TTS Mahabharata 2003 - 1.30 - Krsna Visits the Pandavas

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MBK: 1.30: Krsna Visits the Pandavas
Chapter 30 Krsna Visits the Pandavas
The Pandavas continued to dwell in Kuvera's abode for four more years. In that celestial
atmosphere they hardly felt the time at all. One day Arjuna and Bhima approached Yudhisthira
and spoke with him privately. Bhima said, "O king of the Kurus, in order to make good
your vow, we have restrained ourselves and not killed Dhrtarastra's sons. Rather, we
have lived for eleven years in the forest, deprived of our inheritance. These past four
years have not been difficult, but the time is now approaching when, in accordance with
your promise, we will need to enter some habited region and live incognito. Let us therefore
leave this mountain and descend again to earth."
Bhima said that both he and Arjuna were determined to punish Duryodhana, but feared that if they
remained on the high plateaus of the heavenly Gandhamadana, they might forget the miseries
the Kauravas had inflicted upon them. This would weaken their determination. "Therefore,
we desire to leave now. We brothers, assisted by the infallible Krsna, will surely help
you regain your kingdom. We all desire your welfare and long to encounter your enemies
in battle."
Yudhisthira agreed that it was now time to depart. Along with Draupadi the brothers visited
the various groves and lakes of Kuvera's abode one last time, offering their respects and
saying farewell. Yudhisthira then prayed to Gandhamadana Mountain, "O lord of mountains,
we are ready to depart. Please grant that after we have conquered our enemies and recovered
our kingdom, we may again see you at the end of our lives."
Yudhisthira was thinking of the time when after ruling the kingdom, they would finally
retire to perform asceticism and gain spiritual emancipation. Surrounded by his brothers and
the Brahmins, he then began the march down the mountainside. Bhima summoned Ghatotkaca
and his followers and they again carried the Pandavas' party over the difficult mountain
passes. The Pandavas were sorry to leave Kuvera's abode, but as they gazed back at its sublime
beauty, their minds were delighted.
The brothers soon arrived at Badarika Ashram. After being greeted by the sages there, Yudhisthira
dismissed Ghatotkaca, choosing to continue the downward journey on foot. After remaining
a month with the Badarika sages, they set off toward Subahu's country. They met Subahu
and spent a night with him there before proceeding toward the forest Vishakayapa.
As they traveled, followed by their porters and servants, they saw charming woodlands,
lakes, rivers and fields. They stopped each evening at dusk and camped wherever they were,
preparing a meal from simple forest fare. Gradually they reached Vishakayapa, still
within the Himalayan range, just as the monsoon season was approaching. They decided to remain
in Vishakayapa until the rains passed, and then return to Kamyaka.
On the first day of their stay at Vishakayapa, Bhima went to explore the area. Armed with
a bow and sword he wandered at his pleasure through the woods, which were frequented by
Gandharvas and Siddhas. The trees rang with the sounds of exotic birds and bore fruits
and blossoms in all seasons. Bhima saw clear rivulets flowing from the mountains, creating
large, transparent lakes filled with lotuses.
Wild boars rushed at the Pandava and he killed them each with a slap. He also slew numerous
buffaloes and deer, piercing them with his sharp arrows. Bhima possessed the strength
of ten thousand elephants, and he sportingly uprooted and broke many large trees, clearing
areas where rsis could later dwell and perform sacrifices. He struck his arms and roared
exultantly as he roamed about. Elephants and lions fled in fear as they heard his roars.
The ever-proud Bhima, devoid of fatigue, filled the skies with his shouts. He crushed mountain
peaks by kicking them. Ranging along the mountain side, he saw large serpents retreat into caves
as they heard him approach. Bhima pursued them along the rocky plateaus. Suddenly, he
came upon a terrible-looking serpent resembling a hill. It lay coiled at the mouth of a great
cave, entirely blocking its entrance. Its skin was yellow with black spots, and inside
its yawning mouth were four fangs. As the snake glared about with its copper-colored
eyes, its forked tongue licked the corners of its mouth.
Bhima stopped and gazed at the serpent. It looked like a grim destroyer as it lay hissing
as if to reprimand him. As Bhima came closer, the snake suddenly seized him and entwined
its coils around him. Bhima felt his strength draining from his body, and despite his efforts,
he was unable to extricate himself. He trembled and fell unconscious for several minutes.
