BSSR Lecture: Geospatial Methods in Health Research


Uploaded by NIHOD on 07.06.2012

Transcript:
GOOD AFTERNOON.
WELCOME TO THE DECEMBER
BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
LECTURE.
MY NAME IS DEBORAH OLSTER FROM
THE OFFICE OF BEHAVIORAL AND
SOCIAL SCIENCES RESEARCH.
I'M PLEASED TO INTRODUCE OUR
SPEAKER DR. ELLEN CROMLEY, FROM
THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, DEPARTMENT
OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE AND
HEALTHCARE.
AND ALSO WE DO HAVE SOMEONE
DOING SIGN LANGUAGE
INTERPRETATION WHO WILL BE HERE
FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO MIGHT NEED
IT.
BUT IF THERE IS NO ONE THAT
NEEDS IT SHE'LL PROBABLY TAKE
OFF.
SO THANK YOU.
SO ELLEN IS A MEDICAL GEOGRAPHER
AND SHE COMPLETE AD BCH LOR'S
DEGREE IN URBAN AND
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AT CASE
WESTERN RESERVE AND MASTERS FROM
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY AND
Ph.D. IN GEOGRAPHY FROM THE
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY.
I GUESS AS A GEOGRAPHER SHE GETS
AROUND A LITTLE BIT.
THAT'S MY LITTLE JOKE FOR THE
DAY.
SO SHE SPENT -- SHE STARTED OFF
HER CAREER AT THE HUNTER HEALTH
PLANNING LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY AND
THAIBD HEALTH CENTER AND WORKED
FOR THE APPROXIMATE PLAY SHEN
REGIONAL HOSPITAL BEFORE HER
PROFESSOR CAREER AT THE
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT.
SH'S ACTIVE ON PROJECTS -- SHE'S
ACTIVE ON PROJECTS FUNNED BY THE
MANY INSTITUTES,xF!r
AN ALCOHOLISM, THE NATIONAL
INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE, AND THE
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL
HEALTH.
SHE'S ALSO BEEN CONSULTANT ON A
PROJECT FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL
CANCER INSTITUTE.
SO I DON'T WANT TO SPEND A LOT
OF TIME TALKING ABOUT HER MANY
ACCOMPLISHMENTS BECAUSE I THINK
WE'D ALL MUCH RATHER HEAR FROM
ELLEN THAN FROM ME.
I WILL SAY SHE'S ALSO
PARTICIPATED IN OUR OFFICES
INSTITUTE AND SYSTEM SCIENCE AND
HEALTH LAST SUMMER WHERE SHE WAS
A RESOUNDING SUCCESS AND I WAS
THERE TO SEE THAT.
SO TODAY SHE'LL TALK ABOUT
GEOSPATIAL METHODS AND HEALTH
RESEARCH.
PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING
ELLEN CROMLEY.
[APPLAUSE]
>> THANK YOU TO RONALD ABALES
AND DEBORAH ALLSTE FOR INVITING
ME TO SPEAK WITH YOU AS PART OF
THE BEHAVIORAL SOCIAL SCIENCE
LECTURE SERIES.
THANK YOU FOR ATTENDING.
MY PRESENTATION CONSIDERS
GEOSPATIAL METHODS AS THEY MIGHT
BE RELATED TO THE MISSION OF THE
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH.
THAT MISSION IS TO SEEK
FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE
NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF LIVING
SYSTEMS AB THE APPLICATION OF
THAT KNOWLEDGE TO ENHANCE
HEALTH, LENGTHEN LIFE AND REDUCE
BURDENS OF ILLNESS.
I'M A GEOGRAPHER AND GEOGRAPHERS
HAVE A GOOD EXCUSE FOR BEING
PRACTICALLY ANYWHERE.
MY FIELD IS THE STU STUDY OF THE
EARTH'S SURFACE AS LIVING
ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN POPULATION.
AS A MEDICAL GEOGRAPHER I STUDY
PATTERNS OF HEALTH AND DISEASE,
THE ORGANIZATION OF HEALTH
SERVICES AN JOCK IF I CANAL
FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR
UTILIZATION.
AND THE APPLICATION OF
GEOSPATIAL METHODS IN THIS
RESEARCH.
THIS AFTERNOON WE'LL CONSIDER
THREE MAIN TOPICS.
FIRST, FOR THE FIRST TEN MINUTES
WE'LL CONSIDER SOME KEY CONCEPTS
IN GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS.
AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS
APPROACH.
WHY WE NEED IT.
SECOND, THE BULK OF MY
PRESENTATION WILL BE AN
EXPLORATION OF A RANGE OF
GEOSPATIAL METHODS BY SHOWING
HOW THEY HAVE BEEN USED IN
HEALTH RESEARCH.
FINALLY, THE LAST SLIDE OFFERS
MY IDEAS ABOUT SOME
OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCING THE
USE OF GEOSPATIAL METHODS AT
NIH.
I HAVE PROVIDE AD COPY OF MY
PRESENTATION IN THE FORM OF
NOTES, PAGES, SHOWING EACH SLIDE
AND THEN ON THE BOTTOM THERE'S
THE TEXT OF MY REMARKS AND THIS
TEXT INCLUDES CITATIONS TO THE
JOURNAL LITERATURE AND SOME OF
THE WEBSITES, SO IF YOU'RE
INTERESTED THERE IS A COPY HERE,
YOU CAN GRAB A COPY OR I'M SURE
DEB CAN HELP YOU FIND ONE.
SO YOU CAN JUST SIT BACK AND
LISTEN.
WHAT ARE GEOSPATIAL METHOD?
BROADLY SPEAKING, THEY ARE
METHODS THAT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT
LOCATION OR POSITION IN SPACE.
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF
DISCIPLINES THAT TAKE LOCATION
OF PHENOMENA AND THE DISTANCES
SEPARATING THEM INTO ACCOUNT.
PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, GEOGRAPHY,
THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF SPATIAL
SCIENCES.
THE TERM GEOSPATIAL INDICATES
THAT THE SPACE OF INTEREST IS
THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
GEOSPATIAL METHODS ARE THE KEY
TO UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES WHERE
RESULTS CHANGE WHEN THE
LOCATIONS OF THE PHENOMENON
BEING ANALYZED CHANGE.
FOR EXAMPLE, THE SPEED OF
INFECTIOUS DISEASE DIFFUSION
MIGHT CHANGE IF PEOPLE WERE
SPREAD FURTHER APART IN SPACE.
THE BEST LOCATION FOR CONDUCTING
A CLINICAL TRIAL MIGHT DEPEND ON
LOCATIONS OF POSSIBLE
PARTICIPANTS AND THEIR
NEIGHBORHOOD CONDITIONS.
GEOSPATIAL METHODS COVER A BROAD
RANGE OF NUMERICAL METHODS
INCLUDING MEASUREMENT, SPATIAL
STATISTICAL METHODS, NORMATIVE
MODELING AND OTHERS.
THE COMMON FEATURE OF THESE
METHODS IS THEY REQUIRE
INFORMATION ABOUT THE LOCATIONS
OF FEATURES OF INTEREST.
GEOSCIENCE IS RESEARCH FIELD
SEEKING ANSWERS TO FUNDAMENTAL
QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW WE REPRESENT
AND ANALYZE GEOGRAPHIC DATA.
IN CANADA AND EUROPE THE TERM
GEOMATICS HAS BEEN USED, SIMILAR
TO MEANING TO THE TERM JI
SCIENCE.
SO GEOSPATIAL METHODS ARE
DEVELOPED THROUGH GI SCIENCE.
GEOGRAPHIC DATA ARE DATA
RESULTING FROM OBSERVATION AND
MEASUREMENT OF PHENOMENA
REFERENCED TO THEIR LOCATIONS ON
THE EARTH.
A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
OR GIS, IS A DIGITAL SYSTEM FOR
INTEGRATING AND ANALYZING
GEOGRAPHIC DATA.
AND THE BASIS FOR INTEGRATE DATA
IN A GIS IS LOCATION.
SO WE'RE STACKING THESE MULTIPLE
LAYERS OF DATA TOGETHER BASED ON
LOCATION.
THE SCIENCE UNDERPINNINGD=x THE
DEVELOPMENT OF GEOSPATIAL
METHODS AND MANY OF THE METHODS
THEMSELVES, HAS A RICH HISTORY,
PRE-DATING TECHNOLOGICAL
DEVELOPMENTS AND CAPTURING,
MANAGING AND DISPLAYING
GEOSPATIAL DATA.
AT THE SAME TIME, RECENT
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES HAVE
PUSHED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
SCIENCE AND METHODS BY MAKING IT
POSSIBLE TO MANAGE AND ANALYZE
VERY LARGE DATABASES IN NEW
WAYS.
THERE'S NO DOUBT THAT GEOSPATIAL
TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYSIS
METHODS HAVE MADE IMPORTANT
CONTRIBUTIONS TO HEALTH RESEARCH
AND PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE OVER
THE LAST 30 YEARS.
IT'S WORTH CONSIDERING FOR A
MOMENT SOME OF THE KEY
MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
GEOSPATIAL AND RELATED
TECHNOLOGIES AND SOME OF THE KEY
HEALTH ISSUES THAT EMERGED
AROUND THE SAME TIME.
THE FIRST LAND SAT SATELLITE FOR
IMAGERY WAS LAUNCHED IN 1972,
THE YEAR I GRADUATED HIGH
SCHOOL.
SO THIS SLIDE IS KIND OF LIKE MY
LIFE PASSING BEFORE MY EYES.
THE -- FOR THE 1980 CENSUS, THE
INNOVATIVE GBF DIME FILES WERE
DEVELOPED TO HELP CONDUCT CENSUS
IN URBAN AREAS.
THE 1990s WERE A DECADE OF
ENORMOUS CHANGE IN GEOSPATIAL
TECHNOLOGY.
THE TIGER LINE FILES DEVELOPED
BY THE CENSUS WERE ONE OF THE
FIRST DIGITAL SPATIAL DATABASES
IN THE UNITED STATES, THAT
COVERED THE ENTIRE COUNTRY.
THIS DECADE ALSO WITNESSED THE
LAUNCH OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB FOR
THE INTERNET FOR INTERNET
BROWSING, WHICH LED TO THE
DEVELOPMENT OF SEARCH ENGINES
SUCH AS GOOGLE.
