Literacy and Technology: Where We've Been and Where We're Heading

Uploaded by COERLLUT on 17.08.2012

Thanks Carl and thanks to all of you for coming out on a nice sunny afternoon. Its great to be back in
Austin after all these years, great to see a lot of
familiar faces and new faces as well.
so uh... today i'm not going to talk a whole lot about
computers and language teaching directly
uh... what i'd like to do is sort of backup
and take a look at
um... issues
uh... relationships between language and talk knowledge of the go back
uh... millennia and try to make sense of what's happening now
in the age of computers
and get some perspective on where we are today
and said uh... where we need to be to prepare students for the future
so um... the basic thing i want to do is is take the the words literacy
technology in language learning
and broaden our notions of these three terms
uh... broader notion of technologies so we see that if we don't use computers
were still using technology
uh... in many aspects of our teaching
uh... broader knows some of literacy
uh... b sc besides just inscribed ng in decoding
uh... words and dealing with
uh... the thinking an
and interaction with people and so forth
uh... and also broadened and our focus on
language teaching
beyond words the structures to why variety of ways of making meaning
through various resources language being important
so uh... just to start with technology and you know we often think of
technology is being uh... and answered an ad on
uh... language teaching
but that's only because
we think of technologies so often in terms of language labs and and computers
the prospective i'd like to take today's historical one
and if you look at it from
historical perspective ah... technologies really been at the heart
of language teaching
and as long as languages have been taught
technology really goes back to the origins of writing
over five thousand years ago
when biting was invented this was a way of making visible
uh... and thereby analyze a ball
all the phenomenon that
disney associate with language
uh... to analyzes the system
to development linguistic notions of words and sentences and rules all kinds
of things
that we teach
none of this would be possible without the technology writing
then print technology in the fifteenth century
allowed for the widespread dissemination of texts
dictionaries grammars textbooks and this
you know protect elegy remains the single technology that's had the
greatest impact
uh... on language teaching and education more broadly uh... to date
than in the nineteenth century had sound recording technologies
which allowed us to the capture of ways so long with all the information on
stress features
uh... and has allowed us to delay listening and to listen
to given
stretch of speeches many times as we wanted
rather than just
having one shot
to catch something uh... spoken
also allowed us to analyze speech as text
so with each of these technologies you can see how we're building
uh... increasingly complex panoply of resources
film technology in the late nineteenth century
promotion and animation
which led thomas edison to put it in nineteen thirteen
that uh... that books would be made obsolete in the schools in uh... a
matter of
that cater to well didn't quite work out but films are still in important part of
educational process
so the last forty years computers have brought together
all of these threads
going back
you know writing
sound recording
animations so forth
combining all of these and has her listen to the virtual
uh... and multimedia
uh... that allows us to emigrate graphic design images color sound
always writing and speech
uh... to it was a very rich pallet to work from in our language
uh... courses
uh... meanwhile computers have changed the nations of the nature of taxes
which have now become
malleable dynamic
uh... and even the farrell
so this forces us to reserve rethink our notions
uh... what writing and literacy are
and computers have also introduced new contexts uh... and purposes for writing
these new context the purposes of introduced new language forms
and discourse structures in that some of the things that we're talking about
uh... today
also with computers we have
new notions of authorship
and publication
this is a hot issue right now with
journals as to the concert new open sewers
uh... war still controlled by
publishing houses
and also computers give us a whole new way of relating
to one another
both within our local community
and international community's uh...
than internet has allowed us not only to
right to another but now to see one another to talk directly to another
uh... halfway around the world
so the questions that i want to ask today are how do all these changes
that talked about
affect the ways we use language in the ways you learn language
and secondly
apple how do these changes affect what we mean by literacy and how we might
best approach teaching it
so those of the questions you should keep in the back of your mind
so as you all the language is changing
around us all the time i'm enough
just ten years ago very short time ago
i said i googled it
posted on my blog and ayam to my friends
this would not be comprehensible
it's amazing that maybe we take all these things for granted now
but just ten years ago these things didn't exist
but the point i'd like to make is this is really sort of vocabulary and this is
just new book out it's come up new techniques
that there are other changes i think they're more profound
than these
specific techniques and vocabulary uh...
uh... issues
uh... not revolutionary changes but changes that are tied
age-old issues
that always seem to prop up when it when you're dealing with technology and
uh... together so
what i thought we do is to start off with the taking sort of a
view of
the past
and we'll go back to mister patino
uh... the point i want to make is that reading and writing and not just
cognitive processes but tied to social
and culturally and batted activities and so what you've got here is a mess of it
amy n
clay tablets list looks monolithic but it's actually very small it fits in the
palm of your hand
and this is
a prayer
to the warrior gotten in return
and his base to two thousand bc
and what's interesting about this
is that
uh... the prairies included but
as much abysmally in the symbols that contain content
uh... numbers can is matched by symbols that have to do with it
formance aspect the tone of voice
that should be
when this
prayer isn't owned by the performer
uh... so writing is really as much about tone of voice
as it is about content
if we look
to scrolls uh... here we have a book
role risk role on the left and this is the form of literary works for at least
seven hundred years
in each increase
uh... and roman at the library of alexandria was filled with scrolls
codex cortices
what's interesting when you look at these uh...
