,
SO CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN.
ONE OF THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS FILLET KNIFE
IS THAT WHEN IT'S NOT RUNNING, IT USUALLY DOESN'T CUT ANYTHING,
SO IT CAN ACTUALLY BE A LITTLE SAFER AT TIMES.
I'M GOING TO START THIS FISH.
ONCE AGAIN, LOOK HOW CLEAR THE EYE IS.
THERE'S NO BLOODSHOT.
IT'S NOT OPAQUE AND FUZZY.
IT'S NICE AND CLEAR.
WE'VE GOT SOME GOOD GILL COLOR.
WE'RE GOING TO START WITH THE FISH'S BACK TOWARDS ME.
I'M GOING TO PUT THE KNIFE JUST BEHIND THE PECTORAL FIN,
ANGLING MY KNIFE FORWARD,
AND CUT DOWN UNTIL I ENCOUNTER THE BACKBONE.
WITHOUT REMOVING THE KNIFE, I'M GOING TO TURN IT SIDEWAYS.
AND IN KIND OF A WALKING MOTION, I'M FLOATING ALONG THE BACKBONE.
RIGHT THERE.
AND THERE'S OUR FILLET.
WE CAN DEBONE THIS FILLET AND REMOVE THE SKIN.
THE OTHER REASON I LIKE TO WORK WITH THE BACK TO ME IS,
I CAN GET THE KNIFE DOWN BELOW
OFF THE EDGE OF THE CUTTING SURFACE
AND MAKE IT COMPLETELY PARALLEL WITH THE GROUND.
NOW, IDEALLY--AND WE'LL SHOW YOU ON THE NEXT FILLET--
WE WON'T CUT ALL THE WAY TO THE END.
I WOULD LIKE TO CUT TO ABOUT RIGHT HERE AND STOP.
HOWEVER, I SLIPPED USING THIS ELECTRIC KNIFE
AND CUT IT OFF.
YOU CAN START BY DOING THIS IN MUCH THE SAME WAY.
YOU WALK YOUR KNIFE.
AND WE HAVE REMOVED IT FROM THE SKIN.
[knife whirring]
AND WE MOVE THE RIB BONES.
THERE'S OUR FILLET.
SKINLESS, BONELESS, NO FAT, NO BAD TASTE,
AND AS FREE OF CONTAMINANTS AS YOU CAN GET.
WE'LL FLIP THE FISH TO THE OTHER SIDE.
MAKE OUR FIRST CUT ANGLED TOWARD THE HEAD.
CUT DOWN TILL WE ENCOUNTER THE BACKBONE.
TURN THE FILLET KNIFE, CUTTING THROUGH THE RIB BONES.
KIND OF WALKING THIS IN A SAW-LIKE MOTION TO THE END.
AND THEN WE WANT TO STOP RIGHT HERE.
WE FLIP OUR FILLET.
NOW WE'RE SKINNING THE FISH.
LOOK AT THAT, NOT A BIT OF MEAT LEFT ON THAT SKIN.
AND THEN WE'LL DEBONE IT.
SLIP IT RIGHT UNDERNEATH THE RIBS.
AND THERE WE HAVE OUR FILLETS.
NOW THAT WE'VE DESCRIBED IN DETAIL, IN SLOW MOTION,
HOW TO FILLET FISH AND WHY WE FILLET 'EM,
I'VE CLEANED THE TABLE OFF.
I LIKE TO RINSE OFF THE CUTTING SURFACE
IF I HAVE A GOOD WATER SUPPLY.
AND WE'RE GOING TO GO AHEAD AND CLEAN THIS FISH
MUCH LIKE WE DO
WITHOUT A LOT OF CLOSE PICTURES AND INSTRUCTIONS,
AND THEN I'M GOING TO DEMONSTRATE THIS
ON A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISH.
IT'S GOING TO BASICALLY BE THE SAME PATTERN,
BUT THERE ARE SOMETIMES SOME SPECIAL IMPLICATIONS
AS FAR AS, LIKE, A STRIPER OR A HYBRID
THAT HAS THE RED LATERAL LINE AND HOW TO REMOVE IT.
AND THEN ALSO WE'RE GOING TO DEMONSTRATE ON A CATFISH, SO...
JUST MAKE OUR INCISION.
GO DOWN TO THE BACKBONE.
A SAWING-LIKE MOTION.
WE'RE SKINNING...
AND THEN DEBONING.
MAKE OUR FIRST INCISION ANGLED TOWARDS THE HEAD,
DOWN TO THE BACKBONE.
NEXT, WE'LL DO A CRAPPIE.
BASICALLY, THE SAME EXACT TECHNIQUE.
HOWEVER, THE FISH IS A LITTLE MORE THIN
AND A LITTLE FLATTER.
WE'LL MAKE OUR INCISION GOING-- ANGLED UP TOWARDS THE HEAD.
YOU'LL NOTICE THAT THE BONES OF THESE SMALLER FISH
CUT A LITTLE EASIER.
I'M GOING TO STOP RIGHT THERE, FLIP OUR FILLET.
SKIN.
AND DEBONE.
CRAPPIE HAS A LITTLE WHITER MEAT AND A LITTLE SMALLER FILLET.
WE TALKED ABOUT EARLIER HOW THE FAT IN FISH IS RESPONSIBLE
FOR SOME OF THE OFF FLAVOR AND FISHY TASTE
IN SOME PIECES OF FISH,
AND WE DESCRIBED WHERE THE FAT WAS
AND HOW TO TRIM THAT OFF AND KEEP IT OFF OF FISH.
THERE ARE A FEW SPECIES, THOUGH, THAT WE MENTIONED EARLIER,
LIKE HYBRIDS AND STRIPERS AND WHITE BASS,
THAT HAVE A LATERAL LINE DOWN THE MIDDLE OF THE FILLET
THAT ALSO IS KIND OF A RED COLOR.
THIS RED-COLORED MEAT
ALSO IMPARTS A VERY FISHY OR BAD TASTE.
WE HAVE A WHITE BASS HERE-- OR COMMONLY CALLED A SAND BASS.
THIS IS THE STATE FISH OF OKLAHOMA.
