Төрскн келнә заль

Uploaded by kalmykiatv on 08.11.2011

Machine translation International Year of Languages
Year of the Kalmyk Language
Year of the Family is dedicated
There are about 6,000 languages
Of them, as they note actively
functioning only 600
The rest are forgotten and gradually fade away
To help solve this problem,
UNESCO proclaimed 2008
as the International hearth languages
Sad, but to the number of endangered languages ​​and is our native language.
The language of our ancestors - the Kalmyk
The flame of the native language
Kalmyks - the people of Mongolian origin known in the history of a derby-Oirat
lived in the foothills of the Altai
ages roamed the expanses of Central Asia
and created at the time of Oirat State
In the XVII century, they came to the south of Europe and became part of Russia, taking the vast space between the Volga and the Urals
About then, for four years, they call themselves the Kalmyks
Going into the Russian state, the Kalmyks with the Russian people, the Russian army in sparing his life was at war with the Turks, Tartars, Swedes, French, using their newfound martial arts ancestors in times of Genghis Khan.
and praising his name
For four hundred years Kalmyks shared and happy days and days of the ordeal with all the peoples of Russia
Until the early XX century the Kalmyks
to communicate with each other
use only their own language
With the establishment of Soviet power began weaning religion monasteries were closed, and the monks sent to prison
Faith in God was banned
According to Stalin's cruel decree Kalmyks deported in cold Siberia, where many of them died
Although 13 years later the survivors and Kalmyks returned home most of them already spoke in Russian
language training and business communication has become their Russian language
In 70-80 years, the number of Kalmyks speak the native language has decreased
They were ashamed to speak their language
no longer adhere to their traditions
However, while this phenomenon was not given much importance
It was only the beginning of perestroika Kalmyks developed a desire to revive the national culture and native language
In 1991, a law came in Kalmykia
first proclaimed the Kalmyk State
along with Russian
Currently, in the Kalmyk language communicate Volga Kalmyks, related language use Oirat Mongols living in China and the nations of Western Mongolia
Kalmyks in the United States, France, Germany, as well as a few pruppa Sart-Kalmyks in Kyrgyzstan speak Kalmyk
With senior respectful, courteous with a minor
He is agile and flexible, as the rider, the Kalmyk
It is durable and accurate, resourceful and friendly - Kalmyk
Sometimes he strikes a cunning as a snake
Beat, and a two-faced liar who
Daredevil, but he praised the bravery - the Kalmyk language.
He caresses and pampers, he cuts and stabs
He is ancient and young, he understood the happiness
Remove the bridle of his horse would not allow - the Kalmyk language.
For many centuries,
like the flame of a family home
Kalmyk warmed the soul of the Kalmyks
In this ancient language created wonderful works - tales, legends
heroic epic "Jangar" and others
became the top folklore
In the heroic epic "Jangar" occurs a scene
in the midst of the festive feast of heroes
Bogd Khan Jangar, spilling transparent like nectar tears, explains the cause
"Although happy today, but in the future, I fear we will have a heavy destiny - to be in the hands of others"
such words Jangar expressed his pain and suffering
Today, renouncing his hometown of the ancient language, the language of their forefathers, learning a foreign language, we ignore the traditions of their ancestors
and perceive other people's customs and mannerisms
and it is not correct, this situation needs to be corrected
Therefore instructive line of heroic epic "Djangar"
make us think about the future today
they should be seen as a wise farewell
and the will for us and for future generations
Kalmyks have long had their own written language
In 1648, Zaya Pandita, developing a script, created a new script, "bichg Todo" ("clear message")
Zaya Pandita, translated from the Sanskrit and Tibetan
and recorded on the "Todo bichg" 177 Works
and his disciples - 37 works
These works became the property of Oirat-Kalmyk spiritual treasures and was the impetus for the development of national culture
Kalmyks used this script before 1924
then moved to the Cyrillic alphabet
then in the years 1931-1938 - to Latin
and in 1938 again began to use the Cyrillic alphabet
As the story Oirat-Mongolian literature
calculated from the XIII century
and Mongolian peoples of the world united
we, the Kalmyks, representing part of the world is entitled to consider his Mongolian written records
This fact allows us to consider
the history of our literature
from «The Secret History of the Mongols», created in 1240
until the poem Boovan Badma "gladly hearing"
creation date which is the end of XIX - beginning of XX century
The study reveals the presence of a given period
diverse in genre, issues
content and scope of a large number of
small works in the form of interest
Since all of these written records
written on "Todo bichg" overestimated their value
for modern Kalmyk
because "Todo bichg" is
invaluable guardian of our native Kalmyk
According to the 2002 census of 174 thousand Kalmyks living in Russia, of his possession Kalmyk said about 153 thousand representing 87%
These data suggest that the Kalmyk supposedly thrives
and the state of the language is not a problem
However, the well-known fact that each Kalmyks in their native language do not communicate
Now, in everyday life in the family Kalmyk language is not widely used
Russian language dominates in all areas
TV broadcasts mainly in Russian
in business is only the Russian language
all the paperwork is in Russian
Then where 87% of people who said that they knew their native language?