As he returned to consciousness he considered his predicament. Who was this being? How had
it succeeded in overpowering him? Bhima again exerted himself but found that he was unable
to move. Clearly this was not an ordinary snake. He decided to ask the creature its
"O best of serpents, kindly tell me who you are and what you will do with me? I am Bhimasena,
Pandu's son and Dharmaraja's brother. With my bare hands alone I have slain in battle
countless lions, tigers, buffaloes and elephants. Not even the celestials can stand against
me. How is it, then, that you have succeeded in overpowering me? Is it by virtue of a particular
science or boon that you possess such power?"
The serpent's voice was solemn. "O mighty-armed one, I have been hungry for a long time. Therefore,
it is my good fortune that you have arrived here. You must be the food ordained for me
by the gods. Now listen as I explain how I came to live in a serpent body.
"My name is Nahusha, and I am a royal sage. After attaining heaven I was cursed by Agastya
Rsi and fell to earth as a snake. Thus you are my descendent, O hero, but that will not
stop me from eating you. Whatever falls within my grasp during the middle of the day, be
it a cow, a buffalo, or even a human, becomes my next meal.
"Agastya promised that whomever I seize will lose his strength. Thus you have been overcome
by virtue of that sage's power. Agastya also told me that I would be freed from his curse
when someone could answer my questions about the relationship between the soul and the
Supreme Being."
Thinking of Krsna, Bhima replied, "O mighty creature, I am neither angry nor do I blame
myself for this calamity. Sometimes a man may succeed in his endeavors for happiness
and sometimes he may fail. Certainly the results are not in his hands and therefore he should
not lament his misfortune. Who could ever be superior to destiny? Destiny is supreme
and exertion made for material gains is useless."
Bhima said he did not grieve for his own impending death, but he felt sad for his brothers and
mother. They depended on him and would surely be deprived of strength and energy when they
discovered what had happened. And Duryodhana would rejoice.
Back at the Pandavas' camp, Yudhisthira was perceiving ill omens. Jackals howled and the
dreadful Vartika bird, with its one leg, one wing and one eye, circled overhead. It screamed
and vomited blood. The wind blew furiously and the four directions seemed to be ablaze.
Yudhisthira felt his left eye and arm trembling and his heart palpitating. He looked about
the ashram and, not seeing Bhima, asked Draupadi, "Where is my powerful brother?"
Draupadi replied that he had been long out. Alarmed, Yudhisthira decided to go after him
personally. After instructing Arjuna to guard Draupadi and the twins and to protect the
Brahmins, he began to search for Bhima in the forest. Following his footprints he soon
found the smashed trees and the beasts that Bhima had slain. He also saw a trail of bushes
which had been blown over by the wind coming from Bhima's body as he ran after game in
the forest.
Yudhisthira moved as quickly as he could and soon came to a rough place where Bhima's tracks
seemed to end. The ground was dry and full of thorn bushes, stumps and gravel. Strong
winds gusted around tall, leafless trees. Yudhisthira began to make his way up the steep
incline toward the plateau above. He sensed that his brother was nearby, and he scrambled
up the slope. Soon he came to the serpent's lair. There at the entrance to the cave, Yudhisthira
found Bhima wrapped in the serpent's coils.
Yudhisthira was amazed to see Bhima held by a snake, and he asked, "Who is this best of
serpents with a body as big as a mountain? How have you fallen into its clutches, O son
of Kunti?"
"This is the royal sage Nahusha in serpent form. O worshipful brother, he plans to eat
Yudhisthira addressed Nahusha, "Kindly release my brother, O energetic one. We shall satisfy
you with some other food."
Nahusha moved slightly. "I have obtained this son of a king for my food and will not release
him. You should leave this place or else I will eat you tomorrow. The sage Agastya has
granted me a boon that whoever comes within my reach will become my food. You are also
within my reach. I have not eaten for a long time and will not give up your brother. Nor
do I want any other meal."
Feeling pain to see Bhima's plight, Yudhisthira thought carefully. This being was not actually
a snake but a great king and an ancestor of the Pandavas. Yudhisthira had heard of Nahusha
many times. He had performed numerous sacrifices and become the emperor of the earth before
finally going to heaven. After ascending to the higher regions, he must have been cursed
to fall down again. Perhaps there was some condition to the curse. If Nahusha could be
freed from his serpent form, then Bhima could be released.