book rules or school documents
typically though the ones that have latin blasted the ones of been found
uh... the greek schools at the time he just because the ones
north imagery and were all sort of dissolved by the humidity but the ones
that were in the desert of egypt been preserved
and it's really interesting to look at these but i really
uh... to see that there were no spaces in between words no punctuation
uh... underfoot for just a second here to this is a
papyrus takes you can see these uniform columns
with no spaces
between uh... words the idea is that
these texts were performed
by specialized leftovers
literacy was not democratized the idea was in that everyone should be literate
uh... they were specialize leke towers that knew how to read the stacks
and uh... william johnson has a class assisted cincinnati his he did a book
called the the
book roles locks hearing kids uh... these verbal calls that were discovered
in egypt
antioxidant site
that's really interesting to get his perspective on this because
he's done a study
the dimensions of these columns and so forth
uh... and
the idea is that this would be a a scroll that would go on
far in both
horizontally in both both on the side
and on that side of this would be the top and the bottom so we're not seeing
the full extent of uh...
role laid out were dissing
but on the screen
but uh...
what he in his study he looks at the fact that there are all fifteen twenty
five letters in these columns
uh... why
and this is just the amount that meeting research has shown is what we take in
uh... ahead of are on is when we're reading so that
collect or
can be
reading this allowed but then taking this in with his eyes
as he's speaking
and the idea was that
space is just
got in the way and made these lines wider so the ideas you can by keeping it
narrow you can keep it
to the for the ol
uh... and it keeps it optimal
what's interesting is the romans when they first
uh... develop their their their first literary text they didn't have spaces
between words but these only lasted the space between words while out of a
century and they went back to having no spaces between words
so there was obviously a free it serve the purpose
not having spaces between words very hard for us to relate to
in this day and age about
why on earth he would want to
not have spaces between words
why wouldn't you have punctuation why wouldn't have section headings all these
kinds of
navigational aids
well the idea is that
we live in a very different
literacy culture different reading culture
the agents did
with their
literary texts the ideas you have a group of elite
people sitting around eating grapes
and you have elector who would
the taxed for the enjoyment the aesthetic appreciation
of those gathered
it wasn't a question of going to the test and looking something up
saying i want to find out where so and so says something about x
and then you've got the school
how are you going to
you lay it out across the whole
floor of the auditorium and then try and search for it
that wasn't part of the reading cultures they didn't have a need for the kinds of
that we have today
uh... with the elaborate
navigation needs that we have
so they were used as uh... reference now when we go to
uh... you know a modern
like the uti looks
i want to go back to this
uh... you know as soon as we go to any heading here all the sudden
a bunch of now sub headings pop out
and we've got
you know this can be configured for prospective students current students
faculty of so no matter what your purposes there's a whole sort of sub
system that awaits you
that will help you
through the solution of information
uh... and so you have a very quick and easy way of getting out but
the uh... for the greeks and uh... romance was not as much an issue
also nowak have lived here
this is the way the kids learn how to been right for centuries
you know well into the medieval
and renaissance times even
and the idea was that you can miss a sort of like the early prime word
processor because you can write on the the tablet
rabbit out and you can start all over again
so you have a reasonable
uh... tax
what's interesting is that the text often constrained
but with of the product that came out of it
and uh... quintile ian tells the story about how student of his kept writing
long speeches that everyone complained about cuz they were too long
so thick you are and he was riding on this tablet
that was more wide
then paul
and so quickly i said this is what we need to do we need to give him a narrow
uh... companies coming up his lines he was saying i am within the line limit
uh... but they gave him his narrow they said you can use this wax tablet and
this was a narrow waxed tablet
and that cured that was a cure for this student because now his speeches were
acceptable they're much more interesting in fifty and he didn't go on and on and
on because he had less
uh... stacey koon account of the lines that was now within the state so
so the even the as we'll see you later on the the spatial dimensions
of the writing instrument play
important role
okay as we saw here we've got all kinds of you know hotlink search buttons
frames and so and so forth
that unit would have been
uh... irrelevant to the engines
when we go to the kodak's where
uh... the pages were not roles but now folded
of ministers of this was a pain invention
folding the pages but it was quickly adopted by the early christians that
were persecuted
you know for their
for their belief
and so they the idea was that they could
fold up
a document and in their clothing including
wouldn't go
uh... notice because it was
and also allowed
them to access like all the pistols or something where it is a series you could
then quickly access one verses and others so it didn't have time rollout
something and find out you could quickly
axis was very practical
when of books uh... when colored policies uh... begin to be
please tune in manuscript form
gradually begin to have spaces
uh... between words and number of scholars of associated
the the presence of spaces between words
with silent meeting
because reading was always spoken out loud and then
the idea was that
now by separating words
it makes possible silently that's a very controversial
debate and there are people that i want to do that right now but
william johnson for example argues strongly that there's lots of evidence
that people were certainly able to beat silently
uh... in
these of non
works but they'd vicious wasn't part of the culture to do that
another uh...