WE'RE GOING TO CLEAN IT AND SHOW YOU THE RED LINE
THAT SHOULD BE TRIMMED OUT OF IT TO PREVENT ANY OFF FLAVOR.
WE'RE GOING TO START OUR FIRST CUT,
ANGLING FORWARD TOWARDS THE HEAD,
LIKE WE DID BEFORE.
WE'LL TURN OUR KNIFE, WORKING IT ALONG THE BACKBONE.
WE'RE CUTTING OUR RIB BONES
AND THEN FLOATING ALONG THE BACKBONE.
WHOOPS, I SLIPPED.
OKAY, YOU CAN ALREADY SEE SOME OF THE RED COLOR APPEARING
IN THIS MEAT ON THIS FISH.
OKAY, YOU SEE THE RED COLOR HERE?
THIS IS THE TYPE OF--THE MUSCLE AND THE TISSUE
THAT SHOULD BE TRIMMED OFF THIS FILLET
SO IT DOESN'T HAVE A BAD FLAVOR.
AND YOU CAN SEE IT COMES RIGHT DOWN THE CENTER
OF THIS FILLET.
WE WANT TO TRIM THAT RED MEAT OUT,
AND EVERYTHING ELSE WILL BE THE SAME.
I'LL FLIP THIS OVER
AND TRY NOT TO CUT IT OFF AS WE DO THE SECOND SIDE.
MAKE OUR FIRST CUT DOWN TO THE BACKBONE
IN FRONT OF THE PELVIC FIN, BEHIND THE PECTORAL FIN,
ANGLED TOWARDS THE HEAD.
TURN OUR BLADE.
FLOAT DOWN ALONG THE BACKBONE, CUTTING THE RIBS.
FLIP OUR FILLET.
SKIN THE FISH.
AND ONCE AGAIN, HERE'S THIS OFF-COLORED MEAT
THAT YOU DON'T WANT ON THE FISH.
WE'LL CUT OUR RIBS OUT,
AND THEN WE'RE GOING TO TRIM OUT THAT CENTER LINE.
IF YOU PREPARE THESE FILLETS IN THIS FASHION,
YOU CAN GO AHEAD AND UTILIZE THESE SPECIES
THAT HAVE SOME OFF FLAVOR TO THEIR MEAT.
ONE QUESTION I'M COMMONLY ASKED FROM ANGLERS
THAT ARE CLEANING THEIR OWN FISH IS,
"WHAT ARE THESE YELLOW AND BLACK KNOTS IN THE FINISHED FILLET?"
THIS FILLET IS FROM AN EARLIER BASS
THAT WE JUST CLEANED,
AND I FAILED TO SEE IT UNTIL LATER.
THOSE YELLOW KNOTS
ARE COMMONLY CALLED BY FISHERMEN "YELLOW GRUBS."
THEY'RE NOT A GRUB AT ALL.
THEY ARE ACTUALLY AN ENCYSTED TREMATODE WORM
THAT INSISTS IN THE MUSCLE.
THIS IS WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THIS YELLOW DOT RIGHT HERE.
IT'S VERY COMMON.
I'VE CLEANED FISH FROM SOME SMALL FARM PONDS
TO FIND THESE ALL DISTRIBUTED
THROUGH THE MUSCLE OF THE FILLET.
YOU'LL CUT THE FILLET OPEN,
AND THERE'LL BE A NICE, ROUND, YELLOW DOT
RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF THAT MEAT.
NOW, THE QUESTION IS, "WHAT IS THIS,
"AND IS THIS A PROBLEM?
"DO I NEED TO THROW IT AWAY?
WILL IT BE A HEALTH CONCERN, AND IS IT STILL CONSUMABLE?"
THIS IS AN ENCYSTED METACERCARIA TREMATODE WORM,
AND IF THIS FISH IS CLEANED LIKE WE HAVE AND COOKED PROPERLY,
IT POSES ABSOLUTELY NO HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD AT ALL.
IT'S MOST COMMON IN OUR BASS AND SUNFISH SPECIES.
AND IT CAN BE REMOVED QUITE EASILY.
I'M GOING TO GO AHEAD AND REMOVE THIS ONE WITH MY KNIFE.
IF YOU OR YOUR FAMILY ARE SOMEWHAT SQUEAMISH
ABOUT EATING THIS,
IT CAN BE EASILY DISSECTED LOOSE OR TRIMMED OUT.
SO IF YOU SEE IT DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE MUSCLE,
YOU CAN GO AHEAD AND TRIM THOSE OUT
SO THAT THERE'S NO PROBLEM AESTHETICALLY
FOR YOU EATING THE FISH.
WE'VE DEMONSTRATED THE WAYS TO FILLET FISH
IN A WAY THAT WE CAN GET A NICE, EDIBLE PRODUCT
WITH MINIMAL CONTAMINANTS.
HOWEVER--AND WE'VE SHOWN, IN SOME SPECIES,
HOW IF WE REMOVE THE RED MEAT AND THE RED LINE,
IT WILL REMOVE THE FISHY TASTE AND OFF TASTE IN OUR FISH.
ONE THING I DO WANT TO ADDRESS AND NOT AVOID HERE--
IS TO LEAVE ANYBODY OUT, SO I WANT TO TALK ABOUT CATFISH.
CATFISH FROM OKLAHOMA SOUTH ARE A HUGE SPORT FISH.
AND THE REASON WHY WE WANT TO TALK ABOUT THIS DIFFERENT IS,
A LOT OF ANGLERS LIKE TO SKIN CATFISH.
THEY'LL ACTUALLY PULL THE SKIN OFF FIRST
AND THEN CLEAN THE FISH.
I HAVE HELPED PEOPLE SKIN CATFISH.
THIS IS A FLATHEAD CATFISH,
AND THIS CATFISH CAN GET IN EXCESS OF 70 POUNDS.
AND SO WHEN WE CLEAN A FISH THAT GETS THAT LARGE,
SOMETIMES THERE'S SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS.
MANY PEOPLE, IF THEY GET CATFISH THAT ARE OVER 20, 30 POUNDS,
THEY LIKE TO HANG THEM UP AND SKIN THE FISH
AND THEN GO AHEAD AND CLEAN THEM.