"O snake, under what conditions will you free my brother?"
"Intoxicated with the pride of wealth and power I insulted the Brahmins," replied Nahusha.
"I was thus cursed by Agastya and brought into this miserable state. But the sage stipulated
that I would be released when I found a man capable of answering my questions on spiritual
subjects. This, then, is the only way by which your brother can be freed. Answer my questions,
O sinless one, and free both Bhima and me."
"Ask whatever you will, O serpent. I will try my best to answer."
Yudhisthira was always glad to have the opportunity to speak about spiritual matters. For him,
this forest exile had provided a welcome opportunity to hear from the rsis and engage in a deep
study of scripture, free from the pressures of state affairs. He had acquired an almost
unrivalled knowledge of the Vedas. He listened attentively as Nahusha began to speak.
Fixing his narrow eyes upon Yudhisthira, the serpent said, "How can we recognize a true
Brahmin, O King, and what is the highest object of knowledge?"
"A Brahmin is characterized by the qualities of honesty, purity, forgiveness, self-control,
asceticism, knowledge and religiosity. The highest object of knowledge is the Supreme
Brahman, which can be known when one has transcended all duality."
"The qualities you have attributed to Brahmins are also found in other classes of men," Nahusha
replied doubtfully, "and how can anyone exist without experiencing happiness and distress,
the basis of all duality?"
Yudhisthira smiled. It seemed the snake was already quite knowledgeable and was testing
him. "If one finds these qualities in any man, then he should be known as a Brahmin
no matter what his birth may have been. Happiness and distress in relationship to material objects
can be transcended while still being experienced in relation to the Supreme. Material emotions
are perverted reflections of original spiritual feelings."
Nahusha was satisfied with Yudhisthira's answer and he asked him to elaborate further. What
was the use of dividing society according to caste if such divisions meant nothing?
In reply, Yudhisthira explained that due to the intermixture of social classes, it had
become difficult to ascertain a man's class. Only by examining his actual qualities could
a man's class be known. Thus society should be divided on that basis only, not on the
basis of birth.
Nahusha said, "O King, you are clearly acquainted with knowledge. How then can I devour your
It was obvious to Yudhisthira that Nahusha was himself highly learned. After all, he
had once ruled the earth and ascended to heaven after being instructed by the sages. He thought
it would be worth making inquiries from such a personality. Folding his palms and standing
before Nahusha, Yudhisthira said, "I too regard you as one possessed of superior knowledge.
Please instruct me, if you will. By what acts can one attain heaven?"
"In my opinion, O Bharata, one can reach heaven by giving charity to Brahmins, by being kind
and gentle in speech, by truthfulness, and by remaining nonenvious toward all living
"Which of those acts do you consider the best, and what constitutes non-envy?"
"Each of these items can be considered superior or inferior depending upon circumstance. One
must therefore understand life's ultimate goal in order to know how to act properly
at all times. This you have already explained, O King. All acts and knowledge should be aimed
at achieving the Supreme.
"Non-envy means always desiring the welfare and advancement of all living beings rather
than to exploit them for one's own pleasure. In particular, one should desire the spiritual
progress of others and act to assist them in that progress."
"How does the soul accept a material body, O Nahusha?"
"The soul, or atman, receives bodies according to his own behavior. Thus he transmigrates
life after life, impelled by his sinful and pious acts, sometimes going to heaven and
sometimes moving about in the body of an animal. Final liberation is attained when one comes
to know Brahman, the Supreme Absolute."
Yudhisthira nodded. The snake's answers were in accord with what he had learned from the
rsis. Clearly Nahusha had deep spiritual realizations. How then had he become a snake?
Nahusha replied, "By sacrifice and asceticism I became so powerful that I coursed through
the heavens on a golden chariot. I became emperor of the wide earth and even the Gandharvas,
Yaksas, Raksasas, and all the inhabitants of the three worlds末even the rsis末payed
me taxes. Such was my power that I withdrew the energy of anyone simply by looking at
them. Then my pride overwhelmed me and I lost my good sense. My knowledge became covered
by the ignorance born of pride. I ordered the Brahmin sages to draw my chariot and thus
offended them.
"One day while in heaven, I touched Agastya Rsi with my foot. The sage cursed me and I
fell to earth, my body changing into that of a serpent.