this is a interesting uh... discussed early and cora
shows the the sociocultural dimensions of texts and
the ideas you've got
an infinite loop
riding around the end
and then
within each of these verses it's a loop
so it goes around an around when you get to the end you're back at the beginning
and the idea his not only do you have this notion of the intranet
this was placed on a table and you have people on all sides of the table
uh... reading and
that means that
you know no matter what your perspective is you can still participate
in the reading
uh... because uh... this is going
before size so was very much
tied into the culture of reading the the the text is reflecting the the ways in
uh... fixes you so
uh... so the way clearing writer tied very much to the sos social and cultural
as much as they are effect technology
and then also the forms of writing reflects
the social and cultural needs of their users and the change as these needs
uh... change
so the bottom line is we're looking at technology is
of writing we also have to look at the reading cultures that
that uh... surrounding co evolved
so let's take a look at some
uh... precursors to things that we associate with computers
meter teaser early hypertext
uh... the the the first
uh... delve into this one in cable it's the german testing they arent know this
uh... about this text but it's
uh... the chronicle of world history from creation to fifteen ninety five
um... it's a fifteen sixteen fifty german
uh... book with no beginning middle or end i mean these are all districts
of whether uh... with writing on them so you can pick any any point
to begin with and then
uh... read
as much is you want to leave it
and then pick up the again somewhere there's no relationship
though you just make your own
connections as you go through there's no linear chronology
and then this uh... this one on the rate this is a final kernel is uh...
reading because being machine
nationality of
and uh... the idea was you have
this is a a palm and the idea
is it's actually uh... which he called it was the uh... song in the young
people and so this is uh...
this is one hundred thousand billion
uh... poems because the ideas all the permutations that you can have he work
it out uh... so that you could have that they would always rhyme
and always makes sense
so wherever would order order you you ladies strips down in you would have
of well-formed first
uh... and but the the the the downside was is that
any human individual would never in a lifetime delivery
all of the possible
uh... but
you know that way generations could you know the day and and never never eggs
off the possibilities
now where things that happens with with every medium along the way they were
uh... they're remedial chin
there's there's
so now you have computer web sites that have put going those reading machine on
so what you do hear is you uh... click on new palm
and it just rearrange is the with the verses and you get a new poem
uh... there's another website where you have that we have a little bit more
uh... in the you get the pic
now they were only able to for each versus each line ever sterile i deeply
believe for because of comdex bill uh...
has a copyright and so they couldn't use all ten of them
but yet if you can pick you know wine
james this year in there
and then you've got a new
you can do for
uh... and some of them allow you then to print up the poem
it formatted
nicely and so forth
but this is you know sort of now taking the computer version
of could knows project
so that is that is that the some of these ideas that we take his
revolutionary lee new
actually go back
uh... centuries
but by the same token some of the new technologies are are mediating things so
another example of the mediation
is with uh...
as this is the gutenberg bible verses from the harry ransom center
their copy of the bird bible
you know the the
reimbursed press that the early early
printed books worried mediations of benefits because you see the
illuminations and so forth the idea is to make it as
you know as much like a manuscript as possible
but better in that it can be mass
produced or at least
produced on a wider uh... scale
and you've got examples like this where you've got a book
that appeared on the screen but with the scrollbar
so that you can scroll
within the book interphase so you know all i think there are kinds of ways of
making it relate a bowl you can relate to it 'cause it's a familiar
and yet new context all the same time
uh... one of the things you fine with a lot of news uh... websites this is uh...
the dusty on but it is seen on c_n_n_ has got a similar thing
is that they will have a are kind of like a a ticker tape
uh... section we'll see if this comes up for not matured
uh... yun
uh... this section
ready here you see the the new
scrolling bach
this is like the old nineteen twenties ticker tape machines would come out of
that sort of glass bubble and
and they would announce the news as it was appearing it creates a great sense
of things happening right here right now and you're getting it straight
what's interesting is that
is this never the main stories in this context
it's always sort of subsidiary stories
so it still using this as the media c
by it's not presenting the main
text which is always over more to the left
so it has
its own a particular
this is an interesting one uh... le monde
has got this feature where you uh...
can get your
electronic me can read the paper online uh... like this
but you can get the electronic
versions of yet here we go
to look what happens when we
click on this we have now visual my twenty
and this put it back
uh... reading those downloading right now
with this tools rejected with through the paper dislike
we would be the paper
rations to take your skit
almost done
found president of the technology i i i
i see that scrollbar go across and i think it's almost there okay
that's the problem
alright anyway
years you click on this and what happens is you see a digital thing where the
page falls over and flips over to the other side
and even harold rustling sounds so we've got
you know the idea that
yes it is familiar even though it's on screen you are turning a page is
creating all the sounds of committee everything but the feel you know
of the paper
uh... one thing is not new of course is the culmination of image
and uh... text i mean limited limited manuscripts
and uh... medieval churches with their stain glass windows telling
last fall
biggest books uh... always been very popular
science books illustrated with drawings
and newspapers and magazines using graphic
xx incoming texas is this is nothing new
about uh... all that but there are some aspects
that you will be on with no me for not come to that and just a few minutes but
what does all this tell us about
uh... literacy
well first of all these illiteracy is not just uh... the question of
putting words on paper and andy quoting them
or just a set of academic skills
that it's really about cultures of reading cultures of writing
and looking at me in writing in their variable
social contexts of use so it's involving thinking it's involving talking
ways of interacting with other people and so forth
literacy changes according to social contacts also initially breaks price
heats research in south carolina where she was looking
at adolescents and three communities was one
actually three different brands of of of literacy
bag nurse research in morocco looking at chronic schools is a very different
form looking at recitation practices
uh... spanish students here at uky i mean every
context you take a stand house you know specific
practices and skills that are all tied up in what we call literacy nasa as lead
some research used to argue
for the desirability of of not
talking about literacy in the singular but i cannot literacy is in the plural
are going to press uh... in his book literacy in the new media age argues
that multimodal imprint
uh... texts are based on very different logics he talks about how
printed texts are based on our temporal way of
of uh... thinking and
viewing and telling
whereas multimodal texts
followed very spatial top
a special process of showing so instead of telling your you're showing
this has effects on
uh... how we make sense of things on screen versus how we make sense of
and paper texts
then let manage uh... talks about another layer uh... or uh... of logic
not just that of
the showing or telling but also the layer of the computer itself and what he
argues in his book language of new media
is that modern post-industrial culture has a new logic of
individual customs asian not mass standardization
uh... and this is mary throughout the structure of the media
so for example if if i start up an account
you know if ya who i can configure the account
exactly the way i want i can have
you know the particular below the weather for mine town or
specific things i want to read
that show up
uh... on
on my uh... portal which is sort of my metaphor of my with my window onto the
uh... cyberspace
uh... and what
manner that starts about
is uh... that that these two layers there's there's the computer lair and
the cultural lair
and at this so we can think of new media
and he says because new media is created on computers
distributed by computers and stored in archives on computers that logic of the
computer can be expected to significantly influenced the traditional
cultural logic of media
that is we may expect that the computer lair will affect the cultural their and
so that when he does in his book is there's lays out different ways
that that is happening in his uh... view
so with his perspective
we can get
uh... turn to some of the things that are happening and with language in
online varmas not gonna have to sort of a smattering of
of different
languages here too close to a number of principles
one thing that's interesting i think is um...