I'M GOING TO ATTEMPT TO FILLET THIS FISH BY HAND ON ONE SIDE
AND THEN FILLET IT WITH A FILLET KNIFE,
AN ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE ON THE OTHER SIDE
AND SHOW THAT WE CAN GO AHEAD AND REMOVE CATFISH SKIN
THE SAME WAY YOU CAN WITH A REALLY GOOD KNIFE,
AND IT WILL ALLEVIATE THE HAND-SKINNING PROBLEM.
WE'LL GO AHEAD AND MAKE AN INCISION
VERY MUCH THE SAME WAY WE DID, ANGLING TOWARDS THE HEAD.
NOW, CATFISH PUT A LOT OF FAT,
AND THEY CONCENTRATE IT IN THEIR BELLY--BELLY MEAT
RIGHT ALONG HERE.
SO--AND THAT'S ALSO WHERE OUR RIBS ARE.
SO WE'RE TYPICALLY GOING TO TRY AND AVOID THAT.
WE'RE GOING TO FLOAT OUR FILLET KNIFE
ALONG THE BACKBONE, OR THE SPINAL CORD.
WE'RE GOING TO FLOAT OUR KNIFE ALONG THESE RIB BONES,
TEASE THAT OFF.
WE'RE NOT EVEN GOING TO ENTER THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
ONCE WE GET PAST THE RIBS...
WE CAN GO AHEAD AND FILLET THE FISH...
NORMALLY.
WALKING OUR FILLET KNIFE ALONG THE BACKBONE TO THE END,
AND HOPEFULLY WE'LL LEAVE IT ATTACHED.
WE'LL FLIP OUR FILLET...
AND SKIN THIS.
EVEN THOUGH THIS IS CATFISH SKIN,
WE CAN STILL USE OUR FILLET KNIFE.
AND THIS TYPE OF METHOD...
TO REMOVE THE FILLET AND LEAVE THE SKIN.
BONELESS, SKINLESS FILLET.
ON THE NEXT SIDE, I'M GOING TO USE THE ELECTRIC KNIFE,
ELECTRIC FILLET KNIFE.
[knife whirring]
AND HERE WE HAVE OUR CATFISH FILLET.
THIS AREA RIGHT HERE, THIS IS SOME OF THIS BELLY MEAT.
AND THE PELVIC FIN, WHICH TENDS TO HAVE FAT AROUND IT,
WE WANT TO REMOVE THAT AND THEN TRIM OFF OUR RIBS.
AND WE END UP WITH A CATFISH FILLET.
NOW THAT WE'VE FINISHED CLEANING OUR FISH,
WE GET ALL THE FILLETS IN A BAG
AND GET THESE ON ICE
UNTIL WE CAN GET THEM HOME FOR A FINAL RINSE.
WE WANT TO RINSE THESE OFF AGAIN AND REBAG THEM.
WE'VE DISCUSSED SEVERAL DIFFERENT METHODS
OF CLEANING FISH,
SEVERAL DIFFERENT TOOLS FOR CLEANING FISH,
AND THERE ARE A MULTITUDE OF WAYS OF DOING THIS.
FILLETING FISH, REMOVING THE BONES,
REMOVING THE FAT,
NOT ENTERING THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY
ARE JUST TOOLS THAT WE CAN USE TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION
AND SPOILAGE OF THIS PRODUCT FROM THE LAKE TO YOUR PLATE.
- ONCE YOU GET THE FILLETS IN THE HOUSE
OR WHATEVER FORM YOUR FISH IS COMING IN THE HOUSE,
YOU HAVE SOME DECISIONS TO MAKE.
FIRST OF ALL, YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE
THAT IT STAYS COLD.
IT'LL STAY COLD IN YOUR REFRIGERATOR
FOR SOMEWHERE BETWEEN ONE TO TWO DAYS,
AND THEN YOU NEED TO MAKE OTHER STEPS.
IF YOU WANT IT TO STAY COLD EVEN BETTER
IN THE REFRIGERATOR,
YOU CAN MAKE SURE THAT YOU WRAP IT WELL
IN A PLASTIC ZIPLOC TYPE OF BAG,
FREEZER VERSION TO MAKE SURE THAT IT'S HEAVY DUTY,
AND THEN PUT IT IN A BOWL OF ICE WATER
AND PUT IT IN THE VERY BACK OF THE REFRIGERATOR.
STILL IS ONLY GOING TO GIVE YOU THAT ONE TO TWO DAYS,
BUT YOU'LL HAVE A LITTLE BIT BETTER QUALITY
BY THE TIME THAT COMES TO PASS.
THE NEXT THING AFTER, YOU EITHER NEED TO COOK IT,
WHICH WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT IN A LITTLE BIT,
OR YOU NEED TO PUT IT IN THE FREEZER.
ONCE IT'S IN THE FREEZER, YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE
SOMEWHERE BETWEEN TWO TO THREE MONTHS OF STORAGE,
AND IT'S GOING TO BE DEPENDANT
ON WHAT KIND OF FREEZER YOU HAVE,
HOW COLD YOUR FREEZER IS.
IF YOU HAVE A SELF-DEFROSTING FREEZER,
YOU'RE GOING TO GET THE SHORTER END,
BECAUSE EVERY TIME IT SELF-DEFROSTS,
IT'S GOING TO DEFROST THE FOOD A LITTLE BIT
AND SHORTEN YOUR FREEZER TIME.
SO LET'S SEE HOW WE'RE GOING TO GET IT TO THE FREEZER.
THAT'S WHERE WE'RE GOING TO START TODAY.
I HAVE TWO DIFFERENT SIZES OF FILLETS,
AND THIS IS REAL COMMON WHEN YOU GO FISHING.
ALL YOUR FISH ARE NOT GOING TO COME OUT TO BE THE SAME SIZE.
AND WHAT I'M GOING TO DO
IS TRY AND CUT THEM DOWN TO PORTION SIZE
SO THAT WHEN YOU COME TO USE THEM, YOU CAN USE--
YOU CAN PULL OUT THE NUMBER OF SERVINGS
THAT YOU'RE GOING TO NEED, AND THAT'S GOING TO HELP YOU
FROM COOKING TOO MUCH AND WASTING IT,
FROM HAVING LEFTOVERS.