DURING THIS TIME WE HAD THE
FIRST DESKTOP GIS SOFTWARE, THE
DEVELOPMENT OF OPEN SPATIAL DATA
FORMATS LIKE SHAPE FILE, AND THE
CREATION OF META DATA STANDARD
FOR GEOSPATIAL DATA.
THE COMPLETION OF THE GLOBAL
POSITIONING SYSTEM
REVOLUTIONIZED OUR ABILITY TO
CAPTURE DATA ON LOCATION.
THE FIRST GIS AND HEALTH
CONFERENCES IN THE UNITED STATES
WERE HELD WITH FEDERAL AGENCIES
SUCH AS ATSDR AND NCHS TAKING
THE LEAD.
THE 2000s BROUGHT THE FIRST
GIS AND HEALTH TEXTBOOKS AND
JOURNALS SUCH AS INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHIC
WHICH IS IS AN OPEN ACCESS
JOURNAL.
GIS SOFTWARE COMPANIES BEGAN TO
CONSIDER THE HEALTH COMMUNITY,
YOU, AS A MAJOR MARKET FOR
PRODUCTS.
SPATIAL STATISTICAL SOFTWARE
LIKE SAT SCAN AND GEOGRAPHIC
WEIGHTED REGRESSION WERE
DEVELOPED, SOME FULLY AND
LOOSELY COUPLED WITH GIS
SOFTWARE PACKAGES.
WE ALSO SAW DID I HAVE FUTION AN
GIS TO EVERY AREA OF THE WORLD.
GOOGLE HEALTH AND GOOGLE MAPS,
SMART PHONES ALONG WITH A RANGE
OF OTHER GO ENABLED MOBILE
DEVICES ARE CHANGING HOW WE
ACCESS AND VIEW DIGITAL SPATIAL
DATA IN THE EARLY PART OF THIS
DECADE.
WHY DOES IT ALL MATTER?
I THINK I MUST HAVE HIT THE
SPACE BAR THERE, SORRY.
WHAT IS THE VALUE OF GEOSPATIAL
METHODS IN ADDRESSING THE
PRESSING HEALTH ISSUES OF OUR
DAY?
GEOSPATIAL METHODS ARE IMPORTANT
BECAUSE THEY PROVIDE US WITH
ESSENTIAL SUPPORT FOR HEALTH
RESEARCH CE CAN'T GET ANY OTHER
WAY.
A SIMPLE EXAMPLE I HOPE WILL
ILLUSTRATE THIS POINT.
THE SCIENCE OF HEALTH RESEARCH
RELIES ON DATA AND THERE ARE
DIFFERENT WAYS OF VIEWING DATA.
HERE WE HAVE TWO TABLES OF DATA
ON STUDENTS AND CLASSROOMS.
THESE TABLES ARE IDENTICAL.
THAT IS, WE HAVE THE SAME NUMBER
OF STUDENTS WITH THE SAME NAMES
AND EACH STUDENT WITH THE SAME
NAME HAS THE SAME GRADE OR
OUTCOME IN THE TWO CLASSES.
IF WE TAKE THE A SPATIAL
STATISTICAL VIEW OF THE DATA,
THEREFORE ALSO THE SAME.
WE HAVE THE SAME END, THE SAME
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION.
THE SAME MEDIAN GRADE.
THE SAME RANGE OF GRADES.
THE SAME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
GRADES AND GENDER AND SO ON.
IF WE TAKE THE SPATIAL VIEW WHEN
WE LOOK AT MAPS OF CLASSROOMS
THE TWO CLASSES AROUND THE SAME.
IN ONE ON THE LEFT THE GRADES
ARE APPARENTLY RANDOMLY
DISTRIBUTED.
AND THE SECOND ON THE RIGHT,
THERE'S A
>> MR. McCLEARY: SPAIBL PATTERN
OF EDUCATIONAL --
SPATIAL PATTERN OF EDUCATIONAL
OUTCOMES.
MAPPING OUTCOMES TO VISUALIZE
PATTERNS AN SUCH MAPS WERE MADE
OF CASES ON SLIDES CARRYING --
FLIGHTS CARRYING PASSENGERS
LATER DIAGNOSED WITH SARS IN
2003, NOT THEIR GRADES BUT
WHETHER OR NOT THEY GOT SICK.
GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS METHODS, NOT
JUST MAPPING BUT ALSO THE
GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS METHODS ARE
EQUALLY IMPORTANT AS MAPPING AND
VISUALIZATION BECAUSE THEY HELP
US TO UNDERSTAND WHETHER OR NOT
AN APPARENT PATTERN COULD LIKELY
HAVE OCCURRED BY CHANCE.
THESE ARE ONLY TWO OF THE MANY
MAPS WE CAN CREATE FROM THAT
SAME TABLE.
THAT IS, THERE ARE MANY WAYS THE
NINE STUDENTS COULD BE ARRANGED
IN THE CLASSROOM SPACE.
WE COULD ALSO REGARD THESE
STUDENTS REPRESENTATIVE OF SOME
LARGER POPULATION FOR WHICH THE
OVERALL PROPORTION OF GRADES WAS
KNOWN AND WE COULD ARRANGE THEM
BASED ON THAT SAMPLING
ASSUMPTION.
THESE NUMEROUS MAPS FORM A
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SPATIAL
PATTERNS OF DISPARITIES AND
OUTCOMES AND WE CAN USE THAT
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION TO
IDENTIFY STATISTICALLY
SIGNIFICANT SPATIAL PATTERNS.
IF WE FIND SIGNIFICANT SPATIAL
DEPENDENCIES, WHAT WE CALL
SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION,
GEOSPATIAL METHODS SUCH AS
SPATIAL REGRESSION ANALYSIS HELP
TAKE THESE INTO ACCOUNT SO OUR
PARAMETER ESTIMATES WILL BE
UNBIASED.
OTHERWISE IF YOU HAVE THE
SPATIAL DEPENDENCIES ON THE
RIGHT IT'S POSSIBLE THAT YOU
WOULD BE VIOLATING ONE OF THE
UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF
MULTI-VARIANT INFERENCIAL
STATISTICS, THE PROBABLY OF ONE
STUDENT GETTING AN A IS THE
PROBABILITY FROM ANOTHER STUDENT
GETTING AN A.
SPATIAL METHODS HELP US TO
INTEGRATE THESE OUTCOMES DATA
WITH OTHER DATABASED ON LOCATION
SO WE CAN UNDERSTAND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OR
BEHAVIORS IN THE CLASSROOM THAT
MAY HAVE AFFECTED THE PATTERN OF
OUTCOMES.
FOR EXAMPLE, LIGHTING.
NOISE.
CHEATING.
NOT ONLY DOES THE SPATIAL VIEW
PROVIDE US WITH INFORMATION WE
CANNOT OBTAIN IN ANY OTHER WAY,
THAT IS THROUGH TABLES AND
STATISTICS, THAT INFORMATION IS
IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO HAVE.
BECAUSE ONE OF THESE TWO VIEWS
BETTER DESCRIBES THE REALITY
WE'RE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND ABOUT
PROCESSES, MECHANISMS AND
OUTCOMES.
THAT'S THE FIRST PART OF THE
TALK.
NOW THAT WE HAVE REVIEWED SOME
OF THE KEY CONCEPTS WE CAN
EXPLORE HOW GEOSPATIAL METHODS
ARE USED IN HEALTH RESEARCH BY
WALKING THROUGH THE STEPS WE
TAKE TO UNDERSTAND A HEALTH
PROBLEM.
AT EACH STEP WE'LL BE LOOKING AT
EXAMPLES DRAWN FROM THE
LITERATURE, THESE EXAMPLES WILL
NOT BE DRAWN FROM A SINGLE STUDY
BUT SHOULD PROVIDE YOU WITH A
SENSE OF HOW GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS
OF A HEALTH QUESTION WOULD
PROCEED.
THE FIRST STEP IN ANY GEOSPATIAL
ANALYSIS OF HEALTH IS MEASURING
LOCATION.
THAT IS, PUTTING THE FEATURES OF
INTEREST ON TO THE EARTH'S
SURFACE.
TODAY THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY
USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING
SYSTEM AND OTHER SIMILAR
TECHNOLOGIES THAT AREN'T
NECESSARILY SATELLITE-BASED.
THROUGH ADDRESS MATCHED
GEOCODINGING OR BY ACQUIRING
DIGITAL SPATIAL DATABASES FROM
SECONDARY PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
SOURCES OFTEN BY DOWNLOADING
DATA FROM A WEBSITE.
THESE DATA CAN BE ADDEDDED TO OR
IN THE CASE OF ADDRESS MATCH
GEOCODING CREATED USING THE
SOFTWARE FUNCTION OF A GIS
APPLICATION.
THIS MAP SHOWS US PART OF THE
RICH HISTORY OF GEOSPATIAL
METHODS IMPLEMENTED BEFORE THE
ADVENT OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES.
THIS MAP IS FROM 1819 AND IT
PLOTS YELLOW FEVER CASES NEAR
OLD SLIP IN LOWER MANHATTAN.
AND WE HAVE THE EAST RIVER ALONG
THE BOTTOM AND THE STREET ON THE
FAR RIGHT IS WALL STREET SO IT'S
THE VERY SOUTHERN PART OF
MANHATTAN AND WE HAVE ROTATED
THE VIEW.
A VERSION OF THIS MAP WHICH IS
IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN, IS IN THE
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE.
ALONG WITH EARLIER YELLOW FEVER
MAPS FOR CITIES DATING TO 1976,
BEFORE SNOW'S MAP OF CHOLERA.
THESE MAP SHOAS HIGHLY
DISAGGREGATE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL
DATA MAPPED BY RESIDENTS.
THEY WERE MADE TO INVESTIGATE
THE CAUSE OF YELLOW FEVER AT A
TIME WHEN ITS ETIOLOGY WAS
UNKNOWN.
THE CASES ON THIS MAP ARE ALSO
LABELED TO SHOW THE TEMPORAL
ORDER OF THICKENING SO WE KNOW
THAT TIME SPACE PATTERNS WERE OF
INTEREST IN 1819.