you know when you know it's first getting going back in the eighties
in many languages
the only
script that you had available was asking
ascii code
so you had the roland and uh... alphabet arabic
arabic numerals
and that you had make do
uh... and so
uh... in in greek for example many people uh...
those who were using email would right there you know this with
uh... alphabet
uh... ands
uh... because the you know if they want to
the new thing of writing email that was really the only choice that available
what's interesting
is that
when you know coach came along
you were able to have greek alphabet
you emails people persisted
in using roman alphabet because that had become
the modus operandi of
doing email
it was just
now given that you use rome it was just too familiar
now sort of
essense learned over again
using help
so this is uh... uh... a message in in um...
what's called uh... well
uh... with janice has this nice article where he talks about
using greek lage
where uh... the greek is is written out
uh... roman
alphabet so here we have
the greek and the greek lish
missus creek with roman
uh... he says that oftentimes you'll get uh... messages in both when you have
announcement of something you'll come out and both
uh... and so
the translation of what this is saying is dear mister could sit down and see
your mailbox size has exceeded the thirty thousand k kilobytes uh... limit
for the best operation of your mailbox please delete some messages from the
mail server
uh... but
it goes out in both because people have uh... different
the familiar different practices
and you'll notice
that when you have sounds
the dart represented by the roman alphabet tandel b numerals
and we'll see this with arabic in just a second to
you have to rely on the other symbols to serve compensate when
a given
uh... system
uh... has as efficiency and in terms of your and terms of your language
so uh...
so in-kind in marriages terms
the computer layer had affected the cultural air
now even though you could write in greek
the computer and only allowed to do it with roman alphabet and now
it's just the way it's done
it's now part of my culture so
we've been music good example of the computer later affecting the cultural
another dimension is the use of english
uh... in
uh... in greek
technology you know people who are using the internet a lot
a lot of professionals uh...
in greece feel they have to use english increasingly
appear like they're on top of things and there's a lot of vocabulary missiles
coming out with new technological products
and if you're not using english
there's no greek words for these things and so uh... if you're gonna be
really conversant to have to use english that's another aspect of this matter
comes up with
uh... addition arabic as well
uh... mark where shar uh... was working of
for u_s_a_ the project and
cairo for number of years in history
on the use of roman eyes injection
uh... he found that uh...
rarely did people use of
classical arabic script to to rate uh... emails that it was originally a mixture
of arabic
and uh... arabic written with roman alphabet
uh... and also the egyptian
uh... arabic there was also uh...
roman eyesore
was it was addressing hears us not only a change
in alphabets also change in reading direction so instead of reading
right to left to going from left to right so we're we're really looking at a
changing peoples uh... they they practices
and he found a more formal the communication had to be the more likely
was going to be in english
uh... the informally males were more mixed sometimes they were in which
sometimes arabic uh... sometimes and
the mix of of both
but you know they've got he has that
it wasn't just the technology that was increasingly when she was the whole
range of social factors for example
uh... in professional world the less uh... is the dominant language in engage
lack of arabic site of software standards throughout their but speaking
uh... computer skills were often london englishman
and arabic
uh... a lot of the people in tech industry have been and an indication
industry or
uh... had been educated at least partly english-speaking environment so forth
for you
so you have all these other
uh... social factors that are exchanging uh... bitter
contributing to language uses this isn't really a matrix of
technological and social and economic
political cultural factors that are all coming together
to influence
uh... languages
one of that one of the hypotheses is that you know we the
when you've got issues of economy so time money space that puts constraints
on how you used language
uh... and
that pulls up to a certain extent because you do have
uh... he's like on expression is to save space especially on cell phone trying to
an s_m_ s
you've only got a few you no room for a few characters
uh... you know you're obviously going to want to have some revisions and they're
seeking howard
acronyms like yellow and police military buddy
the rb thoughtful are not shy go
well i was laughing out loud be right back rolling on the floor laughing by
the way
frequently asked questions
uh... you things that are just part of
it was interesting about some of these all come back to load
in a minute of which could log has had a huge
influence in non-english languages you find it in italian in portuguese in
really really widespread unbelievable and i've got a lack of a console dot log
just a minute
uh... at stake here with another one
that's found in many different languages
now this is frequently asked questions as always like a you know an f_a_a_ q
you know
button on web sites and so forth now you find
that fake hero
i know i know i haven't been to a bunch of you know dozens of one design but i
know in in
italian french spanish
uh... think much about words he's a mature but
you'll see i think u
used as a as a
place to go precious
this is an abbreviation but it's english so
but but
this it's because taken on his iconic status is just an icon you know if they
cubans where you go now the french of course because they can't tolerate using
english acronyms
invented the expression flower hokey steel
so that way they could be legit
and continue to use i think you get to everyone knew every few was the term you
want to use the fed to come up with some way of now making a legitimate
at other ways of gonna fire but uh...
