Technology in the College Classroom


Uploaded by techEIU on 07.04.2011

Transcript:
[no dialogue].
Hi, I'm Anna Peterson, and it's been a long time
since I've held a microphone, the last time was at a
karaoke bar [audience laughter] so hopefully this will go
a little bit smoother than that did.
Our topic tonight is Technology in the College Classroom.
I'll be giving the introduction and then a brief history, and
Myriah and Donnita will give the other parts of the speech.
The history, we're going to go way back to the 7th century,
and that's when Europe began organizing schools
to teach children.
And that system moved along smoothly, it was tweaked and
studied and evolved along the way, up to the point where the
United States became a nation.
And at that point, we adopted the same methodology for
teaching children as was used in Europe.
This methodology for teaching children was termed pedagogy.
It literally means the art and science of teaching children.
Malcolm Knowles is an authority on the subject and noted that
pedagogy became the basis for the entire educational system in
the United States, and it stayed that way for many, many years.
And that was all fine and good until World War I ended.
At the end of World War I, soldiers returned home and
began seeking educational opportunities.
The college educators began to notice that the students in
their classrooms were a bit more mature, had gained life
experiences, and they were just a little different from the
traditional students that they had been used to teaching.
Researchers began to do studies on adults and discovered that
they can learn--and that just cracks me up everytime that
I read that, I'm like, of course we can learn, but they had to
do a study to prove that-- and that was important.
According to Knowles the research was important because
it opened up a whole new field of study, and from that point
more research was done on adults and how they learn.
From the research a theory of adult education emerged,
and it's called andragogy, and it's distinctly
different from pedagogy.
Andragogy was pursued as a field of study in Europe first,
but by the 1970s it began to emerge as a serious
field of study in the United States.
Then in the 1980s, computers began to impact
the college classroom.
So you had a lot of action going on in the college classroom,
a lot of things impacting it.
Malcolm Knowles realized that for adults to accept and benefit
from computers and technology in the classroom that the
computer industry itself had to understand how and why adults
learned, and so he took it upon himself to approach the
computer industry and teach them about andragogy.
The principles of andragogy are adults need to know why they
are doing something before they invest time and energy
in learning it, adults are task oriented in their learning,
and adults come into situations with a wide variety of
backgrounds and experiences.
And adults have a deep need to be self-directing, they want
to make choices, they want to guide what they do.
Also, adults' self-concept must be accounted for.
Adults believe they are responsible for their own
decisions and resent and resist situations where they feel
others are imposing their wills on them.
Adults also must be ready and motivated to learn.
And those are the main principles of andragogy.
You can see that learning a new technology or learning through
a new technology certainly poses challenges if the adult
learner's needs and mindsets are ignored or overlooked,
and this is especially true for instructors.
Instructors have to be aware of the learners they are teaching
and the best methodologies to use.
In addition to keeping the principles of androgogy in mind,
each person also has a different learning style and those styles
can be affected by lighting, temperature, furniture,
sound, and surroundings.
I think when we came in here tonight we all felt a little bit
different in this classroom as opposed to the computer
classroom that we're used to.
I felt a different feeling of community.
I've never sat next to Don before.
Don and I had a nice little conversation and it was nice,
I got to meet somebody new that I hadn't in the other
classroom, so I enjoyed that.
So instructors do have a tremendous task in
educating adults.
They must decide what is to be learned and how learning
will be evaluated, how to make decisions on the order and
sequence of subject matter, and make decisions on
teaching methods and student activities.
I hadn't planned on having to hold this, this would
go smoother if I didn't have this.
According to Lovell, for adult students...effective learning
results from the accurate initial reception of new
information followed by active recall and use of materials
and then making connection between the new material and
what they already know.
And there are a multitude of technologies available for
instructors to use to create effective adult learning.
The key is to pair the correct technology with a given group
of students in a given situation.
The use of technology in the classroom, according to Merriam
and Cunningham, can be likened to the array of concentric
circles that radiate from the center of a pool of water
when a pebble breaks the surface.
[no dialogue].
My name is Donnita Harris, and I'm going to discuss the
various sides of the issue of technology in the classroom,
particularly the positives and negatives.
Basically, 20 years ago teachers taught primarily from
textbooks and lecture, and students learned pretty much
the same way by reading and taking notes, library research,
and study groups.
Today the introduction of the internet and computers
in the classroom has just enhanced the way that
we have of learning different materials.