IT'S ALSO GOING TO HELP YOU STOP FROM EATING TOO MUCH.
AND EVEN THOUGH THE FISH IN OKLAHOMA ARE LEAN,
YOU STILL DON'T WANT TO EAT TOO MANY.
THIS ONE IS GOING TO BE
A FAIRLY GOOD SIZE FOR A PORTION.
IF WE PUT IT ON THE SCALE--
LET ME START THE SCALE UP AND LET IT ZERO OUT--
YOU'RE GOING TO SEE THAT IT'S PROBABLY GOING TO BE
SOMEWHERE BETWEEN TWO TO THREE OUNCES.
THAT'S A LITTLE BIT SMALL FOR A SERVING.
WE WANT TO AIM FOR TWO TO THREE SERVINGS.
BUT IT'S ALWAYS BETTER TO GO WITH A LITTLE BIT LIGHTER
ON SOME OF THE PROTEIN FOODS IN THIS CASE
AND FILL UP YOUR PLATE WITH SOME VEGETABLE ITEMS.
THIS ONE, WE'RE GOING TO CUT IN HALF,
AND THAT'S GOING TO GIVE US SOMETHING
THAT'S VERY SIMILAR IN SIZE TO WHAT THE OTHER ONE WAS
WHEN IT ACTUALLY GOES INTO THE FREEZER.
SO JUST EYEBALL IT, SINCE WE'RE JUST GOING TO CUT IT IN HALF.
IF IT WAS LARGER, YOU MIGHT WANT TO DO A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY.
BUT NOTICE THIS END IS A LITTLE BIT THICKER
THAN THIS END?
SO WE'RE GOING TO--BY WEIGHT, WE'RE GOING TO GIVE THIS ONE
A LITTLE BIT LONGER IN APPEARANCE.
JUST USE A REALLY NICE SHARP KNIFE,
CUT THROUGH THAT,
AND THERE YOU SHOULD HAVE SOMETHING
THAT WILL GIVE YOU REALLY CLOSE TO TWO SERVINGS ON THIS.
NOW, THE NEXT STEP IS,
YOU GET IT READY FOR THE FREEZER IS,
YOU WANT TO DIP IT.
AND THIS IS GOING TO MAKE THAT FISH LAST LONGER
IN THE FREEZER, GIVE BETTER QUALITY,
HOLD UP BETTER WHEN YOU THAW IT,
AND GIVE LESS LOSS WHEN YOU COOK IT.
IT DOESN'T TAKE VERY LONG.
WHAT I HAVE HERE IS ABOUT A QUART OF WATER
AND 1/4 OF A CUP OF JUST TABLE SALT.
FOR THIS PURPOSE,
IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE CANNING SALT OR KOSHER SALT.
WHATEVER SALT YOU'VE GOT THERE WILL WORK JUST FINE.
STIR IT AROUND.
YOU MAY NOT QUITE GET IT ALL DISSOLVED,
BUT IT'LL COME FAIRLY CLOSE.
AND THEN WE'RE GOING TO POUR IT INTO A CONTAINER.
YOU MAY NOT NEED ANYTHING NEAR THIS SIZE,
AND YOU MAY NEED TO--YOU CAN ALSO CUT THIS DOWN.
IF YOU HAVE AS FEW FISH AS I DO,
YOU COULD MAKE 2 TABLESPOONS,
AND 2 CUPS OF WATER WOULD WORK EQUALLY WELL.
NOW WE'RE GOING TO DIP THIS IN HERE FOR 20 SECONDS.
NOW, LET ME SET MY TIMER.
AND YOU COULD DO SEVERAL OF THEM AT THE SAME TIME.
AND WHILE THAT'S GETTING READY,
I'M GOING TO GET READY FOR THE NEXT STAGE.
THERE ARE A COUPLE OF WAYS
THAT YOU CAN PUT THE FISH INTO THE FREEZER,
AND I'M GOING TO GIVE YOU THE ONE
THAT GIVES THE BEST RESULTS.
NOW, THERE ARE ALTERNATIVE METHODS--
AND I SHOULD BE ABOUT DONE WITH MY 20 SECONDS,
SO LET'S TURN THAT OFF.
AND WE'RE GOING TO FISH OUR FISH BACK OUT OF HERE
AND JUST LET IT DRAIN OFF.
JUST LET IT DRIP DRY.
AND I'M GOING TO PUT IT ON A BAKING PAN WITH SIDES
SIMPLY TO KEEP IT FROM SLIDING OFF IN THE FREEZER.
AND I HAVE FREEZER PAPER HERE.
NOW, I'M NOT GOING TO USE FREEZER PAPER LATER
TO WRAP THE FISH.
WHAT I'M USING IT FOR HERE IS TO SIMPLY LAY IT OUT.
AT THIS POINT, I WANT TO PUT THIS IN THE FREEZER
AND FREEZE IT SOLID.
NOW, DOING THE FISH THIS METHOD,
THE ONE THAT I'M GOING TO CHOOSE,
IS CALLED--IT'S LIKE CANDLING OR PUTTING WAX ON A CANDLE.
WE'RE GOING TO DIP IT IN ICE WATER MULTIPLE TIMES
UNTIL WE GET A LAYER OF A GLAZE BUILT UP ON THIS FISH.
AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD THAT YOU COULD USE
WOULD BE TO PUT THE FISH INTO A BAG LIKE THIS,
A HEAVY-DUTY FREEZER BAG, AND THEN FILL IT UP
WITH JUST A SMALL AMOUNT OF WATER
AND THEN PUT THAT DIRECTLY IN THE FREEZER.
THE FASTER YOU FREEZE YOUR FISH, THE BETTER QUALITY
YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE IN THE LONG RUN.
YOU'RE GOING TO MAINTAIN NUTRIENTS LONGER.
YOU'RE GOING TO MAINTAIN
THE FIRMNESS OF THE FLESH LONGER.
SO THE FASTER IT FREEZES, THE BETTER.
SO MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR FREEZER TURNED DOWN
TO ABOUT ZERO.