anyway then amortize another way of of making adaptations and so you have
uh... you know different
styles no across cultures so here you have
you know for example in japan you have a face on the horizontal so can you turn
your head to see what people are saying you can just you look at people straight
and what's nice is that there's a cultural element there if so for example
the girls smile
you know it's not supposedly polite for girls to you know
have a big toothy grin
but much more of a demure
uh... and so the ideas that you don't show a big grin on the on the icon but
just a demure
uh... for them out but nevertheless is taken has a smile
uh... apparently
the most
uh... or were and on the most widely used a very widely for these calls sweat
excuse me that he is that
the senate colin is the sweat coming down
the side of your face when you're very embarrassed about something under your
stress in your embarrassed
and then the excuse me this is the arm coming up scratching behind
head like this in
very nervously
uh... so you have to you know these gesture all features that are built in
uh... to the language
uh... in french
there's a distinction between the regular smiley
and this
sort of devilish
smile from sarcastic
w count of
then you have
because the french roll is kissing her on the cheeks you have to have
you know symbols for that so you've got to this exhorted the ast asterix or the
or the series of x is like we have in english
uh... indicate
uh... this one here is whether the noses out of joint but not in the sense of
being angry but now the drunk so u
you know when you've got like that
it's hope that uh... you know he's
uh... and this one with the big devem altec annuity laughter
or mockery or talking too much
uh... depending on the context so again context comes into play and how you
uh... these things
yeah in terms of s m s forms these in
serving flows all kinds of internet communications so they want to read this
first one i'm sure there's some adapts spin here the can dismantle this off
right are you two simulator
notice that there are no spaces
we're right back with the ancients here with no spaces between words
because if you know if you're part of the culture that deals with these kinds
of deviations
you can read through these
no sweat you don't need to have spaces inbetween
so again
you know this is a question of
how your socialize uh... tentatively
meal it is on the
this word poon
uh... this is uh... they'll comes from a gaming
environment you know where
you u
it's actually it is a music comes from just a
you know though in the p_r_ rightness each other and on the keyboard
the story out of the packet for not but the idea is that some time
someone hit the p instead of the owen writing you know owned and in a gaming
the congress' i on you
i've away you know
i've dominated u
in this game
you know you have no more resources i've taken all your resources and so forth
but it became poon
uh... with this you know
opt for you know this this mistake on the keyboard which would appear eight
next to the you know and then that took off as being the legit word
rather than a home http colon
uh... to climb refunds and it was just a little bit different
and it gave allowed everyone to share
in the secret knowledge
so create a sense of of community
so by using prone you knew if there's someone you know use poem you knew that
they were on the inside
of the group so there's identity features built-in
to all those two
graphic symbols for narrative
so here we have
they won't know what this would be
but stories we're telling
how do you read this i mean if you look at it just you know as a lot of textile
it looks like you know morse code or something there
but the idea here
is this guy has got a joint hanging out of his mouth
he's inhaling twice
holding his breath
let me get out in a smile
on at the at the end
so there's a whole bunch of you know use of these characters uh... in narrative
contexts and then also of course
ascii art you know where you
this is dino ever since ass that's been around you've had people
doing all kinds of designs
uh... trying to take this limited set of resources and doing creative things
uh... phonetic spellings abbreviations in french
uh... bs in french
yeah lane
yacht clubs
you need to know that
chichi together used to
so it's a shame i'll talk to
all parents electors photo yes
and then uh...
the next one
g_-eight hearing udaipur setup kennedy
hillary listening
you bank showed a much larger maker whose minister via
uh... so you get these you know we're denies those of the third thing i
from you're doing well
netflix yesterday at school sports
i've got an idea through this afternoon happen if we go to the movies
uh... if they like the mastin left-wing twelve minutes that right
um... now this is an interesting one
when you look at this q here this is use this internet language this is hit
you know you know that that that the queue is kept
but this is not new this goes back you know this is same thing was done
and fifteen hundred withdrawn at all
where you have
the differences if you had a make ron over the q
many of these abbreviations were used
in you know the days of barriers between you you know you had the
how the flush
right margin and so you had to shrink things down
or you won't get things by adding some letters
depending on
you know spelling standards are in a dictionary so you you're you shorten nor
you lengthen
in order to get
a product that's the has flush
so you know
it's ironic but we're using the same you know the things we think of as as hit
their lead
language is actually uh... going has precursors going way way back
uh... usa reverses
like kaha k uh...
and that this one which is too long ago into right now
uh... but you know these these please go back centuries and have been
you know uh... uh...