Who are they?
This is what we tried to find out in conversations with different people
- Hello
Can I talk to you in the Kalmyk language?
- Can
- And you say in Kalmyk?
- Did you talk to anyone in the Kalmyk language?
- I speak at home with my grandmother, my mother, brothers, sisters
all speak the Kalmyk
All members of the family interact in Kalmyk
and I also know it
- Hello
Since you can talk on the Kalmyk language?
- I'll talk
- Do you like to chat in the Kalmyk language?
- I love
- And you say in Kalmyk?
- Kalmyk. In your family speak Kalmyk?
- No. I talk to a teacher at school
Kalmyk language in class
- The school is well taught?
- Good
- Kalmyk like?
- Like
- Hello. Since you can talk on the Kalmyk?
- You can talk
- Where did you learn the Kalmyk language?
- I'm from the village Bagshin Shemnr
There all the children speak the Kalmyk
And I also say to the Kalmyk
- You love your Kalmyk?
- I love
- There is a desire to teach your children Kalmyk?
- There are
- Hello. Since you can talk on the Kalmyk?
- Yes
- The concept of my question?
- The concept of
- Where did you say in the Kalmyk language?
- In school
- House is not talking?
- Talking
- Who taught you to speak the Kalmyk?
- Grandpa, Grandma
Teachers also
- The school is well taught?
- Good. Very good
- In the future, how are you going to improve your Kalmyk? Your children will be taught, or not?
- I will teach
- And do you think?
- I will teach
- Your opinion?
- I will teach
- You know the Kalmyk language?
A little
- Thank you
- We know
- Between a say in Kalmyk?
- Talking
- Since you can talk on the Kalmyk?
- I do not speak the Kalmyk
- Kalmyk know?
- Do you like the Kalmyk language?
- Where are you from?
- I'm from Elista
- How you know Kalmyk?
- Kalmyk I know from gra .. [grandmother]
- From the grandmother?
- From Grandma
- Understand This is good
In the future, you are going to teach your children?
If your children know Kalmyk-is it good?
- And who will teach them?
- Then we have to improve your Kalmyk
Teach your children, teach the Kalmyk language. See you
- You do not know?
- Well, I know a little bit
- A little - that's good. Told [me] understand?
- The words "hello", "goodbye" you know?
- I know, I know
- Do you have a desire to teach the Kalmyk language of your child?
- I do not speak the Kalmyk
- But why?
- Why, you say?
- Oh. I say bad because all the time speak Russian
- And you come from?
It turned out that most of the young people surveyed do not speak the native language
Analyzing the situation, inadvertently pose questions
The modern man needs a mother tongue?
Are there people who speak the Kalmyk?
How to revive and preserve the Kalmyk language?