UNFORTUNATELY WE WILL NOT BE
ABLE TO DISCUSS TIME AND TIME
SPACE METHODS TODAY BUT I HOPE
YOU WILL BE ABLE TO CONSIDER
THESE IN ANOTHER LECTURE IN YOUR
SERIES.
THERE ARE STRONG CONNECTIONS
BETWEEN MEDICAL MAPPING AND THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THEMEATIC
CARTOGRAPHY.
THEMEATIC MAPS SHOW A SPATIAL
PATTERN, NOT THE KIND OF MAP YOU
USE TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO GET
FROM POINT A TO POINT B.
ALTHOUGH THE SPATIAL VIEW OF
DATA IS POWERFUL, IT'S ALSO
LIMITED AND POTENTIALLY
MISLEADING.
THIS IS A MAP OF MOTOR VEHICLE
COLLISIONS OCCURRING ON FEDERAL
AND STATE ROADS IN CONNECTICUT
IN 1995 AND 1996.
WHAT YOU'RE SEEING HERE ARE THE
DOTS REPRESENTING THE
COLLISIONS.
THIS ISN'T THE ROAD.
SO THAT'S HOW MANY COLLISIONS
THERE WERE.
MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS ARE AN
IMPORTANT CAUSE OF TRAUMATIC
INJURY IN THE U.S. AND MANY
OTHER COUNTRIES AROUND THE
WORLD.
THERE ARE A LEADING CAUSE OF
DEATH IN THE U.S. ESPECIALLY
AMONG PEOPLE UNDER 35 YEARS OF
AGE AND RANK THIRD OVERALL
BEHIND CANCER AND DISEASES OF
THE HEART IN TERMS OF YEARS OF
LIFE LOST.
COLLISION DATABASES ARE
INTERESTING BECAUSE THEY'RE ONE
OF THE FEW SOURCES OF
SURVEILLANCE DATA REPORTING
INDIVIDUAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND
BEHAVIORAL ELEMENTS OF THE
HEALTH EVENT.
THE DATA FOR THIS STUDY WERE
DRAWN FROM THE CONNECTICUT CODES
PROJECT THAT STANDS FOR CRASH
OUTCOME DATA EVALUATION SYSTEM.
AND THESE PROJECTS WERE FUNDED
BY THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC
SAFETY ADMINISTRATION.
THE CONNECTICUT DOT DEPARTMENT
OF TRANSPORTATION GEOCODED THE
COLLISION LOCATIONS BY
LONGITUDE, LATITUDE.
SO THIS IS THE 124,053
COLLISIONS ON FEDERAL AND STATE
ROADS IN CONNECTICUT IN 1995 AND
1996.
TAKE NOTE OF THE SCALE,
CONNECTICUT IS A REALLY SMALL
STATE, ABOUT 50-MILES NORTH,
SOUTH, ABOUT 100-MILES EAST TO
WEST.
WE'RE ABOUT THE SAME SIZE AS
HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS WHICH IS
WHERE HOUSTON IS LOCATED.
SO WE'RE TALKING A REALLY SMALL
SPACE HERE.
ONCE WE HAVE LOCATED THE
PHENOMENA OF INTEREST, THE NEXT
STEP IN AN ANALYSIS OFTEN
INVOLVES CALCULATING DISTANCE.
DISTANCE IS A MEASURE OF
SEPARATION IN SPACE.
IT'S A KEY GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPT
AND A REQUIRED MEASURE IN MANY
GEOSPATIAL METHODS AS WE'LL SEE.
THERE ARE VARIOUS WAYS WE CAN
MEASURE DISTANCE IF WE'RE USING
LOCATIONS ON THE GEOGRAPHIC
GRID, A MODEL OF THE GLOBE.
WE COMPUTE SPHERICAL DISTANCE
MEASURING THE ARC OF THE CIRCLE
THAT CONNECTS THE TWO POINTS ON
THE GLOBE.
DEALING WITH PROJECTED DATA
WHICH PUTS THIS INFORMATION INTO
A TWO DIMENSIONAL PLANNER SPACE
WE CAN CALCULATE DISTANCE, WHICH
YOU PROBABLY REMEMBER FROM HIGH
SCHOOL, OR STRAIGHT LINE
DISTANCE, WE CAN CALCULATE
TAXICAB DISTANCE OR DISTANCE
ALONG THE STREET NETWORK.
GIS SOFTWARE FUNCTIONS ENABLE US
TO CALCULATE THE CENSUS IN
SPATIAL ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS ALLOW
US TO SPECIFY WHICH METHOD WE
WANT TO EWE WHEN CALCULATING
DISTANCE.
DIFFERENT METHODS FOR
CALCULATING DISTANCE YIELD
DIFFERENT RESULTS.
SO HERE WE APPLY PLEA METHODS
FOR CALCULATING THE DISTANCE
BETWEEN A PERSON'S HOME AND TWO
DIFFERENT FOOD STORES.
SO DISTANCE MEASURES OF THIS
TYPE ARE WIDELY USED IN STUDIES
OF THE FOOD ENVIRONMENT AND
OBESITY, FOR EXAMPLE.
THE DISTANCE BY DEFINITION IS
SHORTEST, THE CIRCLE SHOWS A
QUARTER MILE BUFFER AROUND THE
HOME LOCATION AS THE CROW FLIES.
AND NOTE THAT STORE NUMBER 2 IS
JUST INSIDE THE BUFFER AND STORE
NUMBER 1 IS JUST OUTSIDE OF IT.
WHEN WE MEASURE DISTANCE THE WAY
A PERSON MIGHT ACTUALLY WALK IT,
ALONG THE STREET NETWORK, WE CAN
SEE STORE NUMBER 1 WHICH IS
OUTSIDE THE BUFFER IS ACTUALLY
CLOSER TO THE HOME THAN STORE
NUMBER 2.
IT'S IMPORTANT TO PAY ATTENTION
HOW DISTANCE IS CALCULATED.
ONE WAY WE CAN TRY TO MAKE SENSE
OF THE MASSIVE DATA WE HAVE
BEFORE US, IS TO AGGREGATE THE
DATA.
GEOSPATIAL METHODS HELP US TO
GROUP OBSERVATIONS BASED ON
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS.
THE POINT IN POLL GONE METHOD OF
AGGREGATION IS ONE OF THE MOST
WIDELY USED AND USUALLY THE
POLYGONES REPRESENT POLITICAL OR
ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS LIKE
COUNTIES OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT
SO WE TAKE THE POINTS THAT
REPRESENT A HEALTH EVENT AND USE
GEOSPATIAL METHODS TO DETERMINE
WHICH POLYGONE, WHICH COUNTY,
WHICH CENSUS TRACK AND SO ON,
THE POINT LIES WITHIN.
WE ADD THE NUMBER OF POINTS
WITHIN EACH AREA AND MAKE A MAP
BASED ON AREA.
IT'S ALSO POSSIBLE TO PERFORM
THIS ANALYSIS ON AREAS WHOSE
BOUNDARIES ARE DETERMINED IN
OTHER WAYS.
FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, WE
MIGHT BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY
REGIONS WHERE CONTAMINATION IS
PRESENT OR ABSENT AND WE CAN
GROUP INDIVIDUALS BASED ON
WHETHER THEY'RE RESIDENCES WERE
IN A CONTAMINATION AREA OR NOT.
WE CAN DEFINE REGIONS BASED ON
FLOWS IN SPACE OR DISTANCE FROM
ORIGIN.
IN THIS WAY WE CAN FIND POINTS
WITHIN 30-MILES OF THE HEALTH
SERVICES FACILITY AS THE CROW
FLIES OR BASED ON STREET NETWORK
DISTANCE.
WE CAN GROUP POLYGONES TOGETHER.
WE MIGHT GROUP CENSUS TRACKS
INTO COUNTIES OR CENSUS TRACKS
INTO HEALTH SERVICES REGIONS.
THE APPROACH TAKEN IN THE
COLLISION STUDY WAS TO USE
GEOSPATIAL METHODS TO AGGREGATE
DATA IN A DIFFERENT WAY.
DOESN'T MAKE MUCH SENSE TO PUT
THESE INTO COUNTIES OR CENSUS
TRACKS OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.
SO WE WANTED TO FIND MEANINGFUL
AREAS THAT WOULD CAPTURE
SOMETHING ABOUT THE PROCESS
WHICH HAS TO DO WITH BREAKING
TIME AND DECELERATION ALONG A
SEGMENT OF A STREET NETWORK.
THIS APPROACH WAS POSSIBLE, THE
ONE I'M GOING TO DESCRIBE IN A
MINUTE, BECAUSE WE HAD THE
COLLISION LOCATIONS AVAILABLE TO
US AS POINTS.
WHAT WE DID WAS, I'M GOING TO
TALK FIXED OBJECT COLLISIONS,
THESE ARE COLLISIONS WHERE THE
CAR SLIDES OFF THE ROAD AND HITS
A FIXED OBJECT LIKE A TELEPHONE
POLL OR TREE.
WE USE A DISTANCE OF ONE QUARTER
MILE AROUND THE COLLISION
LOCATION ON THE STREET NETWORK.
IF YOU CAN PICTURE GOING TO A
COLLISION AND LOOKING AT THIS
DIRECTION ALONG THE STREET
NETWORK AND MAKING A LITTLE
RECTANGLE AROUND THAT, WE CANK
LOOK AT THAT DLITION -- CAN LOOK
AT THAT AND ALL THE OTHER
COLLISIONS THAT HAPPENED IN THIS
AREA.
THAT WAS DERMTED BY ACTUALLY
LOOKING UP ENGINEERING TESTS AN
HOW LONG IT TAKES YOU TO STOP A
CAR TRAVELING A CERTAIN NUMBER
OF MILES AN HOUR ON DRY ROAD
AFTER YOU HIT THE BRAKE.
SO WE GENERATED THESE COLONELS
OR BOX WINDOWS AROUND EVERY
SINGLE COLLISION IN THIS
DATABASE.
I'M ONLY GOING TO TALK FIXED
OBJECTS AND ONLY THE TOP TEN.