nice parlor
games uh... for a static appreciation
millage isms i had some students that were the computer lab they were doing
you know
and so they signed on single block over a copy
all that happened in that so we type again it doesn't exist in there is no
special but that they but they've taken the exact same idea of or one so we see
one another again
and transferred back to the the context of typing until we clicked again
so it's really interesting that the creativity that comes along as and this
is part of
i mean this is uh...
either the cleverness and the hipness
uh... is solely important internet communication
uh... the more clever you are the higher your status
in in your group
back to elo allied mentioned before of that all well as laughing out loud there
isn't an expression in french which is the npr which is not the yeah
that is that's what you're supposed to say
a doctoral student in the old that i met when i was there had just done a study
on internet language
and she found
that the use of m_d_ are
on a graph it was like
this and hello l was like a this it was huge
the difference
uh... and it was also all these variations and this is that this is only
the tip of the iceberg they were there were no about a hundred variations of
the others
and well with lots of ills lots of o_'s and so forth
and and what's interesting is the is that industry no one who is teaching in
the area
uh... wrote me
that he was of looking at he was observing these kids in the playground
during recess one day
and he was noticing that the uh... where do you know someone would chip in for
sons-in-law it
for not only with a winifred skids using it in the internet
you know writing
but they were actually
saying it
as well
on the playground so it's it's it's
had this tremendous influence not only made one it but now also in spoken
language even though
loan doesn't mean anything
in france
is just referring
uh... basically an iconic terms in written shab
was referring to in english
term which they don't know even the words that bagel back to you
and you can go to different languages you know and find with
no and in various
uh... permutations italians portuguese right here uh... its
uh... phone
now to go back to this fit hypothesis is really all about economy it's really not
because you'll often find cases where things actually are longer
so for example walked
which is the standard or thought refi is often written as and when you exited
extra character written and
or by buying which is commonly used in french
by by the nice thing about this is that this sort of an ambiguity is it just
saying bye bye
orignal biased to your own so is it so much higher do you know
it's the end of the niagara hide behind you know i'm not a new you know we got
his there but if you've got a literary quality to it
and uh... the the thing is is that it's taking a back seat more space
qualquer word kwok
is is usually written q_ u_ all live and it's often abbreviated ko pay well
kayleigh is shorter but actually takes longer to tight
people usually have a lot of it's a city in red ink well witnessed you know it's
a normal word but kayleigh have to really think about okay k and then
so all these into the processing time
the shortness is not necessarily really an abbreviation often takes more time
to use
the shorter forms
access disappearing
uh... when i was working in france the policy of the office was not to use
because of this kind of thing where you you know if you don't have the same if
you don't have a compatible interface on both ends
you'll end up with all these garbage characters
end up going to be you know if
six seven characters that get your pose right in the middle of a word
which makes things a legible
uh... in france in in business context for the sake
use accents
in german
not using uh... capitals ah... for analysis
uh... contractions uh... influenced by speech
uh... chinese lots of farm logical approximations
lucy example because
you know as a lot of you i'm sure you know
when you when you use chinese ealier you take any of the being in or that the
route character that you want to use when you go to a table
and then you that the table appeared at the picnic character that you want all
this takes a lot of time
in the heat of communication
uh... oftentimes equal whenever they can
they'll use numbers
that roughly correspond
final optically with the things that trying to say so here we have are bach
of for avoid that
are you home great
and uh... so so two eight two would be a complete
and then our salute you
for of this salute the
starving to death
and then uh... number eight is box we have bock bock
for by
uh... being used as a sign off and you can if you look on the internet you can
strings here's just a partial list you can find hundreds of these
you know so if you realize that you are my only
type zero four five five one
it's done
mixture of numerals and roman letters so
so here we have sir
for shall obvious vaguely similar but it saves a lot of time in the process of
uh... and then he cared for hall but
uh... really can replace the space all with the bob optical place
this character
uh... the the three kit was anything in in chinese the three is the son
so sunk you sunk you that's out there
so all is there anything become you know just
part of the culture
and people know how to use these
a subject a lesion is very common for the knee
uh... this is asking where you come from
uh... and and and the need for you is taken out because it's really not
uh... necessary
uh... in the use of pinon with the tone is at the end
just spelling things out uh... phonetically
is used to this it's sort of the standard practice in singapore but i'm
sure many many other places as well
you know through all these examples there's an adaptation too
the um... culture of
you know features of speech from from face-to-face
uh... speech
the use of a motor cons to direct the reader to interpret a message in a
certain way
also the notion of identity to create a sense
or or dings or or reaffirm
uh... group membership membership and
sharing of
practices and values
so uh...
if literacy involves familiarity with all these things with the conventions of
how their range in how their destruction
and knowledge of how to use these conventions to understand
and produced text then what we need to do is to help our students negotiate
uh... the interface among all these various logics
at play in both multimodal and so uh... traditional
and also how to see
these different logics affect meaning
in the case of multimodal texts uh... literacy involves interpreting
the many ways of representing meaning that the
new technological tools are making possible
it also involves new forms of critical thinking focus for example on the biases
in the structural characteristics of the given medium so for example
when they were tufts is written about uh...
he's got a great little
booklet on uh...
powerpoint and the the very structure
of the medium
has effects
uh... happens in communication
and he's very much against the use of power point and so it it's interesting
it's an interesting read to see uh...