Native language the child must acquire in the family
from the older generation
With the mother's milk children acquire natural force, and good sense, and language learning in communication
This tradition is still preserved in the family where the older generation
One such family is the family Shurungovyh
Bolhov A. Shurungova teaches Kalmyk language in the Kalmyk State University
we are from Arvan-gelyung Taltahinskogo kind
Our family is very large, a lot of families
When our house is a festival going all the relatives and revelry
This house was built by my husband ten years ago
At present, we can see that the Kalmyk stored in those families where three generations live together, two of which are owned by the older generation of the native language
There is an interesting fact: when the family gather for the occasion or sorrowful event, even a bad command of the native language of the people try to speak the Kalmyk
because in those moments pronounced special, meaningful words, the essence of which can be transferred only in the mother tongue, and very difficult to express in another language
Oh gods of our ... This is how our ancestors taught us to make offerings to the gods of the Kalmyk tea
This offering will drink then boy growing up in a family
Even cooked meat in Kalmyk, laid it on a plate and choose gifts for the gods ribs
After that, the first owner of the house took the meat, then set about eating the rest
Such is the custom of tea or the first piece of meat can eat a little boy, if there is one in the family, then the rest start to a meal
From generation to generation, the native language of their parents always passed
It is the parents brought up their children in the traditions of his family, explaining to them the essence of ancestral customs in the native language and willing them to comply with their
At the time of worship and access to the spirits of the ancestors and the heavenly patron of people express their innermost thoughts
And those words have long been spoken in the native language. In the language of their ancestors
Let the path my children and grandchildren will be bright, like silver. And let their pockets are full of paper money, so they always had food
Numerous supreme deity, Master of the Universe White Elder, help their wishes come true, and the desire of these guys [the film was shot], who came to us with a pure mind
Om mani padme hum. Deities of the four cardinal points, though their words are weighty, even if their work is going the right way. Oh, gods, Tara, Celestials. Om mani padme hum
Their religious feelings modern Kalmyk want to express in their own language
When visiting a Buddhist temple in Elista, you can see how they are adhering religious etiquette, less talk in Russian, thus emphasizing its commitment to faith
It is now one of the most successful ways to transfer their native language from generation to generation is the formation
Kalmyk language is taught in all educational institutions of Kalmykia
Notable among them is the National High School Elista
Children enrolled here, talking to each other in the Kalmyk language, and all subjects are taught well in the Kalmyk language
Naran, the third generation of the family Shurungovyh, studying at this school in the fourth grade
In addition to the development of the Kalmyk language, learning a gymnasium Kalmyk songs, dances, games, soaking up the national culture
In Kalmykia University attention is paid to training Kalmyk
Kalmyk language learning for students of all faculties
The university has a special institution where well-known scholars and teachers teach and Kalmyk starokalmytskomu letter "Todo bichg" teach a course on the study of the epic "Jangar"
Institute graduates have the opportunity to continue their education in graduate and doctoral
Our university can protect candidate and doctoral dissertations on the Mongolian language and folklore
In conclusion we can say that the Kalmyk University contributes to the development of the Kalmyk
And I believe that the Kalmyk never be extinguished
- Hello guys
- Hello
- Sit down
Since I grew up in a family where everyone speaks the Kalmyk language, I also speak it
So I went to university and became a Kalmyk Kalmyk language teacher
Now I am working as a teacher at the Institute of Kalmyk Kalmyk and Oriental philology
To improve their knowledge of young people, who know Kalmyk go to college and Oriental Philology Kalmyk Kalmyk State University
They listen to lectures in the Kalmyk language gain new knowledge, improve their ability to express their ideas and opinions in their own language in oral and written form
Since my childhood I was talking in the Kalmyk language with my grandparents, my mother and father
My grandmother from my early childhood, told me about the traditions and customs of the Kalmyks, the bad and the good manners
Currently, it is believed that the Kalmyk language is forgotten
In my opinion, this view is incorrect because the students arrive at the office of the Kalmyk language and learn
then to return to their villages and teach the children, thereby raising the prestige of the Kalmyk
In my family all speak the Kalmyk language: grandmother grandfather, father and mother ... after them ..