However, with the development and use of technology in the
classroom, it has produced both positive and negative results.
Our positive result is computers.
Computers have totally opened up how we learn.
We have the flexibility and mobility of our learning
choices, we can research from home, we can research,
communicate, and take classes from our computers.
This is a big impact on how we've been able to learn.
Also with a positive is the various methods of learning
that we've been able to do now that we couldn't do before.
We can research online, we have learning sites such as youtube,
google videos, the Association of College Libraries and
Research, and online classes.
I think the beauty of online classes is you set your time
when you want to do your homework and when you read
your lesson, and you interact with your teachers and fellow
students from the comfort of your own home in your
bed slippers, which I think is kind of cool.
Also a positive with technology is communication.
Students, now we aren't limited to just the office hour and
having to go see the teacher.
We have instant messaging, we have e-mail, we have
cellphones, text messaging, some teachers do partcipate in
text messaging and being reached by the cell phone,
so basically communication is 24/7.
If you're doing homework at 3 o'clock in the morning and
you think of something, you can pretty much e-mail and
somebody's going to be out there or that message will be
waiting for the professor, you don't have to wait
when you see him next.
I think technology is positive when the right technology
is matched with a student's learning ability and
how they learn.
Different students learn with different methods, and I think
that technology has helped that.
Now on the negative side, limited access to resources.
Even though computers are becoming more affordable,
not everyone can afford a computer.
And also it depends on where you live, some people,
I have friends who don't have internet access
because of where they live.
They live in rural areas and they still have dial-up,
which I think is funny when you say, you know, they just have
dial-up, because I guess working at a college I think everyone
has fast, high-speed internet, and that's not the case.
And also there's students who, if they don't have the
resources, they have to use shared computers, like at the
library or at the college.
Which also, when you combine that with other people who
have to use it, there's limited time that you can be on it.
And also, some colleges with use of the Broadband width,
it uses a lot of Broadband to use, like, file sharing and
different websites, so that is also a limited resource
when you are using a shared computer.
Another negative is learning differences, not all students
learn by the same method.
Some students are still textbook oriented and lecture oriented,
so there's a little bit of frustration and difficulty
learning how to navigate websites or look for information
or just understanding how online classes work.
So while technology is positive there's some people who still
have some problems, especially adult learners, of getting
ahold of the information and learning how to work
with that and do their studies.
A final negative I want to talk about is miscommunication.
Since we are able to communicate by e-mail and instant messaging,
there is the possiblity of miscommunication.
Sometimes a teacher, if a teacher is getting
20 different e-mails, sometimes, you know, he has
to give out the same information.
Some of the students may interpret it different,
whereas if you're in a classroom setting, everybody's
there, they can talk to him and see what he wants.
And also not every teacher really wants to be accessible
24/7, they have other areas of the curriculum they have to
take care of, they have notes, and they have other classes.
So while technology is positive it doesn't always work,
it doesn't always work in the fact that sometimes the machine
could break down or students might not be able to learn
in that type of environment.
So I believe that the use of technology in the teaching
environment, while it's still fairly new, is in
its formative stages.
However, with the future of technology in the classroom
being optimistic, I think if it's used appropriately it
still has its full potential to be reached.
So I'll turn it over to Myriah.
[no dialogue].
One of the first things that comes to mind regarding
classroom technology is, of course, online learning.
Currently 1.25 million college students take all of their
courses online, and then 10.65 million take at least
some of their online courses.
So roughly 12 million students are taking at least
one online class.
The number of students enrolled in a physical on-campus class
is around 15.14 million, so that's still more physical
campus classes than online currently.
The forecast for 2014 is that only 5.14 million students will
take all their classes in a physical classroom, and they're
thinking that 3.55 million will take all their classes online
and 18.65 million will take some of their classes online.
The growth of online education can be attributed to the
achievement of for-profit schools, like the
University of Phoenix Online.
The current market for electronic services and
learning products is at 16.7 billion, they're projecting
by 2014 it will be around 23.8 billion.
One component of online learning that has been evolving
over the past few years is virtual worlds.
A virtual world is a computer-based simulated
environment where users interact with each other in the form of
avatars, which are typically two- or three-dimensional
representations that walk, run, and sometimes fly across
the virtual environments.
Multi-user virtual environments are also called MUVEs.
They provide a space for higher level collaboration,
simulation, testing of hyphotheses, interaction,
creativity, and performance.
Second Life is a virtual world for adults.