BUT BECAUSE SOME COLLISIONS
OCCUR CLOSE TO EACH OTHER, WHEN
YOU DEFINE THOSE AREAS THERE'S
OBVIOUSLY OVERLAP OR COLIN
AREATY IN THE MEMBERSHIP OF
THOSE GROUPS SO TO GET AROUND
THAT WE LOOKED AT THE AREA THAT
HAS THE GREATEST NUMBER OF FIXED
OBJECT COLLISIONS IN IT AND WE
TOOK THAT AND ALL THE
NEIGHBORING COLLISIONS OUT AND
THEN WE LOOPED THROUGH THE DATA
AGAIN AND PICKED THE NEXT AREA
AND SO ON AND SO ON TO ELIMINATE
THESE OVERLAPPING PLACES.
WHAT WE WERE LEFT WITH WAS THESE
AS THE TOP TEN PLACES WITH THE
HIGHEST FREQUENCY OF FIXED
OBJECT COLLISIONS DURING THAT
TWO YEAR PERIOD, EVEN THOUGH AT
THIS SCALE OF THE MAP THESE
PLACES OVERLAP, THEY ARE
GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTINCT.
THE SYMBOL REFLECT IT IS
COLLISIONS WITHIN THIS AREA THAT
WE HAD A LOT OF FIXED OBJECT
COLLISIONS.
YOU CAN GO THROUGH THE ENTIRE
DATABASE AND CREATE THESE AREAS.
NOW, THE APPROACH TO AGGREGATING
COLLISION DATA WAS DESIGNED TO
AVOID PROBLEMS WITH UNITS LIKE
CENSUS TRACKS TO AGGREGATE DATA.
THOSE UNITS HAVE BOUNDARIES THAT
ARE ARBITRARILY DETERMINED
WITHOUT REGARD TO UNDERLYING
DISTRIBUTION OF THE PHENOMENON
WE'RE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND.
IT CAN MASK SPATIAL PATTERNS.
SO GOING BACK TO THE LITTLE
EXAMPLE OF THE CLASSROOM, IF WE
DECIDED TO MAKE THREE CENSUS
TRACKS IN THE CLASSROOM, RILE
RIGHT F WE DREW ON THE LEFT AND
AGGRAVATED THE DATA, WE WOULDN'T
SEE ANY SPATIAL VARIATION ACROSS
THOSE THREE CENSUS TRACKS BUT IF
WE DREW THEM ON RIGHT SAME
NUMBER OF TRACKS, SAME NUMBER OF
PEOPLE IN IT TRACT, WE WOULD SEE
A VERY CLEAR GRADIANT IN
OUTCOMES.
HOW DATA ARE AGGRAVATED
GEOGRAPHICALLY AFFECT RESULTS OF
STATISTICAL ANALYSES AS WELL,
NOT JUST VISUALIZATION.
THIS IS WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE
MODIFIABLE AREA UNIT PROBLEM.
THIS PROBLEM HAS TWO COMPONENTS.
THERE'S A SCALE PROBLEM, THIS IS
THE GENERALIZATION THAT OCCURS
AS WE AGGREGATE AREAS INTO
PROGRESSIVELY LARGER UNITS LIKE
GOING FROM CENSUS TRACK TO
COUNTY TO STATE AND SO ON.
THERE IS A ZONE PROBLEM WHICH
CAN ARISE WHEN PARTITION THE
AREA AT IS SAME SCALE.
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE
ZONATION PROBLEM.
THIS IS AN AREA UNIT PROBLEM AND
I HAVE GIVEN YOU REFERENCES.
THERE ARE NO REAL SOLUTIONS TO
THE PROBLEM, BUT WE CAN MAKE AN
EFFORT TO USE DATA AT THE MOST
DISAGGREGATE LEVEL POSSIBLE TO
ADDRESS THE SCALE PROBLEM AND
CREATE REGIONS WITH INTELLIGENT
BOUNDARIES THAT IS BOUNDARIES
THAT REFLECT THE DISTRIBUTION OF
THE PHENOMENON WE'RE TRYING TO
UNDERSTAND TO ADDRESS ZONEATION
PROBLEM.
IT'S ALSO USEFUL EXPLORING THE
SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF A PROBLEM
SO THE COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT WILL
LET US EXPERIMENT WITH WAYS TO
ZONE THINGS AND LOOK AT THE
CONSEQUENCES OF THAT.
THIS HAS REAL IMPLICATIONS FOR
SPATIAL SAMPLING AS WELL.
IT'S IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND
THAT THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF
SPATIAL SAMPLES.
A SAMPLE OF SPACE INVOLVES
SAMPLING SOME LOCATIONS FROM THE
SET OF ALL PLACES.
WHEN WE SELECT SITES FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING LIKE
WHERE WE PUT OUR MONITORING
STATIONS OR SELECT ONE OR MORE
STUDY COMMUNITIES, WE'RE TAKING
A SAMPLE FROM THE SET OF ALL
PLACES.
BECAUSE THERE ARE AN INFINITE
NUMBER OF LOCATIONS ON THE
SURFACE OF THE EARTH, IT'S TIME
CON SEWELLING AND EXPENSIVE TO
LOOK EVERYWHERE AND PROBABLY NOT
NECESSARY TO DO SO.
THE DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL
MODELING SYSTEMS OR APPROACH TO
COMMUNITY SELECTION RAISES
IMPORTANT SAMPLING QUESTIONS.
HOW MANY SITES ARE NEEDED AND
WHERE SHOULD THEY BE LOCATED.
A SAMPLE IN SPACE INVOLVES A
SAMPLE FROM A GEOGRAPHICALLY
POPULATION.
EVERY SAMPLE FROM A HUMAN
POPULATION IS IMPLICITLY A
SPATIAL SAMPLE, WHETHER YOU
THINK YOU'RE DOING IT OR NOT YOU
ARE PICKING PEOPLE FROM
PARTICULAR PLACES.
AND A RANDOM SAMPLE OF ALL
PEOPLE WILL THEREFORE NOT BE A
RANDOM SAMPLE OF ALL PLACES
UNLESS PEOPLE ARE UNIFORMLY
DISTRIBUTED WHICH THEY BASICALLY
NEVER ARE.
THIS MEANS THERE MAYBE NO ONE
RESIDING IN AN AREA OF INTEREST
OR OUR SAMPLE CANNOT CAPTURE
VARIATION OF INTEREST.
FOR EXAMPLE, SAY EAR TESTING A
VACCINE FOR A HEALTH PROBLEM
LIKE LIEM DISEASE.
VERY IMPORTANT WHERE I LIVE.
THE RISK FOR LYME DISEASE IS
GREATER IN WOODLAND AREAS THAN
FOR PEOPLE IN MORE DEVELOPED
PLACES.
MORE DEVELOPED PLACES HAVE
LARGER POPULATIONS SO IF YOU
TOOK A RANDOM SAMPLE MOST OF THE
TIME YOU BE GETTING MORE PEOPLE
WHO LIVE IN CITIES FOR TESTING
YOUR VACCINE.
WHERE IN THOSE PEOPLE HAVE A
LOWER RISK FOR ACQUIRING LYME
DISEASE TO BEGIN WITH, WHAT ARE
THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS OR HOW
THESE TRIALS ARE DESIGNED.
THERE'S LITERATURE COMING OUT
NOW WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN
TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
PROBLEMS.
VERY IMPORTANT.
GEOSPATIAL METHODS CAN HELP US
EXPLORE THIS ISSUE OF WHAT IS
THE SPATIAL BASIS OF EVIDENCE.
IF THE LITERATURE ON
NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXTUAL EFFECTS
ON HEALTH IS TRUE AND IT TELLS
US AREAS AFFECT HEALTH, THEN
WHERE WE CHOOSE TO LOOK IS GOING
TO HAVE AN IMPLICATION FOR WHAT
WE SEE.
SO BECAUSE SO MANY HEALTH
STUDIES HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED IN A
LIMITED NUMBER OF PLACES WITH A
LIMITED NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS,
META ANALYSIS METHODS HAVE BEEN
DEVELOPED TO IMPROVE STATISTICAL
POWER IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE
DATA.
THESE STUDIES GENERALLY DO NOT
CONSIDER WHERE THE STUDIES HAVE
BEEN CONDUCTED.
DR. BLAIR JOHNSON, DEPARTMENT OF
PSYCHOLOGY CENTER FOR HEALTH
INTERVENTION AND PREVENTION AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT
STORES HAS BEEN WORKING ON META
ANALYSES OF PUBLISHED STUDIES OF
TRIALS IN AFRICAN NATIONS.
VERY STRICT INCLUSION CRITERIA
WERE APPLIED IN SELECTING THE
STUDIES.
THEY ALL EVALUATED EFFICACY OF
AN INTERPERSONALLY DELIVERED HIV
AIDS PREVENTION EFFORT INITIATED0.–
FROM 1986 TO 2008, AND THE
INTERVENTION WAS FOCUSED ON
BEHAVIORAL OUTCOME RELATIVE TO A
CONTROL GROUP OR A BASELINE
ASSESSMENT.
THERE WERE 93 STUDIES IDENTIFIED
AND SOME HAD MULTIPLE PARTS TO
THEM.
THIS MAP SHOWS WHERE THE STUDIES
WERE CONDUCTED.
FOR SOME STUDIES, LOCATION IS
REPORTED DOWN TO A CITY OR TOWN
LEVEL.
FOR SOME STUDIES ONLY TO
REGIONAL LEVEL, THESE ARE
INTERPERSONALLY DELIVERED
INTERVENTIONS, NOT LIKE PUBLIC
SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS THAT WILL
BE BROADCAST OVER LARGE AREAS SO
MOST OF THESE INTERVENTIONS
HAPPEN IN CLINICS AN SCHOOLS AN
SPECIFIC PLACES WE COULD ONLY
GET THESE DOWN TO SORT OF A CITY
OR TOWN LEVEL.
THE COUNTS ARE MAPPED TO THE SEN
TRIEDS OF THE CITY REGION OR
COUNTRY AND THE SIZE OF SYMBOL
REPRESENTS THE COUNT OF STUDIES
THAT INVOLVED THAT PLACE.
SO HERE -- THIS IS WHERE WE HAVE
-- THESE AREN'T JUST NIH FUNDED
STUDIES, BUT WE'LL BE ABLE TO
SHOW YOU THE MAP OF NIH FUNDED
VERSUS OTHER STUDIES AND WE CAN
MAKE AN ANIMATED MAP THAT SHOWED
HOW THESE PROGRESS THROUGH TIME.