TRY NOT TO DO THIS ON A DAY WHERE YOU HAVE, YOU KNOW,
EIGHT POUNDS OF FISH
AND TRY AND PUT IT ALL IN AT THE SAME TIME.
SO SPREAD YOUR FISHING EXPERIENCES OUT
A LITTLE, I GUESS.
TRY TO CATCH FEWER ONE DAY AND EVEN IT OUT.
LIKE I'M SURE THAT'S POSSIBLE.
ANYWAY, SO THIS IS GOING TO GO DIRECTLY IN THE FREEZER.
I'VE GOT A LITTLE BIT MORE WATER ON HERE.
I WANT TO GET THAT OFF.
AND WE'RE GOING TO FREEZE THIS SOLID.
THE PROBLEM WITH PUTTING THE WATER INTO THE BAG
AND THEN FREEZING THAT IS, FIRST OF ALL,
IT'S GOING TO TAKE A LITTLE BIT LONGER TO FREEZE.
AND SECOND OF ALL, YOU'RE NOT GOING TO BE ABLE
TO TAKE OUT ONE FISH FILLET OR ONE SERVING AT A TIME.
THE WAY I'M GOING TO DO IT, YOU'RE GOING TO BE ABLE
TO TAKE OUT ONE SERVING AT A TIME.
NOW, AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO WHAT I'M GOING TO DO,
ANOTHER ONE, WOULD BE TO USE THE VACUUM SEAL BAGS.
AND THAT, RIGHT AFTER YOU GET THE DIPPING DONE,
YOU CAN GO AHEAD AND SEAL THEM INDIVIDUALLY
IN VACUUM-SEAL BAGS.
THAT WILL ALSO GIVE YOU FAIRLY LONG STORAGE TOO.
BUT IF YOU DON'T HAVE THOSE,
THEN THIS METHOD WORKS REALLY WELL.
AGAIN, YOU WANT THIS GOING IN A FREEZER
THAT'S AT ZERO DEGREES.
AND I'VE GOT ONE THAT'S BEEN IN THERE A WHILE.
THIS ONE, I DIDN'T CUT DOWN TO SIZE,
AND I WANT TO DO ANOTHER STEP TO THIS ONE AS WELL.
OKAY, THIS ONE IS FROZEN SOLID,
AND NOW YOU CAN SEE THE ADVANTAGE
OF FREEZING IT ON THE FREEZER PAPER.
BECAUSE IT HAS THIS SHINY SIDE, IT DOESN'T STICK,
SO WE'LL BE ABLE TO LIFT IT RIGHT OUT.
AND WE'LL START THE GLAZE AT THIS POINT.
I HAVE A PAN THAT'S GOT ICE WATER IN IT.
IT'S JUST PLAIN ICE WATER--
NO SALT, NO ANYTHING ELSE, JUST WATER WITH ICE IN IT.
AND THE PAN NEEDS TO BE BIG ENOUGH TO HOLD THE FISH.
WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO IS, AGAIN, FROZEN SOLID,
WE'RE GOING TO STICK IT IN THE ICE WATER,
AND WE'RE JUST GOING TO ROLL IT OVER
AND LET IT DRIP OFF,
AND THAT'S GOING TO GRADUALLY ADD THE GLAZE.
NOW, YOU'RE GOING TO PUT THIS ONE, AGAIN,
DIRECTLY BACK INTO THE FREEZER,
AND WE'RE GOING TO DO THIS FIVE, SIX TIMES.
BECAUSE IT'S A THIN FILLET,
IT'S NOT GOING TO TAKE VERY LONG TO FREEZE,
SO IT DOESN'T ADD A LOT OF WORK.
IT DOESN'T ADD A LOT OF TIME TO WHAT YOU'RE DOING.
YOU CAN KEEP USING THE SAME ICE WATER AGAIN AND AGAIN.
DEPENDING ON THE TEMPERATURE OF YOUR FREEZER,
THIS MAY FREEZE READY FOR THE NEXT STEP,
TO REPEAT THIS STEP, WITHIN ABOUT 30 MINUTES.
NOW, I HAVE A COUPLE IN THE FREEZER
THAT I'VE BEEN WORKING ON.
NOW, THESE HAVE ABOUT FIVE LAYERS
OF THE GLAZE ON THEM ALREADY,
AND YOU CAN SEE, WHEN YOU LOOK AT THEM,
THAT THEY'RE SHINY.
THEY'RE ALSO NOT GOING TO STICK TOGETHER
SO THAT WHEN I PICK THEM UP AND PUT THEM TOGETHER,
THEY'RE SOLID LITTLE BEASTS.
I CAN PUT THEM IN THE FREEZER.
THEY'RE FROZEN PLANKS.
AND YOU CAN DEFINITELY SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN THOSE
BETWEEN THIS ONE THAT'S NOT FROZEN
AS FAR AS BEING ABLE TO SEE THE GLAZE ON IT QUITE WELL.
NOW, THE NEXT THING THAT YOU WANT TO DO
IS TO MAKE SURE YOU PACKAGE THEM
IN AMOUNTS THAT YOU'RE PROBABLY GOING TO USE AT ONE MEAL.
BECAUSE THEY'RE ALREADY FROZEN SOLID,
IT'S NOT ESSENTIAL,
BUT YOU DON'T WANT TO USE A GREAT BIG BAG.
THE REASON THAT YOU DON'T WANT TO USE
THIS SIZE OF A FREEZER BAG
IS BECAUSE YOU'RE NOT GOING TO BE ABLE
TO GET VERY MUCH OF THE AIR OUT THERE,
AND THAT AIR IS THE ENEMY.
THAT AIR ALLOWS FOR DEHYDRATION,
EVEN THOUGH WE'VE GOT THE GLAZE ON IT.
YOU'RE MORE APT
TO GET A LITTLE BIT OF FROSTY AROUND IT,
SOME ICE CRYSTALS,
AND THEN EVENTUALLY YOU'RE GOING TO GET SOME FREEZER BURN.