In Second Life, adults can build a house, go to a
concert, meet new friends, attend a conference, or
even get their education.
There are more than 170 education institutions with a
presence on Second Life.
The Associate Vice President of Education Technology for the
Texas State Technical College says that virtual world
environment gives them the oppurtunity to combine the
flexibility of online classes with the effectiveness of
face-to-face classes.
He forecasts that MUVEs are the next generation of online
learning, and industry training opportunities are going to be a
main part of virtual worlds.
The Texas State Technical College began offering a
certificate in digital media in the Fall of 2008, and that was
delivered through Second Life.
An Associate's degree in digital media began being offered
in January of 2009.
We've got one video.
[no dialogue].
No doubt by now you've heard something about virtual
worlds, whether it's World of Warcraft, Star Wars Galaxies,
or Second Life.
In some cases virtual worlds are games where people coordinate,
collaborate, and strategize in order to perform a task.
In other instances, virtual worlds are shared virtual
environments where people socialize, work, learn,
and, of course, dance.
♪ [music playing-- no dialogue] ♪♪.
You enter a virtual world through an avatar, a graphical
representation of yourself.
This is my Second Life avatar [unclear audio].
Avatars can be customized by changing their clothes,
gender, height, weight, and even form.
Virtual worlds aren't just about avatars or making them dance.
Virtual worlds are being used by companies such as IBM,
Star Wood Hotels, the Wall Street Journal, and Sony BMG,
to name a few.
All of us have been in a few of these, a committee meeting
in a small room where only a few people are talking
but most of us are taking notes or checking our
e-mail on the laptop.
Why are we meeting like this when we could be
meeting like this?
While we may lose a body gesture or facial
expression, we may be able to make up by being able to
be there while being anywhere.
Here's another example, a large auditorium type course,
typical of an undergraduate history or biology class.
In courses like these it's typical for only about seven
people to speak up during an entire semester.
In most cases, instructors interact with their students
by using PowerPoint slides, asking one or two questions,
or by writing on a white board.
Are students gaining anything by being in a
face-to-face environment?
Why take a course in those conditions when you can
take one like this...is this really that different?
The speaker has a PowerPoint screen and is lecturing
to the students.
At least students aren't sitting in a cramped desk and
being interrupted by sleeping students.
In this case, students can at least be at home with their
laptops and notebooks spread over their desks while
listening to their instructor through headphones.
Students can either ask questions through a
chat window, or in some cases they can
speak through their microphone.
Virtual worlds are connecting people in
a disconnected society.
Join us next time as we talk about a pilot study where
an undergraduate English course at the University of Texas at
Austin incorporated Second Life into their course activities.
[no dialogue].
(Myriah). Another form of distance
learning is the Wimba Classroom.
Wimba Classroom permits students to attend their class
without physically being on campus.
Wimba Classroom is a two-way communication program that uses
video, audio, and chat tools to make the classroom available
to students anywhere they have internet access.
With Wimba, students can access their campus class.
If they have to miss class, they can access it from anywhere
with an internet connection.
If they are parents and need to stay home with their children,
they are traveling for work, or if they end up moving
in the middle of the semester, they can still remain in
the course and use Wimba.
This has been very helpful for students affected by the
swine flu that need to remain at home or in their dorm rooms.
Wimba Classroom can also be used for group work.
The instructor can create breakout rooms and they can
video conference or chat.
This has been helpful for virtual mathematics
courses as well.
An instructor on the physical white board in a physical
classroom and distance students can see it on their computer.
Another advantage of Wimba is that instructors can record the
class session and archive it for students to view at any time.
As technology changes, higher education will need to prepare
their students for careers that are not even thought of yet.
One way for higher education to get ahead in making sure
they are training for future workforce is to
partner with government, community, non-profit,
and business sectors.
Companies have a major interest in employees that are skilled
and can strengthen the business and contribute worldwide.
Many companies are partnering up with colleges to create programs
and skill training for current students to go to work
at the companies right after graduation.
Parkland College recently broke ground on a new
diesel technology facilty that is partnered with
Case New Holland and Birkey's.
The partnership will increase the number of highly trained
diesel technicians, which is a demand for Midwest area.
So the company is going to benefit from the skilled diesel
technicians, and then Parkland is benefitting because it's
attracting students to their programs.
So the future for higher education in technology
includes increased types of distance or online learning,
and colleges training students to work on specific
brands with which they have partnerships.