uh... like this that the governor
so uh... what we mean uh... in my view is an approach that focuses
on uh... the design of meeting looking a relationship for confirmations of school
relationships of the train
uh... language cognition
social features between readers writers texts and cultures
between foreman meaning
between spoken and written communication
and the multiple logics indifferent
uh... the new london group
put together the curricular approach that
has four components
the talk about situated practice which is basically immersion language used
uh... over instruction
where you need to develop a medal language of vocabulary for talking about
uh... meaning
of critical framing which is basically reflection on meaning
if we're
engaged in communication that sort of the the uh... situated practice but the
the critical framing is
is looking that from the now from a distance
looking the relationships among elements from linguistic system relationships
between language do you think of contexts
and institutional uh... forces societal forces
uh... and so forth
and then transform practices looking at how it you can to redesign
either within the same medium or across media so for example if you were too
take uh...
you know write a new written text on the basis of an existing one
or to make a photo essay or website based on a written text
uh... those of the examples of of transforms uh... practice going along
with the critical awareness of the uh... the processes involved in that
so how does that
all relate to the educational status quo basically the situated practices over
destruction are widely
in programs but the critical framing and transform practice tend to be
on the minimized
side so i think that
the vicki
as we deal with
both new media and traditional test is to try and emphasized all four of these
and how they work together
uh... in teaching
rather than just focusing on getting the words out
uh... but also seeing what getting the words out
uh... both to oneself and other people
we looks like we're at the end of our time i will talk too much about that is
one of the show a couple of foreigners teaching projects that take on different
aspects of all this
uh... the penn state flotilla collaboration uh...
project has been really important in
looking at how language not only is you
news but how it's interpreted across cultures
uh... seatbelts television belts often dogs uh... jaw uh...
project where
people uh...
responder questionnaires an exchange uh... interpretations has been a very
important project what's nice about that is that there's
a sizable archive
that even if you don't use
could jog to exchange within the classroom you can still use the archive
to look at the database of of uh... response is that
both french students
uh... and magazines as well as now other languages spanish uh...
and other languages are using
renee promoters she's uh... grad student at berkeley uh... the couple years back
to the nice blog
uh... project were students were given
uh... roles to play rather than having to respond
uh... from their their real
lives real opinions real pasts they were given role to play and she found the
dramatically increased
their fluency because they didn't they fell to constrained by having thought
about themselves they have really had to do it right
and they couldn't fit
but when they weren't you know we're given a role
if they did not i say something to say something else naked is making up and
that way it works and they were in the right to whole lot more by doing that
of digital storytelling where you tell stories
using not just language but also a music
animation uh... linda hall
and mark nelson uh... was a grad student uh... has uh... the published last year
and i sort of cool on digital storytelling and he's now running as a
on visual storytelling in japan where he uh... taught english
so it's really interesting to see
how people talk about
these processes they go through as they compose
uh... multimedia
uh... project them involved in this year
is using desktop video conferencing between stinson berkeley
students in france
uh... you
vacancy their beer partners they work in pairs
actually in these photos um... for example these two are not in pairs but
they their partners were absent that day
but there there's to people in france working with two people in berkeley
and they can see no gestures facial expressions and so forth as well as the
language and then the idea is to come back and analyze
what was going on during interaction and talk with the students on both sides
about uh... was happening so when using technology
of the the thing that i'd like to argue is that we really
ought to be using an approach that focuses
on reading and writing practices
uh... and how they were late to speaking and listening practices
all in one package
and two
prepare our students to deal with these new multimodal forms that are involving
all these uh... features of language
david crystal is booked language in the internet talks about
uh... these multimode forms of uh... song like this he says
what i've been calling that speak will become part of a much larger computer
mediated language
which individually designed enhanced band with environment of future
could be the community the communities linguistic norm
whereas at the moment face-to-face communication ranks as primary
in any account of linguistic potentiality is a few min kind in the
future it may not be so
in a statistical sense we may one day communicate with each other far more of
your commute computer mediation
than in direct interaction
the effects of what counts as normal language acquisition
could be similarly profound
so one thing for sure is that first of all reading and writing are more
important than ever and also that uh... that literacy
demands a whole lot more symbolic sophistication and more critical
thinking than ever before as well
so literacy is is becoming not only multimodal
but also increasingly uh... multilingual
and the uh... so what we need to do because language is changing
these um...