SO YOU WANT TO CHOOSE A BAG
THAT WILL HOLD THE AMOUNT THAT YOU'VE PREPARED
AND THE AMOUNT THAT YOU'RE PROBABLY GOING TO EAT
AT ONE TIME
SO THAT YOU DON'T OPEN IT TOO MANY TIMES.
THIS IS A PINT-SIZED BAG.
IF YOU'RE GOING TO PUT TWO OF THE FILLETS IN HERE--
MAYBE THERE'S ONLY TWO OF YOU IN THE HOUSE OR--
THAT WOULD WORK VERY WELL.
IF THERE'S FOUR FILLETS GOING TO BE PREPARED AT ONE MEAL,
THEN YOU COULD CHOSE SOMETHING A LITTLE BIT LARGER,
LIKE THIS ONE.
THE THING THAT YOU WANT TO DO AS YOU PUT THESE IN--
AGAIN, YOU COULD WRAP THEM INDIVIDUALLY A BIT MORE,
BUT BECAUSE YOU'VE ALREADY FROZEN THEM INDIVIDUALLY,
THEY'RE NOT GOING TO STICK TOGETHER,
SO IT'S REALLY NOT NECESSARY.
GOING TO GET--MAKE SURE
THAT YOU GET ALL THE AIR OUT OF IT THAT YOU CAN.
AND THEN CLOSE IT TIGHTLY.
GET IT IN THE FREEZER AFTER YOU DO ONE MORE THING.
MOST OF THESE BAGS NOW HAVE AN AREA
THAT YOU CAN TAKE A SHARPIE OR SOME OTHER KIND OF TOOL
AND WRITE WHAT IT IS.
YOU NEED TO WRITE THE DAY THAT YOU PUT THIS IN,
WHAT KIND OF FISH IT IS SO THAT YOU KNOW
WHEN YOU PULL IT OUT OR SOMEONE ELSE PULLS IT OUT,
AND THEN YOU NEED TO PUT ON IT ABOUT THE AMOUNT.
SO THIS IS GOING TO BE ABOUT A POUND OF FILLETS.
YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE
THAT YOU HAD ALL THAT INFORMATION ON THERE
BEFORE IT GOES INTO THE FREEZER.
PUT IT ON NOW, BECAUSE CHANCES ARE,
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO REMEMBER TO COME BACK AND DO THIS LATER.
THESE ARE GOING TO BE ABLE TO KEEP IN THE FREEZER
FOR ANYWHERE FROM TWO TO THREE MONTHS,
AS I MENTIONED EARLIER.
THE THING THAT YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER AT THAT POINT
IS TO THAW THEM SAFELY.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST RESULTS, THE BEST QUALITY FISH,
THE LEAST LOSS WHEN YOU SERVE THEM,
THE LEAST AMOUNT OF RUNOFF
DURING THE THAWING PROCESS ITSELF,
PUT ABOUT A POUND.
IT'LL THAW OVERNIGHT IN THE REFRIGERATOR.
SO I COULD PUT THESE IN THE REFRIGERATOR
THE NIGHT BEFORE.
WHEN I COME HOME FROM WORK THE NEXT DAY,
THESE ARE GOING TO BE READY FOR ME WITHOUT ANY WORK.
SO THERE'S ONLY THE ONE THING THAT I HAVE TO REMEMBER,
IS TO GET THEM OUT OF THE FREEZER
IN THE FIRST PLACE.
IF, HOWEVER, I FORGET THAT ONE LITTLE THING,
I HAVE A COUPLE OF MORE OPTIONS.
ONE IS TO KEEP THEM IN THE BAG.
IT'S SEALED TIGHT.
FILL A BOWL AGAIN WITH ICE WATER,
AND PUT THEM--SUBMERGE THEM IN THE WATER.
IF YOU--IF THEY TEND TO FLOAT
BECAUSE THERE'S A LITTLE BIT OF AIR IN THERE,
THEN SET SOMETHING ON THEM THAT WILL HOLD THEM DOWN,
NOT SOMETHING REALLY HEAVY BUT MAYBE LIKE A PLATE
THAT WOULD HOLD THEM DOWN UNDER THE WATER,
AND THEY'LL THAW FAIRLY QUICKLY.
BUT YOU MUST REMEMBER AT THAT POINT
THAT ONCE THEY'RE THAWED UNDER THAT TECHNIQUE,
YOU HAVE TO GO AHEAD AND COOK THEM RIGHT AWAY.
THE THIRD METHOD THAT YOU COULD USE IF--TO THAW
WOULD BE IN THE MICROWAVE.
IT'S THE LEAST SUCCESSFUL.
IT GIVES THE LOWEST-QUALITY RESULTS.
BECAUSE IT COOKS UNEVENLY, YOU MAY ACTUALLY GET SOME COOKING.
SO DO IT ON DEFROST.
MAKE SURE YOU KNOW THE AMOUNT OF WEIGHT
FOR MOST OF THEM WHEN THEY THAW.
DO IT ON THE DEFROST SETTING.
AND THEN TAKE THEM OUT
WHILE THERE'S STILL A LITTLE BIT OF ICE IN THEM,
BECAUSE THEY'RE GOING TO CONTINUE TO THAW FAIRLY QUICKLY.
SO I'M GOING TO GET THESE IN THE FREEZER,
AND WITHIN THE NEXT COUPLE OF MONTHS,
I'M GOING TO HAVE FISH DINNER.
WHEN COOKING,
WHETHER YOU'RE COOKING WITH FISH THAT YOU'VE JUST CAUGHT
OR WHETHER YOU'RE PULLING FISH OUT OF THE FREEZER
THAT YOU'VE CAUGHT EARLIER
OR EVEN IF YOU'VE CHEATED AND GONE TO THE SUPERMARKET
AND GOT SOME FISH THERE
IF THE FISHING WASN'T REALLY GOOD THAT DAY,
THE BASIC COOKING METHOD STAYS THE SAME.
THERE'S SOMETHING CALLED A TEN-MINUTE RULE
FOR COOKING FISH THAT WORKS REALLY, REALLY WELL
THAT WILL KEEP YOU
FROM HAVING TO LEARN A LOT OF DIFFERENT METHODS.