BUT THIS IS WHERE WE HAVE SOME
EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECT ON A
BEHAVIORAL OUTCOME OF HIV AIDS
INTERVENTIONS IN AFRICA.
LOOKING AT THE STUDIES, WILL
PERMIT DR. JOHNSON AND HIS TEAM
TO DEVELOP SPATIAL META ANALYSES
TO ANALYZE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS
LIKE SUPPORT WOMEN'S RIGHTS OR
LEVELS OF INCOME AS FACTORS THAT
MIGHT AFFECT INTERVENTION
EFFICACY AND INVESTIGATE WHETHER
OR NOT THERE ARE SPATIAL
PATTERNS IN INTERVENTION
EFFICACY.
WITH MORE EFFICACIOUS
INTERVENTIONS CONDUCTED IN
PARTICULAR AREAS.
IT HELPS TO SEE WHERE TRIALS
HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED AND WHERE
THEY HAVEN'T.
PERHAPS THE MOST DOMINANT USE OF
GEOSPATIAL METHODS IN HEALTH
TODAY HAS BEEN ANALYZING
NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT OF HEALTH
EVENTS.
SO I WON'T TALK A LOT ABOUT
THIS.
THIS INVOLVES USING GEOSPATIAL
METHODS TO PUT AN INDIVIDUAL IN
AN AREA AND TAKE INTO ACCOUNT
AREA CHARACTERISTICS AND
EXPLAINING THE HEALTH OF THE
INDIVIDUAL.
HIERARCHICAL MODELS IS USED IN
THIS RESEARCH.
THIS APPROACH HAS MADE HEALTH
STUDIES MORE GEOGRAPHIC IN THE
SENSE WE KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT BUT NOT
NECESSARILY MADE THIS RESEARCH
MORE SPATIAL BECAUSE WE DON'T
TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL
AUTO CORRELATION OR DEPENDENCIES
FROM ONE NEIGHBORHOOD TO THE
NEXT AND I HAVE A CITATION IF
YOU WANT TO FOLLOW THIS.
AS A RESULT WE SOMETIMES SEE
INCONSISTENT RESULTS IN STUDIES
CONDUCTED ACROSS DIFFERENT
LOCALITIES.
DOES THE PRESENCE OF A PARK LEAD
TO MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR
NOT?
IN ADDITION WE HAVE DIFFICULTIES
IDENTIFYING GROUPS OF PLACES
WITH THE SAME CONFIGURATIONS OF
FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH
OUTCOMES.
SO DESPITE ALL THIS DETAILED
SPATIALLY EXTENSIVE DATA MANY
ANALYSIS -- MANY ANALYSTS ARE
STILL FALLING BACK ON AGGREGATE
OR GLOBAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS
WIDOW NOT HELP US UNCOVER KEY
SPATIAL PATTERNS OF INTEREST.
GEOSPATIAL METHODS ARE USED TO
ANALYZE SPATIAL PATTERNS AND
PROCESSES.
I'M GOING TO TALK ABOUT PATTERNS
FIRST.
SPATIAL CLUS EVERYTHING METHOD
-- CLUSTERING DATA HELP ANALYZE
DATA.
THERE'S A WIDE RANGE OF
CLUSTERING METHODS.
SOME ARE GLOBAL METHODS, BY THIS
THEY IDENTIFY WHETHER OR NOT
THERE'S OVERALL PATTERN OF
CLUSTERING.
OTHERS ARE LOCAL METHODS USED TO
IDENTIFY THE NUMBER AND
LOCATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL
CLUSTERS.
ALL THESE TECHNIQUES HAVE IN
COMMON THEY RELY ON BEING ABLE
TO DESCRIBE THE DISTANCES
SEPARATING OR THE PROXIMITY OF
NEIGHBORING AREA OR HEALTH
EVENTS.
THIS IS A TABLE ADAPTED FROM
GEOGRAPHICALLY REGRESSION
ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL
RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTRASTS THE
IDEA OF LOCAL VERSUS GLOBAL
STATISTICS.
GLOBAL STATISTICS SUMMARIZE DATA
FOR ENTIRE REGIONS YIELDING A
SINGLE STATISTIC WHICH IS OFTEN
ASPATIAL AND CAN CAN PROVIDE
MISLEADING INTERPRETATIONS OF
LOCAL RELATIONSHIPS.
LOCAL STATISTIC, ON THE OTHER
HAND, SUMMARIZE DATA FOR
INDIVIDUAL PLACES, WITHIN ENTIRE
REGIONS SO YOU GET MULTIPLE
STATISTICS, ONE FOR EACH PLACE.
THESE ARE POTENTIALLY
INTERESTING WHEN MAPPED AND
THEY'RE USEFUL FOR EXPLORATORY
DATA ANALYSIS, FOR CONFIRMATORY
ANALYSIS AND BUILDING MORE
POWERFUL GLOBAL MODELS.
THE MOST RECENT VERSIONS OF
WIDELY USED GIS SOFTWARE
PACKAGES ARE INCORPORATING MORE
SPATIAL STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS
FOR GLOBAL AND LOCAL ANALYSES.
FOR EXAMPLE, WE CAN PERFORM
GLOBAL AND LOCAL CLUSTERING
ANALYSES.
OR WE CAN DO AN ORDINARY LEASE
SQUARES REGRESSION, WE CAN CHECK
FOR SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION, AND
THEN WE CAN RUN A SPATIAL
REGRESSION MODEL OR WE CAN DO
GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED
REGRESSION IN WHICH SPATIAL
VARIATIONS IN THE REGRESSION
PARAMETERS CAN BE OBSERVED.
(INDISCERNIBLE) EYE IS A SPATIAL
PATTERN CLUSTERING
AUTOCORRELATION AN DATA.
POSITIVE SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION
MEANS LIKE VALUES ARE CLUSTERED
TOGETHER LIKE THAT CLASSROOM ON
THE RIGHT.
NEGATIVE SPECIAL AUTOCORRELATION
MEANS HIGH AND LOW VALUES
ALTERNATE IN A CHECKER BOARD
PATTERN.
OR RANDOM PATTERN OF VALUES.
MOREAN'S EYE WAS HERE TO
INVESTIGATE WHETHER OR NOT THERE
WAS A PATTERN OF OVERALL
CLUSTERING OF AVERAGE SYMPTOM
SCORES AMONG COMMUNITY LIVING
ELDERLY PARTICIPANTS NP A
TELEPHONE SURVEY CONDUCTED IN
NEW JERSEY.
A SIGNIFICANT PATTERN OF
POSITIVE SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION
WAS FOUND.
SO THE RED DOTS MEAN THESE ARE
CENSUS TRACK SEN TRIEDS WHERE A
SURVEY RESPONDENT REPORTED A
DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM SCORE GREATER
THAN OR EQUAL TO TEN.
IF THERE'S A BLACK GOT THERE WAS
A PARTICIPANT AT LEAST ONE
PARTICIPANT AT THAT LOCATION AN
NONE OF THOSE PARTICIPANTS
REPORTED A DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM
SCORE GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO
TEN.
THE GRAY SHADED„K AREAS ARE TRACKS
WITH AT LEAST ONE PARTICIPANT,
THE BIG BOUNDARIES ARE COUNTY
BOUNDRIES.
SO WHAT THIS TELLS US IS GLOBAL
MEASURE IS, YES, THERE'S
CLUSTERING OF DEPRESSIVE ELDERLY
PEOPLE WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
BASED ON RESIDENCES BUT IT
DOESN'T TELL HOW MANY CLUSTERS
AN WHERE THEY ARE.
THE LISA STATISTIC IS A LOCAL
MEASURE OF SPATIAL
AUTOCORRELATION THAT STANDS FOR
LOCAL INDICATORS OF SPATIAL
AUTOCORRELATION AN IT MEASURES
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE
VALUE AT A PARTICULAR PLACE AND
THE VALUES FOR NEIGHBORING AREAS
AND THERE ARE DIFFERENT WAYS TO
DEFINE NEIGHBORING AREAS.
THIS MAP SHOWS THE LOCATIONS OF
CENSUS TRACKS WITH HIGH AVERAGE
DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM SCORES THAT
ARE SURROUNDED BY OTHER TRACKS
WITH HIGH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM
SCORES SO WE'RE GETTING AWAY
FROM THIS AS THE CENSUS TRACK
BOUNDARY IS SPLITTING UP A
PATTERN OF INTEREST.
THESE CLUSTERS ARE STATISTICALLY
SIGNIFICANT MEANING UNLIKELY
THAT THESE COULD HAVE OCCURRED
BY CHANCE.
THIS METHOD CAN IDENTIFY
CLUSTERS WITH TRACKS WITH LOW
AVERAGE SCORES ARE SURROUNDED BY
TRACKS WITH LOW AVERAGE SCORES,
COOL SPOTS, OR TRACKS WITH HIGH
AVERAGE SCORES SURROUNDEDLY
TRACKS WITH LOW AVERAGE SCORES
AND SO ON.
AND WE CAN GO BACK TO INDIVIDUAL
PEOPLE AND FIND INDIVIDUAL WHOSE
HAD LOW DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM
SCORES BUT THEY WERE LIVING IN
TRACKS WHERE EVERYBODY ELSE WAS
HIGH AND THEY WERE SURROUNDED BY
HIGH PEOPLE, THOSE WOULD BE
REALLY INTERESTED PEOPLE TO LOOK
AT BECAUSE IT'S LIKE WHAT
ACCOUNTS FOR THEIR RESILIENCE.
WITH THIS UNDERSTANDING OF DATA
WE CAN DESIGN BETTER STUDIES
WITH NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXTUAL
EFFECTS INTERVENTION TRIALS AN
SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEMS.
IN ADDITION TO ANALYZING SPATIAL
PATTERNS IN DATA WE CAN USE
SPATIAL STATISTICAL METHODS TO
INVESTIGATE PROCESSES.
SPATIAL METHODS TAKE INTO
ACCOUNT LOCATION.