"In accord with Agastya's words, however, you have now freed me from that curse. My
discussion with you has reawakened my knowledge. I now realize that my real interest lies in
cultivating Brahminical qualities and spiritual knowledge, not in material status or opulence."
Nahusha released Bhima and the serpent body immediately died. From out of it the two brothers
saw a glowing celestial figure emerge wearing golden ornaments and beautiful garlands. He
bowed before the Pandavas and then rose into the sky and disappeared.
Yudhisthira and Bhima returned to the ashram and recounted the incident to the others.
When Yudhisthira had finished, the Brahmins reprimanded the now sheepish Bhima for his
rashness in having challenged the serpent and warned him not to be so foolish again.
* * *
Within days of their arrival at Vishakhayapa, the monsoons arrived. They set up their camp
on high ground and watched as the rains fell and flooded the earth. They could no longer
see the sun. Bolts of lightning lit the forest, while streams of frothing water rushed across
the earth, hissing like flights of arrows. All the forest creatures became delighted
and frolicked in the rain-soaked woods.
Gradually the season turned to autumn. The clouds dispersed and the sky was lustrous.
The days were warm and the nights cool. The Pandavas surveyed the refreshed forest scenery
and decided that it was an auspicious time末the sacred month of Karttika末to return to Kamyaka.
A few days after their arrival, Krsna and Satyabhama came to visit. Krsna knew they
had returned to the Kamyaka by His inconceivable powers.
The Pandavas were overjoyed to see their well-wishing friend. With tears in their eyes they rose
up to greet Him. Krsna got down from His chariot and bowed at Yudhisthira and Bhima's feet,
as well as the feet of Dhaumya and the Brahmins. He embraced Arjuna and accepted the twins'
obeisances. Satyabhama embraced Draupadi and when she and her husband were comfortably
seated among the Pandavas, they all began to converse.
Arjuna told Krsna of everything that had transpired with him since their last meeting. He then
inquired after Krsna and His family's welfare, asking especially about his wife Subhadra
and their son Abhimanyu. Krsna assured him that all was well. Turning to Yudhisthira
He said, "O King, the wise assert that righteousness is superior to winning kingdoms, and to cultivate
righteousness, asceticism is necessary. In strict obedience to truth you have performed
your duties and you have thus conquered both this world and the next. You are not addicted
to sensual pleasures, nor do you act out of selfishness. Although you have won opulent
kingdoms and been surrounded by luxury, you have not swayed from your practices of charity,
truthfulness, asceticism, religion, forgiveness and patience."
Yudhisthira bowed his head modestly as Krsna continued. "Who but you, O Dharmaraja, could
have tolerated the outrage toward Draupadi, so very odious to virtue? There can be no
doubt that you will recover your kingdom in due course. When your vow is fulfilled and
the thirteen years have passed, we shall do everything in our power to chastise the Kauravas."
Krsna spoke kindly to Draupadi, saying that it was by good fortune she had obtained such
virtuous men as her husbands. He gave her news of her sons, who were staying in Drupada's
kingdom and who also spent time in Dwaraka where Subhadra showered them with motherly
love. Krsna's own son Pradyumna was instructing all the Pandavas' sons in the martial arts.
When Krsna fell silent, Yudhisthira said, "O Kesava, there is no doubt that You are
our highest refuge. We are always under Your protection. When the time comes, You will
surely do everything to restore to us our kingdom."
Then they saw Markandeya Rsi approaching. That immortal sage, who appeared like a youth
of no more than sixteen years, was cheerful, dressed only in a loincloth and holding a
water pot. The Pandavas, Krsna, and all the Brahmins stood to offer respect, then offered
Markandeya a seat of honor. After he had been worshiped with arghya and presented with sweet
water and forest fruits, Krsna said, "We all wish to hear your most excellent words. Kindly
narrate to us the ancient histories of virtuous kings and rsis, replete with moral and spiritual
At that moment, Narada also arrived and was received. He too wished to hear Markandeya
speak in Krsna's presence. With those two personalities sitting amid the Pandavas and
the numerous Brahmins, it seemed as if the sun and moon were seated together in the presence
of the planets. Everyone waited for Markandeya to speak. They all knew that the sage had
lived since the beginning of the material creation and was therefore acquainted with
countless histories of great sages and kings. The Supreme Lord Narayana had personally instructed
him and thus he possessed profound spiritual understanding.