IT WORKS FOR EVERYTHING EXCEPT DEEP FRYING,
WHICH HOPEFULLY YOU'RE NOT GOING TO USE A LOT OF ANYWAY,
AND MICROWAVING.
THE TEN-MINUTE RULE MEANS
THAT YOU LOOK AT THE THICKEST PART OF THE FISH.
AND THIS ONE'S GOING TO BE ABOUT A HALF AN INCH.
BUT FOR EVERY INCH, YOU SET THE OVEN AT 450 DEGREES,
AND IF IT'S TEN--IT'S TEN MINUTES FOR EVERY INCH.
SO AT A HALF AN INCH THICK,
WE'RE GOING TO COOK IT FOR FIVE MINUTES AT 450 DEGREES.
AND THAT WORKS EXTREMELY WELL WHETHER YOU'RE GRILLING IT
OR WHETHER YOU'RE GOING TO BAKE IT
OR WHETHER YOU'RE GOING TO PAN-FRY IT.
SO FOR ALL THOSE METHODS,
THAT TEN-MINUTE RULE WILL WORK VERY WELL.
NOW, TODAY I'M GOING TO PREPARE A RECIPE FOR BAKED FILLETS
THAT I AM GOING TO REDUCE THE TEMPERATURE A LITTLE BIT.
MOST OF THE FISH IN OKLAHOMA IS FAIRLY LEAN,
AND SO BAKING WORKS FAIRLY WELL.
IT WORKS A LITTLE BIT BETTER THAN FRYING
SIMPLY BECAUSE WITH FRYING,
IT CAN COOK A LITTLE BIT FASTER ON THE EDGES
THAN WITH SOME OTHER METHODS, PARTICULARLY DEEP FAT FRYING,
AND THAT'S WHERE YOU START TO GET FISH
THAT'S FALLING APART, THAT'S OVERCOOKED.
SO I'M GOING TO TAKE THESE FILLETS,
AND I'VE GOT A FOIL-LINED PAN HERE.
YOU CAN EITHER USE THE KIND OF FOIL THAT ISN'T--
THAT HAS ITS BUILT-IN NONSTICK,
OR YOU CAN SPRAY IT WITH NONSTICK SPRAY.
JUST LAY THEM ON HERE.
AND I'M GOING TO PUT THE THICKER ONES TOWARDS THE EDGES,
AND I'M GOING TO PUT THE THICKER SIDES
TOWARD THE EDGES,
AND THEN I'M GOING TO MATCH THE THINNER SIDES TOGETHER AS WELL.
IF THEY WON'T FIT,
THEN YOU CAN OVERLAP THESE THIN SIDES A LITTLE BIT,
AND THAT WILL WORK TOO
TO HELP KEEP THEM COOKING AT A FAIRLY EVEN PACE.
NOW, AGAIN, I'M GOING TO USE A RECIPE THAT'S ALREADY DESIGNED
FOR A LITTLE BIT LOWER OVEN TEMPERATURE,
BUT BECAUSE THESE FILLETS ARE STILL FAIRLY THIN,
EVERYTHING'S STILL GOING TO COOK IN ABOUT 10 TO 12 MINUTES
EVEN THOUGH I'VE LOWERED THE OVEN TEMPERATURE TO 425.
SO YOU PRETTY MUCH HAVE TO HAVE THE REST OF THE MEAL READY TO GO
OR JUST ABOUT READY TO GO.
IF YOU'RE GOING TO COOK SOME VEGETABLES,
YOU WANT TO PUT THOSE TO HEAT IN BOILING WATER
ABOUT THE SAME TIME YOU PUT THE FISH IN.
THERE'S NOT GOING TO BE A LONG STANDING TIME
AFTER THE FISH COME OUT OF THE OVEN,
LIKE THERE WOULD BE WITH A ROAST OR A STEAK
TO LET THE JUICES MOVE BACK AROUND
AND EVEN OUT THE COOKING.
THIS IS GOING TO BE PRETTY MUCH READY TO GO WHEN IT COMES OUT.
SO I'VE GOT 2 TABLESPOONS OF A REDUCED-FAT RANCH DRESSING.
YOU COULD ALSO USE MAYONNAISE WITH THIS--
LIGHT MAYONNAISE, REGULAR MAYONNAISE.
I'M USING A RANCH DRESSING
BECAUSE IT ADDS A LITTLE BIT MORE FLAVOR.
AND THEN TO THAT, I'M GOING TO STIR IN 1 TABLESPOON
OF A DIJON MUSTARD AND JUST STIR THOSE TOGETHER.
IF YOU HAVE A FLAVORED MAYONNAISE,
ONE THAT MAYBE ALREADY HAS THE DIJON MIXED IN,
YOU COULD USE THAT,
BUT I HATE TO BUY SOMETHING SPECIAL
JUST FOR ONE RECIPE.
SO UNLESS THAT'S SOMETHING THAT I USE ALL THE TIME,
I'M NOT GOING TO INVEST IN IT FOR THIS.
NOW, YOU COULD SPREAD THIS OUT ON THE FISH WITH JUST A SPOON.
I'M GOING TO GO MAKE IT A LITTLE BIT EASIER;
I'M GOING TO USE THIS BRUSH.
AND WE MAY NOT USE ALL OF THIS.
I DON'T WANT TO USE MORE
THAN WE ACTUALLY WOULD NEED TO COAT THIS.
SO WE'RE JUST GOING TO SPREAD THIS ON.
THIS IS GOING TO ADD A LOT OF FLAVOR
AND ALSO ADD A LITTLE BIT OF MOISTNESS.
ONE OF THE THINGS PEOPLE WORRY ABOUT WITH FISH:
"OH, IT'S SO EASY TO OVERCOOK, AND I'M AFRAID OF IT,
AND SO I'M NOT GOING TO DO IT."
IF YOU ADD A COATING LIKE THIS TO IT OR A SAUCE TO IT,
IT HELPS RETAIN THE MOISTURE.
FATTIER FISH WORK ALSO ON THAT TECHNIQUE.
IT'S HARDER TO OVERCOOK SOME OF THOSE.
BUT AGAIN FATTY FISH ARE NOT REAL COMMON IN OKLAHOMA,
AND SO WE DON'T HAVE THAT LUXURY
IF WE'RE GOING TO GO OUT AND CATCH IT OURSELVES.