I'M GOING TO TALK SPATIAL
REGRESSION ANALYSIS AS A GLOBAL
STATISTIC AND THEN WE'LL LOOK AT
A COUPLE OF EXAMPLES OF LOCAL
SPATIAL STATISTICS.
GLOBAL SPATIAL STATISTICS WERE
EFFECTIVELY USED TO MODEL GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG MARKETS
FOR METH METHAMPHETAMINE IN
CALIFORNIA IN RELATION SO
CHANGING PATTERNS OF
ENFORCEMENT.
RESEARCHERS USE ZIP LEVEL
SPATIAL DATA AND SIMULTANEOUS
AUTOREGRESSIVE SPATIAL MODELS TO
CORRECT FOR SPATIAL
AUTOCORRELATION OF MODEL
RESIDUALS WHICH IF UNCORRECTED
WOULD INDUCE BIAS IN THE
PARAMETER ESTIMATES.
THE AUTHORS ELOQUENTLY EXPRESSED
THE VALUE OF SPATIALLY EXTENSIVE
APPROACH AND I'M QUOTING THEM.
THE SCALE OF THE MARKET IS NOT
THAT OF A SINGLE SOLID NETWORK,
NEIGHBORHOOD OR CITY.
BUT RATHER THAN OF NEIGHBORHOODS
WITHIN CITIES AND COMMUNITIES
ACROSS THE STATE AND ACROSS
NATIONAL BOUNDARIES.
I.E., BETWEEN CALIFORNIA AND
MEXICO.
THE RESULTS WERE CONSISTENT WITH
TWO POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS.
AN INCREASE IN L CA CAL OVER THE
TIME PERIOD BUT THIS COULD HAVE
BEEN TO KIND OF ENLARGEMENT OF
THE OVERALL OPERATION OF THIS
MARKET WITH DIFFUSION OF METH
LABS TO RURAL AREAS OR COULD
HAVE BEEN A DISPLACEMENT OF THE
METH LABS OUT OF URBAN AREAS
INTO RURAL AREAS WHERE
ENFORCEMENT COULD BE BETTER
EVADED.
THIS IS HOW YOU WOULD FORMULATE
A SPECIAL REGRESSION MODEL.
THIS LOOKS PRETTY FAMILIAR TO
YOU EXCEPT THE THIR TERM.
THAT THIRD TERM BASICALLY IS
PULLING OUT WHAT WOULD BE THE
RANDOM ERROR TERM, THE SPATIALLY
AUTOCORRELATED ERROR.
SO WE'RE DEALING WITH THE
SPATIAL ERROR ON ITS OWN AND WE
HAVE A RANDOM ERROR LEFT OVER.
HERE THE NON-RANDOM SPATIAL
ERROR WHICH CAP CHR IT IS
SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE
SPATIALLY DEPENDENT ERROR HAS
LAMDA AS THE CO-EFFICIENT OR
ERROR PARAMETER.
AND WHAT'S IN THE SUMMATION SIGN
IS THE SUM OF WEIGHS MULTIPLIED
BY DEPENDENT ERROR WITH RESPECT
TO OBSERVATION I.
YOU CAN COMPUTE A SPATIAL
WEIGHTS MATRIX USING A DIFFERENT
APPROACH USING GIS SOFTWARE ONCE
YOU HAVE ALL THE INFORMATION ON
-- IN YOUR SOFTWARE APPLICATION.
RETURNING TO STUDY OF CLIGS WE
CAN LOOK HOW LOCAL SPATIAL
STACKS WERE USED AT THE VARIOUS
COLLISION SITES.
LOCAL PROPORTIONS AN LOCAL ODDS
RATIOS WERE CALCULATED TO ASSESS
THE IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL,
ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH
COLLISIONS AT DIFFERENT PLACES.
ARE THE SAME FACTORS ASSOCIATED
WITH THE SAME OUTCOME FIXED
OBJECT COLLISIONS ACROSS ALL
PLACES.
SO THIS IS HOW WE WOULD
CALCULATE A GEOGRAPHICALLY
WEIGHTED PROPORTION.
THIS LOOKS REALLY FANCY BUT ALL
WE'RE SAYING GO TO THE COLONEL
AREA, AND LOOK AT THE PROPORTION
OF COLLISIONS IN THIS AREA THAT
HAPPENED ON A DAY WHEN RAINING
OR WHEN THE ROAD WAS WET OR HAD
A DRIVER CERTAIN AGE, SO ON.
AND DO THIS PROPORTION LIKE WE
WOULD FOR THE STATE AS A WHOLE.
IF YOU WANT TO, YOU CAN WEIGHT
THE CLIGS BASED ON WHERE THEY
ARE WITHIN THIS AREA, BUT I USE
A SIMPLE BINARY WEIGHTING WHERE
IT'S ZERO IF IT'S OUTSIDE THE
COLONEL AREA OR IF IT'S ONE
INSIDE.
AND THE GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED
ODDS RATIO IS BASICALLY DOING
THE SAME, CALCULATING AN ODDS
RATIO FOR FIXED OBJECT VERSUS
OTHER TYPES OF COLLISIONS BASED
ON SOME OTHER DIMENSION LIKE
ROAD WAS WET OR DRY WITHIN THIS
KERNAL AREA.
I KNOW THAT YOU CAN'T SEE ALL OF
THESE IN DETAIL BUT IF YOU GET
THE POWERPOINT YOU WILL BE ABLE
TO SEE THESE.
WHAT I WANT YOU TO FOCUS ON IS
THESE SIGNIFICANT LOCAL
PROPORTIONS VARY ACROSS THIS
CHART.
SO WE HAVE THE TOP TEN PLACES,
THOSE ARE THE ROW, THE STATE IS
AT THE BOTTOM.
AND THEN WE HAVE WHETHER OR NOT
IT WAS A FIXED OBJECT CRASH,
RAIN OR SNOW, ON A DRY ROAD, DAY
LIGHT CONDITION, THE DRIVER WAS
BETWEEN 25 AND 44 YEARS, MALE,
WHAT THE PERSON WAS DOING, IN
THIS CASE DRIVING TOO FAST FOR
CONDITIONS.
SO FOR ALL CLIGS IN THE STATE AS
WHOLE ACROSS THE BOTTOM ROW
WHICH YOU CAN'T READ, ONLY 24%
OCCURRED WHEN RAINING SLEETING
OR SNOWING.
65% OCCURRED ON DRY ROADS AND
70% OCCURRED DURING DAYLIGHT
CONDITIONS.
IF YOU LOOK AT THIS YOU THINK
WEATHER IS NOT THAT BIG A FACTOR
IN MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS IN
CONNECTICUT.
BUT WITH RESPECT TO AGE, DRIVERS
OR PEDESTRIANS UNDER 25 ARE
OLDER THAN 44, WE'RE AT FAULT IN
54% OF COLLISIONS AN 61% OF THE
DRIVERS WERE MALE.
THESE INDIVIDUAL AGE AND SEX
CHARACTERISTICS ARE WITH THE
COLLISIONS REPORTED IN THE
LITERATURE.
ANALYSIS OF LOCAL PROPORTIONS AN
ODDS RATIOS REPORTS DIFFERENT
VARIABLE PATTERNS FOR THESE
VARIOUS HIGH-COLLISION FREQUENCY
LOCATIONS.
ROWS 2 AND 62 AND 6, VERY HIGH
NUMBERS OF CRASHES WERE FIXED
OBJECT COLLISIONS AND MANY
OCCURRED WHEN ROAD SURFACES WERE
WET, WHEN DRIVERS WERE OPERATING
VEHICLES TOO FAST FOR
CONDITIONS.
SO IN SOME PLACES IF NOT A RAINY
DAY WE DON'T HAVE CRASHES BUT
THAT DOESN'T APPLY EVERYWHERE IN
CONNECT CONNECT BUT IF WE FIGURE
OUT WHAT TO DO IN THESE PLACES
TO STOP THESE HEALTH EVENTS FROM
OCCURRING, WE NEED TO KNOW WHAT
THE CONFIGURATION OF EVENTS IS
THAT'S COMING TOGETHER IN A
PARTICULAR LOCATION.
IT MAY NOT BE THE SAME
EVERYWHERE ACROSS THE STATE.
IF YOU LOOK AT PLACE NUMBER 10,
THERE AREN'T ANY DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF
COLLISIONS OCCURRING AT THOSE
PLACES AND THE STATE.
BUT IF YOU LOOK AT PLACE NUMBER
5, IT HAS SIGNIFICANTLY
DIFFERENT THINGS GOING ON THERE
IN ALMOST EVERY DIMENSION FROM
COLLISIONS IN THE STATE AS A
WHOLE AND ALSO FROM SOME OF THE
OTHER HIGH FIXED OBJECT
COLLISION SITES.
LOCAL ODDS RATIOS REVEAL CERTAIN
PATTERNS OF INTEREST AND ODDS
RATIOS IN ADDITION TO
PROPORTIONS.
PLAY 6 FOR EXAMPLE THE LOCAL
ODDS WERE NOT SIGNATURE CAB FOR
RAIN OR SNOW, FIXED OBJECT
COLLISIONS HAPPENED ON RAINY OR
SNOWY DAYS.
THAT SUGGESTS ALL TYPES OF
COLLISIONS OCCURRING THERE, NOT
JUST THE FIXED OBJECT ONES, WERE
AFFECTED BY RAIN AND SNOW.
I HOPE THIS GIVES YOU THE IDEA.
THIS LEADS US TO THE IDEA OF
SPATIALLY VARYING RELATIONSHIPS.
WE CAN USE GEOSPATIAL METHODS TO
MAP DATA ON THE AMOUNT OF TIME A
PERSON SPENDS OUTDOORS FOR
EXAMPLE.
THAT WOULD VARY SPATIALLY
PERHAPS.
WE CAN USE GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES
TO MOBTOR, MODEL AND MAP
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATIONS IN AIR
QUALITY.
BUT IT'S ALSO POSSIBLE THAT THE
VERY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
AMOUNT OF TIME YOU SPEND
OUTDOORS, AIR QUALITY AND HEALTH
OUTCOME, ITSELF VARIES
GEOGRAPHICALLY.
IF THIS IS THE CASE WE NEED TO
BE ABLE TO FIND THE SET OF
PLACES OR WHAT WE MIGHT CALL THE
SPATIAL DOMAIN, WHERE PARTICULAR
PROCESSES ARE AT WORK.