Yudhisthira asked, "Please tell me, O highly learned one, how a man receives the results
of his own deeds. I am mystified upon seeing how I have been deprived of my kingdom while
Dhrtarastra's sinful sons prosper. Does one receive the results of his actions during
the same life, or do they visit him only in a later existence? How do the results of a
man's acts follow him after death? Where do they repose when he gives up his body?"
Markandeya remained silent for a moment. He looked around at the concourse of people assembled
in the forest clearing. It seemed as if Yudhisthira were still in Indraprastha, seated in his
assembly hall. Raising his right hand, the sage then replied, "The embodied soul travels
from life to life as a result of his own acts, good and bad. At no time is the soul without
a body as long as he remains within this world trying to enjoy his senses. The soul is covered
first by a subtle body made of mind, intelligence, and false ego. The subtle body carries the
recollection of every experience the soul has ever had, and thus assumes various gross
material forms. Yamaraja controls all of this. Indeed, Yamaraja keeps track of every soul
within the material universe. He is empowered by the all-knowing Supreme Soul who resides
in the heart of every living being. Thus does Yamaraja award all beings their just desserts.
He never makes a mistake in this regard."
Markandeya paused to allow his listeners to absorb what he was saying. "Some men enjoy
in this life but not in the next, some in the next but not in this, and others in both.
Some men enjoy neither in this life nor in the next.
"A wealthy man who spends this life in pleasure will suffer in the next; an ascetic who forgoes
pleasure in this life will enjoy in the next; those who marry and live pious lives as householders,
performing sacrifice and giving charity, enjoy both in this life and the next; but the foolish
man who follows no scriptural injunctions suffers continuously life after life.
"As far as you brothers are concerned, you are virtuous and have been born only to fulfill
the gods' purposes. You are great devotees of the Supreme Lord and thus cannot be affected
by karmic reactions. Your apparent setback will ultimately lead to your everlasting fame
and happiness. You will be glorified in the world of men, and at the end of your lives,
you will attain the highest abode."
Yudhisthira reflected on the sage's reply. Then he asked, "O learned sage, in this world
our lives are dedicated to the Brahmins. If it pleases you, kindly tell us about a Brahmin's
greatness and glory."
In response the rsi recounted numerous ancient histories. His audience was rapt in wonder.
He also described the creation of the universe, which he had personally witnessed, and the
nature of the destruction that occurs at the end of Brahma's day, a period of millions
of years. He described how he had floated on the causal water out of which creation
occurs, as it rose and covered the lower and middle planets. At the end of that inundation,
he had seen a wonderful child lying on a banyan leaf.
"I was struck with amazement. I could not understand how a child could have survived
when the entire universe was destroyed. The boy was effulgent and His face was as beautiful
as the moon. His eyes resembled full-blown lotuses and His body was a blackish color.
He lay there smiling and sucking His toe. Then on His chest I saw the mark of srivatsa
and thought that it must be Visnu, although I could not be sure. As I approached Him He
said, 閃y child, I know you are eager to rest. O Markandeya, enter My body and rest
awhile. I am pleased with you.'
"When the boy addressed me I lost all sense of my identity and forgot my material designations.
He opened His mouth and I felt myself drawn into it. Suddenly entering His stomach I beheld
the whole earth with all its cities and kingdoms. I wandered about for some time, seeing all
the familiar sights, including the Ganges and her tributaries, the Himalayas, and the
forests in which I had performed ascetism. I also saw the race of celestials headed by
Indra, as well as the races of ksatriyas, vaisyas, and sudras.
"Although I wandered about within that boy's body for a long time I never did find its
limit. Confused, I began to worship the Supreme Lord with my thoughts and words. Suddenly,
I found myself emerging again and once more I saw Him lying on the banyan leaf. I worshipped
that immeasurably powerful being who had swallowed up the entire universe, and I placed my head
at His feet. I asked Him who He was and about His purpose. Why was He lying there with the
universe held in His body?
"The child spoke in such a way that my material illusions were completely dispelled. He told
me that He was the original Supreme Person from whom everything emanates and into whom
it enters at its end. I was amazed to hear Him speak of His own glories. He is known
as Visnu, Narayana and Hari, but He possesses innumerable other names. That all-knowing
personality then told me that I should remain within His body until Brahma again awoke and
recreated the universe. He disappeared from my sight and I found myself back within the
varied creation I had seen within Him."