Leaders in higher education will need to have a vision for the
future and always be looking ahead at new innovations and
ways of thinking that will help the college students.
Any questions?
(Dr. Wahby). Any questions?
I have a question.
Generations past has had a connection between a book and
a letter or written word, an image that's drawn or,
later on, a picture, and that was the environment that
generation after generation had their education.
To touch a book, hold it, have its weight in their hands,
they feel the pages, and they turn the page, and so all
of this has some wiring happening when you turn the
page and look to the image and so forth.
Now they are moving into experimenting with electronic
books where you have a book library in the size of a
smaller book and you can just push a button and it'll turn
the page so the page is turned and then you see electronics
in front of you and instead of seeing one image, you see it
moving as a video.
How, in your research, did you find anything relating in
how the newer generations are wired from childhood as they
grow up into an adult age?
Are they different people, are they different thinkers?
(Donnita). Well I've found with my own
children, they've never known studying just with books
and just with lecture.
And they're 9 and 11, and in their classroom they are
taught how to do research on the internet.
Both my children know how to text, they know
how to use a computer.
So just the fact that they're learning this kind of stuff
earlier, that's all they know.
Whereas, I've been trying to teach my mother just how to
sign on a computer and navigate, and she's confused.
She'd rather just read something in a book, you know.
I thought about getting her one of those Kindles where
you can download books on it, and I showed her one, and
she was way too confused.
And I said, you just have to tap the screen, it'll turn
the page, and she pefers old school.
And I think that's what she's used to and my children,
just from all their friends and what they're teaching
in school, that's what they've grown up with.
They don't know, I mean, they are used to being able
to contact their father or myself instantly by
text messaging or instantly by the cell phone.
They don't have to wait and go somewhere and get
on a telephone or something like that.
(Dr. Wahby). See even the terminologies
that you are now using it as household, to
log on or navigate.
I mean, if you said the term navigate 25 years ago,
it doesn't mean the same as navigate today, navigation.
(Donnita). Right, and I found my son,
who's pretty clever himself, teaching his grandmother
what the desktop meant, what it meant to file something,
what it meant, what the hard drive was, stuff like that.
And I was like, wow, how did know that?
And he just, you know, in class, picking it up, listening to his
friends, because that's what they're all into, you know.
I remember being in 5th grade and, you know, not even knowing
about typing, and he's already sitting down and typing and
doing things, knowing how to research.
So I think just because we've developed more
technology-wise, kids at a younger age are picking it up
because their parents do it, because it's introduced
in school, and so that's just the way they're wired,
because that's all they know.
(Dr. Wahby). Okay.
So let me turn the page to the audience here and being
the masters you are, I will ask you.
Do you think that your generation would be faster,
fast thinkers, deeper thinkers, what do you think the shape
of the society would be?
(female speaker). Well, I have a three-year-old
niece and this year we went shopping Friday for toys,
and they were all computer related.
She has a wireless keyboard that connects to the computer and
she plays all these games on them and uses all the stuff.
So she's three...so I think they're oriented to the
computers because they use them at a very early age.
And she also holds conversations, and I've
ran into three-year-old kids who could barely talk, and
I think that it's the environment that she's in.
She goes to, what is it, Chesterbrook Academy
out there at Research Park.
She's been in there for about two years and we saw
instantly the progression.
(Donnita). Well don't you think, too,
she's influenced by the family, you, you go to school.
(female speaker). Yeah, and her mom buys her
these, because it's my rule, I buy no toys, it's either
clothes or educational objects, and I've sort of
got her into it, too.
So we buy everything educational, we're buying her
flashcards when she was two, so forth and so on, but she has
LeapFrog, she has them all.
Even the puzzles that we buy are not the ones you put together,
it's the little ones that little parts come out of and
you have to fit them in.
So I think that to answer the professor's question, the kids
are advanced because they're doing and children grasp things
quicker than adults.
(Dr. Wahby). Okay, thank you, anything else?
(female speaker). My question was for the
virtual learning in, like, the Second Life.
Have they done studies because, you know, kids and even adults,
I mean, you're hurried, you're busy, you know, so you
might not read the textbook or you might not whatever but,
you know, people do take out time to play video games
and they concentrate.
So have there been any tests or studies done on whether
the virtual learning online in a virtual world has
more retention value than say an online class or even an
actual regular classroom?
(Myriah). We didn't find anything
about that, I think it's still too new.