THEY DON'T -- I DON'T WANT YOU
TO THINK THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF
WHAT WE CALL IN GEOGRAPHY,
EXCEPTIONALISM.
EVERY PLACE IS JUST SO SPECIAL
AND WE CAN'T MAKE
GENERALIZATIONS.
IT'S NOT THAT, IT'S THAT WE NEED
TO SEARCH FOR THE SET OF PLACES
ACROSS WHICH PARTICULAR SET OF
GENERALIZATIONS APPLY.
AND GENERALIZATIONS MIGHT NOT
APPLY EVERYWHERE.
ONE OF THE IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES
WE HAVE AVAILABLE FOR
INVESTIGATING SPATIALLY VARYING
PROCESSES IS
GEOGRAPHICALLY-WEIGHTED
REGRESSION.
THIS IS A MODEL THAT EVALUATES
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDEPENDENT
AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN A WAY
FOR PARTICULAR PLACES SO THESE
REGRESSION PARAMETERS CAN VARY
SPATIALLY.
GWR WAS USED IN A STUDY OF
MORTALITY IN THE ATLANTA
METROPOLITAN AREA.
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS RACE AND
URBANIZATION WAS ASSOCIATED WITH
STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATES
ACROSS 431 CENSUS TRACKS.
LOCAL PARAMETER ESTIMATES WERE
MAPPED AND I HAVE GIVEN YOU THE
CITATION TO THIS ARTICLE.
AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS FOR
EXAMPLE WAS FOUND TO BE
PARTICULARLY SIGNIFICANT IN
ESTIMATING MORTALITY IN THE
NORTHERN SUBURBS OF ATLANTA BUT
HAD A LESSER AND LESS
SIGNIFICANT EFFECT IN THE
SOUTHERN REGION OF THE STUDY
AREA.
NEGLECTED AREA IN RESEARCH ON
HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES IS THE
ROLE OF HEALTH SERVICES.
SO MUCH HEALTH RESEARCH, I
STARTED MY CAREER IN THE HEALTH
SERVICES SIDE OF THINGS, IS
DESIGNED AS IF THE STRUCTURE AND
FUNCTIONING OF THE HEALTHCARE
SYSTEM HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH
HEALTH OUTCOMES WE'RE OBSERVING.
WE NEED TO EXPLICITLY ADDRESS
HOW THE STRUCTURE OF THE VARIOUS
HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS, PLURALS IN
THE U.S., STATE AND LOCAL
REGULATIONS ON INSURANCE,
PRACTITIONER LICENSING AND OTHER
COMPONENTS AFFECT THE PATTERNS
OF HEALTH AND DISEASE WE'RE
TRYING TO UNDERSTAND.
GEOSPATIAL METHOD CAN PLAY A
ROLE BY USING MODELS TO EVALUATE
ACCESSIBILITY TO EXISTING
SERVICES, DON'T HAVE TIME TO
TALK ABOUT THAT TODAY BUT I WANT
TO INTRODUCE YOU TO SOMETHING
YOU'RE PROBABLY LESS FAMILIAR
WITH WHICH IS NORMATIVE MODELING
TECHNIQUES TO LOCATE AND
EVALUATE OPTIMAL LOCATIONS.
WHAT IS A NORMATIVE MODEL?
WHE WE'RE ANSWERING THE QUESTION
WHAT'S THE BEST WHRKS'S THE
WORST, WHAT TEASE LEAST, WHAT'S
THE MOST, WE'RE IN THE WORLD OF
NORMATIVE MODELING.
AND THE KEY ELEMENTS OF
NORMATIVE MODEL ARE OBJECTIVE
FUNCTI+
IF WE WANT TO ALLOCATE PATIENTS
FROM A SET OF DEMAND SITES TO A
SET OF CLINICS TO MINIMIZE THE
TOTAL TRAVEL COSTS, THE TRAVEL
COSTS OF YOU PLUS ME PLUS YOU
PLUS YOU TO THESE CLINICS, THAT
IS OUR OBJECTIVE, OUR DEFINITION
OF WHAT'S BEST.
IN MEETING THIS OBJECTIVE WE
HAVE A SET OF CONSTRAINTS.
HERE WE'RE SAYING EVERY PATIENT
MUST BE SERVED BUT YOU WOULDN'T
HAVE TO SAY THAT.
THE NUMBER OF PATIENTS ALLOCATED
TO A CLINIC CAN'T EXCEED CLINIC
CAPACITY AND THE NUMBER OF
PATIENTS ALLOCATED TO FACILITY
CAN'T BE NEGATIVE.
WE CAN'T HAVE A NEGATIVE NUMBER
OF PEOPLE GOING FOR SERVICE.
THIS IS A NON-NEGATIVITY
REQUIREMENT AND MOST REAL WORLD
PROBLEMS HAVE THESE.
THEN THE STRUCTURE OF THE
PROBLEM GIVES YOU THE DATA
REQUIREMENTS.
FROM THIS ENGLISH LANGUAGE
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM, WE
CAN DEVELOP THE MODEL
FORMULATION USING MATHEMATICAL
EXPRESSION.
AND YOU CAN LOOK AT THAT.
CLEARLY YOU UNDERSTAND YOU CAN
YIEWK THE GIS TO PRESENT THE
DATA, SO YOU CAN LOCATE THE
PATIENTS HERE TO THE SEN TRIED
OF THE TOWNS, AND WE KNOW HOW
MANY PATIENTS ARE COMING FROM
EACH TOWN.
WE CAN LOCATE THE CLINICS IN GIS
AND PUT IN DATA ON THEIR
CAPACITIES.
AND WE CAN USE THE GIS TO
COMPUTE AN ORIGIN DESTINATION
COST MATRIX TO TELL US WHAT THE
TRAVEL COST IS FOR EVERY PERSON
STARTING IN ONE TOWN AND GOING
TO A PARTICULAR CLINIC.
FOR VERY LARGE PROBLEMS WE CAN'T
SOLVE THESE INSIDE THE GIS
SOFTWARE PACKAGE, WE HAVE TO USE
SOMETHING LIKE SAS OR OR C OR
SOME OTHER METHOD, SMALL
PROBLEMS YOU CAN USE THE SOLVER
AND EVEN IN XL.
THAT'S HOW I DID THIS ONE.
THIS IS THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION
AND THEN WE CAN BRING THESE DATA
BACK INTO THE GIS AND MAP WHAT
THE ASSIGNMENT S. AGAIN, THIS IS
THE ASSIGNMENT, WHICH IS
MATHEMATICALLY PROVEN TO YIELD
THE LOWEST TOTAL TRANSPORT COST
OF GETTING THIS NUMBER OF
PATIENTS AT THESE LOCATIONS TO
THIS NUMBER OF FACILITIES WITH
THESE CAPACITY.
YOU CAN'T DO BETTER THAN THIS.
WE DEAL WITH THIS EVERY DAY.
WE SAY ONLY 24 HOURS IN A DAY,
CAN'T BE IN TWO PLACES AT ONCE.
THESE ARE POWERFUL METHODS THAT
HAVE BEEN I THINK SOMEWHAT
NEGLECTED.
SO THE TOTAL -- THE ANSWER IS,
WHAT IS THE MINIMUM TOTAL TRAVEL
COST?
301,614.2-MILES.
ONCE WE COMPLETED OUR ANALYSES
OF HEALTH PROBLEMS, WE WANT TO
SHARE OUR FINDINGS AND DATA WITH
OTHERS.
GEOSPATIAL METHS OVER THE WEB --
METHODS OVER THE WEB PLAY AN
IMPORTANT ROLE HELPING US DO
THIS.
THE MALARIA ATLAS PROJECT
INITIATED IN 2006 ILLUSTRATES
JUST SUCH A PROJECT AND WE'RE
GETTING CLOSE TO THE END, I'M
GOING TO FINISH ON TIME I THINK.
AND BUT I WOULD ENCOURAGE YOU TO
GO TO THIS WEBSITE AND LOOK AT
IT.
MALARIA IS CLEARLY NOT AT
PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT HEALTH
THREAT IN THE U.S. BUT THIS
PROJECT OFFERS AN INTERESTING
MODEL OF THE KINDS OF WORK WE
COULD BE UNDERTAKING.
MAPPING MALARIA IS CHALLENGING
BECAUSE TRANSMISSION INTENSITY
IS GEOGRAPHICALLY HETEROGENEOUS.
RESEARCH IS INTERESTED IN
MALARIA, REALIZE THAT WE DID NOT
HAVE A GOOD MAP OF MALARIA
PREVALENCE MEANING THE
PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION
THAT WAS CONFIRMED POSITIVE FOR FOR
MALARIA PARASITES.
THIS WAS MAKING IT DIFFICULT TO
EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT
MALARIA CONTROL PROJECTS BEING
IMPLEMENTED IN DIFFERENT PARTS
OF THE WORLD.
SO THEY TOOK MORE THAN 8,000
REPORTS, LIKE A META ANALYSIS,
THEY APPLIED STRICT INCLUSION
CRITERIA, THEY INTEGRATED THESE
SPATIALLY AND TEMPORALLY USING A
GEOSTATISTICCAL METHODS AND THEY
HAD A CONTINUOUS AGE
STANDARDIZED URBAN COLLECTED
MALARIA PREVALENCE MAP.
EVERYTHING, SOURCE DATA, HOW
THEY DID IT AND THE RESULTS IN
THE FORM OF MAPS AND THE DATA
ITSELF IS AVAILABLE FOR FREE ON
THE INTERNET.
SO THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A
REGIONAL LIMIT AND ENDOMICITY
MAP DOWNLOADABLE IN PDF FORMAT
FROM THE WEB AND ALSO DOWNLOAD
THE GRIDDED DATA IN GEOTIF
FORMAT AND ASCI FORMAT.
TIF IS A TIF FILE WITH
INFORMATION SO YOU CAN REGISTER
TO ITS CORRECT PLACE ON THE
SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
NOW THEY'RE SERVING THE DATA SO
OTHER RESEARCHERS CAN USE THESE
DATA FOR WHATEVER THEY WANT TO.