Finishing his narration, Markandeya looked across at Krsna. "King Yudhisthira, that lotus-eyed
boy whom I saw at the end of the creation has now appeared as Krsna. He has become your
relative and friend. Without doubt you should know Him to be the ancient Supreme Person,
the inconceivable Hari, and the original Personality of Godhead. He granted me the boon that my
memory would never fail and that my death would come only when I wanted it. Seeing Krsna
sitting here wearing a yellow silken garment, I am remembering that boy. Do not doubt that
it was He whom I saw in the waters of devastation. O hero among men, this entire creation rests
within Him even as air rests within ether. Take refuge in Krsna, for there are none superior
to Him."
Hearing the rsi's words, the Pandavas bowed down before Krsna. Krsna smiled gently and
spoke comforting words to them. He glanced affectionately at Markandeya, who gazed back
at Krsna with love.
Yudhisthira then asked Markandeya to describe the future. Kali-yuga, the darkest age was
approaching. Yudhisthira wanted to know what would happen to the world at that time. Markandeya
told him in detail how everything would become more and more degraded. People would become
irreligious and would thus be oppressed by misery. The age would culminate in the appearance
of Kalki avatara, who would restore order to the world and bring about Satya-yuga, the
golden age.
Yudhisthira and Markandeya discoursed for hours and the audience remained fixed on hearing
Markandeya's detailed responses, replete with accounts of the different kings, sages, and
the celestials who had lived throughout the ages. As evening approached, Yudhisthira finally
stopped asking questions. Along with his brothers he worshipped Markandeya. Then the rsi took
his leave. Narada also left at that time, ascending into the skyways.
When Markandeya was gone, Krsna spent a little more time talking with the Pandavas. Satyabhama
took the opportunity to speak with Draupadi and ask her how she was able to serve and
satisfy five husbands. Krsna's wife wanted to learn from the Panchala princess, who was
famed for her chastity and womanly skills, so that she might improve her own service
to Krsna. Draupadi told her in detail about the many ways she served her husbands.
Draupadi said, "Abandoning vanity and subduing desire and wrath, I serve my husbands with
attention, along with their other wives. I do not feel my position of servitude to be
a degraded one, and I restrain jealousy by remaining devoted. I neither bathe, sleep,
nor eat before my husbands, or even before our servants and followers. At no time do
I allow my mind to dwell upon another man or any celestial. My heart never sways from
my husbands. The minute I see them I rise up and greet them, offering them a seat and
water. I always keep our living quarters clean and fragrant, and all the household items
and food well-ordered."
Satyabhama, herself a great favorite of Krsna's, listened attentively. Draupadi described how
she would never enjoy anything her husbands did not enjoy, nor would she perform any act
disagreeable to them. When they went away, she renounced her ornaments and cosmetics
and practiced asceticism. She tried always to assist her husbands as they performed sacrifices
and other religious practices.
"I am the first to rise from bed and the last to take rest. I am ever attentive to my duty
and never give way to sloth. In my opinion, service to the husband is the eternal virtue
of women. The husband is the wife's god and her sole refuge. By serving him, she pleases
even the Supreme Lord Himself and thereby attains to the highest destination."
When Draupadi finished, Satyabhama embraced her. She heard Krsna calling her and so took
her leave, promising to come to Indraprastha after the Pandavas had regained their kingdom.
Krsna bid farewell to the Pandavas and was ready to depart. He and Satyabhama mounted
the chariot, which was yoked with Saibya and Sugriva. Seeing Draupadi standing before him
so meekly, Krsna said, "O Draupadi, do not be in anxiety. Before long you will be the
wife of kings末after your husbands have crushed their enemies and won back the earth. O black-eyed
beauty, ladies such as yourself, possessed of all auspicious marks, can never suffer
for long. The Kauravas will soon reap the results of their sins against you. When they
have been destroyed, you will see their wives despairing, even as you despaired upon leaving
Krsna once more assured Draupadi that her five sons were flourishing and that she would
soon see them grown up, powerful heroes. Then, saluting the Pandavas and bowing to the Brahmins,
Krsna urged on His horses and left the forest.