WE HAVE TO TAKE THE TRIP TO ONE OF THE COASTS
AND GO FOR SALMON OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.
AGAIN, WE GET THAT JUST SPREAD OUT.
YOU DON'T HAVE TO PUT IT ON BOTH SIDES.
JUST THE ONE SIDE WILL WORK.
IT'S ALSO GOING TO ACT AS SORT OF AN ADHERENT
TO HOLD THE NEXT COUPLE OF INGREDIENTS TOGETHER.
NOW, THIS RECIPE CALLS FOR 4 TABLESPOONS
OF DRIED BREAD CRUMBS.
YOU COULD MAKE YOUR OWN DRY BREAD CRUMBS
SIMPLY BY DRYING OUT THE BREAD FOR A FEW DAYS.
YOU CAN GO TO THE MARKET AND BUY IT.
DON'T BUY THE SEASONED VARIETY.
AND I'M LISTING THIS ON THE RECIPE
AS 4 TABLESPOONS RATHER THAN 1/4 OF A CUP,
WHICH IS THE WAY I USUALLY LIKE TO DO THINGS,
BECAUSE I WANT YOU TO KNOW HOW MUCH TO PUT ON EACH FILLET.
YOU HAVE FOUR FILLETS.
YOU'RE GOING TO PUT ABOUT 1/4 OF THE DRY BREAD CRUMBS
ON EACH OF THOSE FILLETS.
SO SIMPLY SPREAD THOSE ON.
THEY'RE GOING TO BE STUCK TO IT A LITTLE BIT
BY THE SAUCE WE JUST PUT ON THERE OR THE DRESSING.
AND THEN THERE'S A FINAL LAYER
THAT WE'RE GOING TO PUT ON TOP OF THIS
ONCE I GET ALL OF THESE SPREAD OUT.
WANT TO MAKE SURE
THAT YOU GET IT FAIRLY EVENLY COATED
AND THAT YOU GET THE ENTIRE FISH COVERED UP.
IT DOESN'T MATTER IF IT GOES OVER,
'CAUSE YOU'RE NOT GOING TO SERVE IT ON THE PLATE,
SO IF YOU GET SOME THAT'S ON THE FOIL,
IT'S NOT GOING TO BE HARD TO CLEAN UP.
YOU'RE GOING TO THROW THE FOIL AWAY.
THE LAST THING--
AGAIN, 4 TABLESPOONS OF CHOPPED PECANS.
AND BECAUSE WE'RE IN OKLAHOMA, I AM USING CHOPPED PECANS,
BUT IF YOU HAVE, IN YOUR FREEZER,
ANOTHER KIND OF NUT, WALNUTS WOULD WORK,
AS WOULD ALMONDS, IF YOU HAVE SOME OF THOSE.
THE TRICK ON THIS IS JUST TO MAKE SURE
THAT YOU GET THEM FAIRLY FINELY CHOPPED UP.
YOU DON'T WANT TO HAVE SOMEBODY HAVE A GREAT BIG PIECE
IN THEIR MOUTH AT ONE TIME.
AND YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU DIVIDE THEM, AGAIN,
ABOUT 1 TABLESPOON FOR EACH OF THE FILLETS.
THESE ARE THEN GOING TO GO IN THE OVEN, AGAIN 425.
YOU'VE PREHEATED THE OVEN
TO MAKE SURE THAT IT'S READY AND HOT,
SO PREHEAT IT WHEN YOU START TO DO EVERYTHING ELSE.
MOST OVENS WILL TAKE AROUND 10 TO 15 MINUTES,
DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE OVEN.
SLIDE 'EM IN.
10 TO 12 MINUTES, YOU'RE GOING TO COME BACK AND CHECK 'EM.
ALL RIGHT, THE FIRST 10 MINUTES.
YOU ALWAYS WANT TO CHECK THINGS AT THE SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.
THESE ARE SUPPOSED TO COOK ANYWHERE FROM 10 TO 12.
NOW, AS FAR AS CHECKING TO SEE WHEN THEY'RE DONE,
OFTEN PEOPLE USE A FORK TO DO THIS,
BUT A KNIFE WORKS EQUALLY WELL.
JUST STICK IT IN THERE AND PULL AWAY,
AND YOU CAN SEE THAT THAT'S NOW OPAQUE.
IT'S STARTING TO FLAKE.
USE A SHARP KNIFE, HOWEVER,
AND YOU'LL DO A LITTLE BIT LESS DAMAGE
THAN IF YOU ACTUALLY TEST THEM WITH A FORK.
SO THESE ARE READY TO GO ON OVER TO THE TABLE.
ONE OF THE THINGS
THAT YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE TO TAKE CARE OF
IS THAT YOU ARE CAREFUL
NOT TO BURN ANY NUTS THAT YOU USE.
SO MAKE SURE THAT YOU DO CHECK THEM.
MOSTLY, THIS IS GOING TO BE ENOUGH TIME
TO JUST TOAST THE NUTS UP, BUT IF YOU SEE A COUPLE
THAT HAVE SCORCHED A LITTLE BIT MORE THAN YOU WANT,
JUST TAKE THOSE OFF.
THERE YOU SEE A PLATE.
THAT WOULD BE CALLED THE NEW OKLAHOMA PLATE,
WHERE WE HAVE BASICALLY IT DIVIDED INTO QUADRANTS.
ONE OF THE QUADRANTS IS GOING TO BE
THE PROTEIN PORTION.
TWO OF THE QUADRANTS ARE GOING TO BE PRODUCE OF SOME KIND.
AND THEN THE LAST QUADRANT IS GOING TO BE A WHOLE GRAIN.
I'VE SERVED THIS WITH BROWN RICE.
I HOPE YOU GO TO THE DVD AND LOOK AT THIS RECIPE
AS WELL AS THE OTHERS.
REMEMBER THAT TEN-MINUTE RULE.
YOU HAVE A LOT OF FLEXIBILITY IN WHAT YOU CAN DO
ONCE YOU UNDERSTAND HOW THAT TEN-MINUTE RULE WORKS.