I am grateful, very grateful
Since the birth hear my native language and mastered it well
Now I entered the office of the Kalmyk language to improve their Kalmyk language and learn it deeper
Among these students have talented young people who compose poems in the Kalmyk language, singing songs and performing epic "Jangar"
I Bayrta Mandzhieva - 5th-year student Kalmyk-English Department
I have a desire to begin translating English works on the Kalmyk language and to help those who wish to study Kalmyk
So I came five years ago at the Kalmyk-English department and now it ends with
I Bayrta Bembeeva, also a student of the 5th year Kalmyk-English Department
Having mastered the English language, we can introduce other people with their own language, culture, traditions and folklore
Now, after graduation, I plan to attend graduate school and to do science, to deepen and broaden their knowledge
It can be concluded that at present the most successful issue of preservation of the Kalmyk language solved in the education system
While still possible to watch TV and listen to radio broadcasts
attend plays, read newspapers and magazines in the Kalmyk language and listen to music Kalmyk
The viewer comes to us in the theater to hear the native tongue, to know the native language, learn the traditions of the Kalmyk people
see what clothes to wear, to hear what songs they sing, dance to know what they eat and dance
all can see, learn and hear in the theater
When we were at the institute, our teachers used to say:
"Our House - National Theatre, and it sounds right speech"
So if you want to learn the language, come to the theater, listen to the sound of the right speech
In the past, on any commemorative occasion, or any man could write a song Kalmyks
This tradition continues today
And young and old, and those who do not speak the Kalmyk language - all love songs Kalmyk
Here I write my songs in the Kalmyk language
It sits in my blood, in my heart
Born inside me tunes perfectly fit the Kalmyk
I travel a lot around the world
I know what I am different from others in this world
No songs, no appearance. Language, my native Kalmyk
But my Kalmyk today not feeling well
However, I understand that if I do not sing in the Kalmyk language, this - the end
Then my heart, my soul will die
Then living in my heart melodies are born
Through culture can be preserved and passed on to future generations of native language
The history, culture, life and language of Oirat-Kalmyk always interested in both Russian and foreign researchers
And now the Republic of Kalmykia visited by many foreign countries
Some of them have mastered the Kalmyk
Hello I Yukiyasu Arai, a scientist from Japan
I live in Osaka, no, not in Osaka, Sapporo
I came in the 2000-2001 study podah Kalmyk
Kalmyk - a very good language
International organizations such as UNESCO, the UN, the Council of Europe, paying great attention to the preservation and development of the languages ​​of small nations
Among them is "Linguapax"
Opening at the Eurasian University Kalmyk representative of the International Network "Linpvapaks"
allowed to make the international discussion and problem solving Kalmyk
Now, an international organization "Linguapax"
It provides us a great deal
It is good that here in Elista, opened its Representative Office
Their attention, their help is very important
And here we are on the spot to find all possible ways for the conservation, development and distribution of our Kalmyk
this is a very important task that faces us
At the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow Institute of Linguistics has - is the central institution
This institute has a special department, which examines Turanian
as well as our kindred Mongolian languages
There I worked for many years and as far as possible try to be helpful [to the revival of the Kalmyk language]
The views of people with whom we talked to suggest that the Kalmyk language can be learned, and thus save it
In the revival and development of the Kalmyk language, I believe there is another way
If we ask what is involved in this way, then the answer may be - with "Todo bichg", in my opinion
What is "Todo bichg"?
This script, which in 1648 created our brilliant scientist Zaya Pandita
Why "Todo bichg"?
Because "Todo bichg" - the keeper of the Kalmyk language
This is another way, another principle of preservation and development of the Kalmyk language
With "Todo bichg" can learn Kalmyk
Some people say that our language is dying
And I think that our Kalmyk died
he's ashamed of us, as if hiding, dormant
I believe and I repeat again: carefully, gently, slowly, without screaming to wake your language, it is necessary to wake up gently
And then the Kalmyk language, seeing us in a good light, come back to us
Many years ago, I heard that one Czech director told
In the XVII and XIX century, the Czechs began to lose their language
and great help at the time had their theater
People came to the theater, hear the native language, teaching it, and so they have regained their native language
Let always in all four seasons as an offering made by the gods to the case of my son in law flourished, and they themselves lived happily
as well as the case of my friends in law, who had come to hear us, and let them remember heard
Even if not everything works as it should, let it be full table in all four seasons
And remember, do what I say, and pass to your children
Oh, God. Let god bless you the Most Highs, Master of the Universe White Elder, guardian spirits of our ancestors, a blessed land and blue sky
Oh, God. About Celestials. So be it!
Time passes and things change
Kalmyks, who once rode on horse carts or camel ride in cars today
They forgot about their felt yurts and live in high-rise buildings
Changed Kalmyk traditional clothing to the European outfit
But to this day makes Kalmyk Kalmyk Kalmyk home
"Man is strong support for the bird - wings," - says an old proverb Kalmyk
If people are seeking to preserve linguistic diversity on earth, then join forces and our Kalmyk be forgotten, will not be lost and will not go out
And then a great desire to 87% of people who said they knew the Kalmyk language, perhaps, become a reality.