culture literacy is changing
well that's the given
languages and cultures are always changing but www in order to deal with
these changes i think uh... we need to focus
knocked on the latest random looking at the fundamental questions that go back
uh... as long as we've had
uh... writing
that link technology language
and cultures of reading and writing from over the centuries
and uh... that surface in different guises with each new technology that
gets introduced
but that never less are grounded in the past two experience
so one language teaching
if we can emphasize analysis
and thinking
illiteracy based approach
we can help prepare students not only for to use
but also to critically assess new multimodal forms
of expression as they continue to evolve
vituperative choices
right right
but that's not to say that that
you know i'm not i'm not opposing that
that we all have to be the experts
by that we have to be
clued into the practices their students are familiar with
so that we can really
for example what they do on daily basis
to what people been doing for centuries so they can expand the repertoire of
computer practices
and i think that
they are missing out as relieved at the heart of this because the idea is that
you are giving them away from
focusing exclusively on language
uh... which often is i mean
will use language that part of our main
for example as united talking right now
of the is language but it's really only a part
uh... and there's so many things we save take for granted but further crucially
and so the more we can focus stands tension on all the myriad things that
howell meaning is made and taken
uh... because menaces
so often we get ourselves the problems by focusing too much just on
you know the literal language what was said
but not take into account in what context
what would be given see you know what with the the
point of departure you know for
that address that we're gonna sort of remove
the layers of context
and when you do that you might get it completely different
you know t on
what was really
taken as interpretation or intended
by producer
speech of text whatever
so and i think that
it's really important to to look
the network of all of the resources that people have
disposal and how these resources work together
or against one another
um... in
uh... and how
you know traditions will be a friend community to community
uh... it's not just an you know a national culture thing
it's you know within
you know it's within communities in in in any
you know some cultures that will have their own ways of doing things
and as an anger burnout group and
that's important too
understand what the rules
of discourse production discourse interpretation are
you know within those communities to have some sense
of of really what's going on
so i think the more that we can
you know going back to the over exertion more we can develop a vocabulary for
talking all these different things i think it's uh... positive
thing because otherwise
they've they they remain at the level of
the air we breathe missus it's very and everyone's who knows about it
without thinking about it
but they don't they're not aware of it in a sense of being able to think about
you know i i harwood argue that the that the pentagon to them talking about here
would applied beautifully literature
because you know you're looking
i mean there's so many semiotic dimensions of
of uh... literature and
the the news on but you know how
colleen o looking at up putting out poetry for example
you know how it's positioned on the page
where are the spaces whereas the text with the relations with the you know
what's going on spatially here
i mean so much of that
it's not just the language dot the meaning of leah looking up the words and
then try to figure out it's it's leads looking
the thing
and trying to figure out all the relationships they're involved
some of their own linguistic
on the or special temporal etcetera
here are but
you know it's all going to the same lesson
you know about how
the uh...
the technology
no but i mean it but it is a warning i a necessity photo kind of always kind of
pedagogical springboard for dc for getting into things that are you know
more serious
uh... that
but you know we we're dealing with the same him so many of the same issues
about how do you represent
uh... to others in the given medium
you know in the way you want to do it what are you know what are your goals
with the resources you have available to do that
and then you know how do you want to be perceive insult
that if the show that in a given community
you know the forgiven you know
intended audience
you're gonna have some sort of idea of
what's important to get across
the way you do that
effectively is going to have some sense of one of the rules civ interpretation
the rules of
going to be
in that environment
to buchanan's
you present an image that you didn't do
that is not to get them to know so they can make in some instances in french
but to understand
uh... the processes involved you know what's was lying behind all this
so it's not it's not that they're going to start the number two compositions no
he should indeed a pool has set up a meeting noon
well because i mean in academic context which a registered in is that they
something that is acceptable within an academic
you know frame of discourse
so so the idea is is that
we have all the different canada's christianity's and their deferral wolves
that pertain to each one so in this you know
you know it we was in a message to you know our best friend or whatever
these are the rules of the wanna look like they belong we do it this way
in a fresh literature class
you know you get kicked out if you do it that way you can use those same rules
and that's the important lesson to learn is that there are distinct sets of rules
that will apply in different context and you have to learn much as one set of
rules not to several not freezing
unilateral whole bunch of different laws
the function across many contacts
and that's that's the real task
is to you know if houston's to you know i'm really old bridge for a variety of
discourses and show how in the east context
there are
different rules interpretation different rules of production decline
and it's it's being sent the fact that fact that they're not in fact trying to
use the same
in the most familiar
context in applying that blanket lee across contacts that suit you don't want
them to do because the lf fail
uh... if they'd use an academic discourse
in a casual conversation they will fail
uh... if they're playing on a soccer team
and they're trying to you know recite
poetry you know they will fail in those
if they try to use the soccer team language in the poetry class and they
will fail you know the you've gotta learn what's appropriate for the given
context so thats
i think the real lesson here is that we can show them
a wide variety
of context the rules of interpretation and how their job is to negotiate and
and learn how to learn
what the rules are
in these different as you can teach them everything
all you can only
given some examples and show them how they can learn in some context
but then teach them
you know to learn to learn
as they go out and experience new
uh... new context and then because things are changing all the time
buttttt it's in the day won't necessarily hold tomorrow
yet could be although you know that a lot of students
really are with
with the for our by that because of the too pragmatic
imaginative enough for me i think a lot of students are drawn
to the imaginative
is so high lighted in literature that there's a that there's a real
attraction there because of being able to
uh... see things in a totally new
through new imagination
you know the way that they could
ordinarily imagine things and being able to now to open up their imagination in
new ways
so i think uh... you know you really need an element of both any that that
mystery imagination
uh... to go along 'cause
you know what sightseers are sold
you know routine in ordinary it so much of it depends on you know knowing clear
students are to and what
you know what their predispositions are and how you can leave them from point a
to point b_ but you have to start with point a
yep there where they are
yes not this is something you expect the first person to write it's you have to
be outside enough to sort of
said look at it and and
and c_e_o_s a relationship here on the net
but that that you know if there is a
as a distance were remove
that's kinda prerequisite nine these interest you get
different religious instead
yeah but i don't think it's tied the computers as a silly because if you look
at notes they get passed
in the old days when people would be no vital note to their trend and folded and
pass it you know an in class
incredible originality in creativity
in those notes
reil again
real emphasis on cleverness
that with the in those brief resort bristling about writing for sure
uh... in terms of this interpersonal
immediate writing that goes back and forth but whether i don't think it's
necessarily tied to the computer per se
okay thank you
needing things