(Dr. Wahby). Okay, most of us or some of us,
at least, knew about this case where a baby girl was prevented
from the outside world and she was kept for 25 years of her age
in a basement, not connected to any source of anything.
And she was, when they discovered her, she was
afraid of people because she thought they are creatures
that can harm her.
She was afraid of the light, seeing the sun.
She was not able to move, she couldn't talk.
They started to educate her to teach her how to speak for eight
months, and she couldn't catch on, and she died later on.
Compare this to the technologies that you give the children from
year one, two, three, and so forth, and what the enironment
that you expose the children to affect them.
What would be the difference?
Is it the environment or the person himself or herself?
(Anna). I think it's a combination
of both, I do, I think if you're exposing your children
to the different technologies and also if they are
intellectually ready for it, it goes hand in hand.
(Dr. Wahby). Both of them.
Okay, question for all of you again, masters of technology.
Twenty years ago one of the questions that was very popular
in interviews, when they interview for somebody,
they asked lots of questions.
And one of the questions was, do you see movies a lot,
do you like to see movies, how many movies do you see
per week, or something like that.
And they give the explanation in workshops why employers
would ask people about that.
They want to see how much of the time of the employers
he or she is spending in unreal things, in another life things,
not real life things, but to go to the world of the movie,
the story that's made up and not reality.
And what he said that 95% of employers do not want their
new candidate to see much more movies because he
will be living in virtual worlds.
He is not realistic, he's living in a big fantasy, you see?
Compare this to Second Life and avatars and so on.
What do you think?
Today if they ask the question maybe they want, they require
that they live in another life or have a meeting or something.
What do you think of this shift of paradigm in 26 years?
[no dialogue].
(Donnita). I think it depends on
the learner, I think some, just like we've been
talking about, you know, the right technology applied to
that particular learner, it can be helpful or it can be
frustrating and hard to understand.
I think that's the beauty of technology is, there's several
methods of learning and so that one person, if they don't do
very well in online classes and they do better in class
situations or if they do better vise-versa, I think that's
the beauty of technology progressing as it has.
(Dr. Wahby). Moment of truth.
Are we getting more, are we giving the world more of
virtual things, unreal things, so that people, after a while,
a generation or so, they'll be unreal people?
He or she is sitting with you and they are thinking of
other funny things and changing the personality, changing the
weight, changing the dress.
And they are living in a different world, they are
talking to you, but are you talking to me or talking to my
image that you think, or do you think to an image of something?
Are we confusing the norms of dealing with a certain person
to a certain person, now we have three persons
talking to three persons.
You do the math, how do you think?
(Anna). Well, I think watching my sons
who really love World of Warcraft, I don't know if
you guys have children who play World of Warcraft.
They have their friends that they talk to while they're
playing this game, and then those same friends will
come over and they'll have totally different conversations
when they're at our house.
So, I mean, I think that they definitely realize that one
is a game, that World of Warcraft is definitely a game,
and reality is reality.
So, yes, so I haven't seen that with my children, but I did
notice a big switch with my child who went away to college
in that he would spend a whole lot of time doing
World of Warcraft in high school and now that he's in college
he's realized that, oh my gosh, you know, I've really
got to be a part of my college experience or I'm not going
to be here for very long.
So, you know, that was a big awakening for him.
(Dr. Wahby). Okay.
(female speaker). Yeah, I would say too that
it would depend on the person.
I think that a person who would be more likely to be swallowed
up by that environment, our technology today gives them
that oppurtunity to, you know, become a hermit or not to leave
the house and play World of Warcraft and order their
grocercies delivered in, you know.
There's been movies about people who've never, they just
don't leave their house anymore because they don't have to.
And so, you know, 50 years ago, well, that wasn't an option
because you couldn't just order your pizza online and
you couldn't, you know, do everything on the internet,
you had to go outside.
So I think in some aspects some people are affected by that
if they're already predisposed to that, perhaps.
But then most people would be able to, you know, be able to
separate fantasy from reality.
And while you can use it to relax or escape reality for
a little bit, you know, when you have to go back to the
homework or stuff, then you do.
(Dr. Wahby). Is daydreaming bad or good?
Some people say daydreaming is not good because you leave the
reality and dream while you are awake.
Some people would find something good about daydreaming because
it energizes people and maybe brings new ideas.
This would be your pebble for next semester.
Okay, any other questions?
Would you like to give them a hand?
[audience applause].
[no dialogue].