MORE IMPORTANTLY, BECAUSE THEY
USE GEOSPATIAL STATISTICAL
METHODS, IN BAYESIAN TECHNIQUES
THEY WERE ABLE TO GENERATE
INFORMATION ABOUT SPATIAL ERROR,
FOR SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD
BASED ON UNDERLYING DISTRIBUTION
OF REPORTS, MORE REPORTS ARE
MORE CONFIDENT WE KNOW MA WHAT
THE TRUE PREVALENCE IS.
SO THEY PUBLISH SPATIAL ERROR
MAPS AND WE NEED TO DO MORESjqÖ WORK
ON SPATIAL CONCENTRATION AND
ERROR.
THE BRIGHT GREEN AREA ON THIS
MAP SHOWS HIGHER UNCERTAINTY IN
THE PREVALENCE DATA.
THESE ARE DOWNLOADABLE AS PDF
MAPS AND IN GEOTIF AND ASCI
FORMATS FOR THE DATA.
FINALLY GEOSPATIAL DATA ON
INDIVIDUALS DOES POSE A RISK TO
PRIVACY AND CONFIDENCIALITY OF
HEALTH DATA.
INCREASINGLY THE WIDESPREAD USE
OF GEOENABLED DEVICES IS
CREATING CONCERNS ABOUT UNWANTED
SURVEILLANCE.
THE PACE OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
AND ALSO SHIFTS IN THE ADOPTION
OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES IS MAKING
IT DIFFICULT TO ADDRESS PROBLEMS
BUT THERE'S A BODY OF LITERATURE
INVESTIGATING OW METHODS CAN BE
USED TO ADDRESS PRIVACY AND
CONFIDENTIALITY CONCERNS, SOME
USE STATISTICAL APPROACHES, SOME
USE NORMATIVE MODELING
TECHNIQUES.
IN THE NOTES I INCLUDED
REFERENCES TO THE RELEVANT
LITERATURE.
IMPROVED INFORMED CONSENT
PROCEDURES DIRECTLY ADDRESSING
GEOSPATIAL RISK, GEOSPATIAL DATA
RISK AND PROTECTIONS ARE GREATLY
NEEDED.
LAST SLIDE.
WHAT CAN NIH DO?
I INVITE YOU TO CONSIDER FOUR
STEPS YOU CAN TAKE TO SUPPORT
GEOSPATIAL METHODS IN HEALTH
RESEARCH.
FIRST, ENGAGE WITH HEALTH
RESEARCH EDUCATORS TO MAKE SURE
THE GEOSPATIAL METHODS ARE
REQUIRED PREPARATION FOR PEOPLE
COMING TO THE FIELD.
THERE'S TREMENDOUS GROWTH IN THE
USE OF GIS AN HEALTH BUT THEY'RE
NOT WIDELY AND DEEPLY EMBEDDED
IN THE EDUCATION OF PUBLIC
HEALTH PROFESSIONALS,
EPIDEMIOLOGISTS AN HEALTH
RESEARCHERS P.
MOST PEOPLE STILL HAVE NO
EXPOSURE TO THESE METHODS AND
THEY'RE CRITICAL.
SECOND, SUPPORT RESEARCH LINKING
GROUPS OF HEALTH RESEARCHERS AND
HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN
SPATIALLY EXTENSIVE STUDIES THAT
USE THE SAME METHODS ACROSS
MULTIPLE SITE SITES SELECT THE
SITES CAREFULLY AN INVESTIGATE
PATTERNS AN SIGNIFICANT PATTERNS
OF SPATIAL ERROR.
THE DAYS WHEN WE'RE DOING A ONE
OFF STUDY IN A PARTICULAR
COMMUNITY USING HIGHLY
SPECIALIZED METHOD WE MIGHT
RECONSIDER THAT.
IF I WROTE NOTES HERE, DON'T
HARANG PEOPLE, THEY'RE DOING
THIS IN EUROPE WITH GREAT
SUCCESS.
YOU'LL HAVE 25 TEAMS OF
RESEARCHERS USING THE SAME LAND
USE REGRESSION MODEL TO PREDICT
AT ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION IN
DIFFERENCE COUNTRIES THEY
VALIDATED AGAINST OBSERVATIONAL
DATA, THEY CAN ANALYZE SPATIAL
ERROR AND THAT FEEDS BACK INTO
BUILDING BETTER LAND USE
REGRESSION MODELS.
THIRD, I WOULD LOVE IT IF YOU
COULD IMPROVE THE GEOCODING OF
ITEMS IN PUBMED ALONG WITH
SPATIAL SEARCH CAPABILITY AND
DEVELOP A SPATIAL DATA SHARING
PLATFORM, YOU CAN START NOW AND
GO FORWARD FROM NIH FUNDED
RESEARCH SO IT WILL BE EASY TO
ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT WHERE
STUDIES WERE ACTUALLY CONDUCTED,
WHEN THEY WERE CONDUCTED, WHAT
THE METHOD WAS AND TO SHARE
SPATIAL DATA THAT'S BEEN
CONDUCTED.
YOU ALREADY HAVE KEY WORDS FOR
ARTICLES IN PUBMED.
THOSE KEY WORDS SHOULD INCLUDE
THE WHERE AND THE TIME OF THE
DATA COLLECTION.
OTHERWISE WE JUST CAN'T SEARCH
-- I DON'T THINK THIS IS --
MAYBE I'M WRONG, I WAS WORKING
WITH KOLETTE HOCKSTEEN AND
THERE'S A PROCESS TO GET MORE
TERMNOLOGY OF THESE METHODS IN
AS SUB HEADINGS.
I UNDERSTAND THERE'S A LONG
PROCESS BUT IF NOTHING ELSE NEXT
TIME CONGRESS CALLS AN WANTS TO
KNOW HOW MANY RESEARCH DOLLARS
HAVE WE SPENT IN EGYPT YOU'LL BE
ABLE TO EASILY ANSWER THAT
QUESTION.
IT WON'T BE SO HARD.
FINALLY, IF YOU COULD GET OHRP,
TO ORGANIZE THE TRAINING PROGRAM
ON GEOSPATIAL DATA PRIVACY AND
CONFIDENTIALITY, TO
IMPRO-PRACTICE, SET A RESEARCH
AGENDA AND HAVE CENTER FOR
SCIENTIFIC REVIEW STAFFERS AND
REVIEWERS PARTICIPATE, PEOPLE AT
NIH, EDITORS OF JOURNALS AND
HEALTH PROFESSIONALS AND SO ON,
AND WE IN THE HEALTH FIELD NEED
TO BE ENGAGED IN ONGOING PUBLIC
POLICY DEBATE ABOUT WHAT'S
HAPPENING WITH DATA PRIVACY.
I DON'T THINK WE HAVE BEEN
SUFFICIENTLY.
I'M READY TO TAKE YOUR QUESTIONS
BUT PLEASE REMEMBER IF YOU
REMEMBER NOTHING ELSE FROM THIS
TALK THAT THE SPACE PART OF THE
SCIENCE, THE LOCATION ISN'T
SOMETHING THAT GETS ADDED ON
LATER.
IT'S PART OF THE DATA AND SHOULD
BE PART OF THE METHODS TOO.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
[APPLAUSE]
>> QUESTIONS, COMMENTS?
DON'T BE AFRAID.
YES.
(OFF MIC)
>> WELL, WHY DON'T YOU
(OFF MIC)
>> YOU WOULD HAVE TO START WITH
FROM THE GET GO, IF YOU'RE
LOOKING AT SOMEBODY WHO IS MY
AGE, I'M GOING TO BE 58 AND I
LIVE IN CONNECTICUT BUT I DIDN'T
LIVE IN CONNECTICUT ALL MY LIFE.
SO IF YOU THINK THE LOCATION HAS
SOMETHING TO SAY AB YOUR
PATIENT'S HEALTH, THEN IT'S NOT
-- I MEAN, WHERE THEY LIVE NOW
IS SOMETHING OF INTEREST BUT NOT
JUST WHERE THEY LIVE, IT'S WHERE
YOU WORK, HOW YOU GET TO WORK,
SORT OF THE TOTAL LIFE COURSE
AND CURRENT ENVIRONMENT OF THE
PERSON.
WE DO HAVE GOOD SPATIAL METHODS
TO CAPTURE WHAT'S CALLED THE
ACTIVITY SPACE OF THE PERSON.
IF YOU LIVE IN ONE PLACE WHICH
MOST OF US DO THOUGH NOT
EVERYBODY AND YOU WORK IN ONE
PLACE, THERE'S A SPATIAL
ROUTINE, YOU GET UP IN THE
MORNING, TAKE THE SAME ROOT TO
WORK, SPEND YOUR DAY AT WORK AND
MAYBE A COUPLE OF OTHER PLACES
YOU GO.
SO WE HAVE MADE PROGRESS IN
MODELING THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE
PERSON.
NOW WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS FIGURE
WAYS TO GROUP PEOPLE WHO SHARE
THE SAME ENVIRONMENTS BECAUSE
BECAUSE IF YOU LIVE WITH
CHILDREN OR HAVE A SPOUSE,
THOUGH YOU SHARE THE SAME
RESIDENTIAL LOCATION YOU MAY
CIRCULATE IN VERY DIFFERENT
PARTS OF THE WASHINGTON D.C.
SPACE.
ANOTHER INTERESTING QUESTION
AROUND THAT FROM THE POINT OF
VIEW OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION, IS
IT THE ROUTINE GEOGRAPHY OF THE
PERSON OR -- I MEAN, I'M WAY OUT
OF MY ACTIVITY SPACE TODAY.
LIKE THE PERSON ON THE PLANE WHO
GETS SARS.
IS IT THE -- IS IT THE
UNPREDICTABLE TRIP YOU MAKE THAT
HAS INFLUENCES THE DISEASES
YOU'RE EXPOSED TO.
WE'RE AT A DISADVANTAGE IN THE
UNITED STATES BECAUSE WE DONE
MAINTAIN DETAILED RESIDENTIAL
HISTORY DATA ON MOST PEOPLE IN
THE UNITED STATES.
BUT IN OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE
WORLD PARTICULARLY SCANDINAVIAN
COUNTRIES, THEY HAVE COMPLETE
DETAILED RESIDENTIAL HISTORIES
FOR EVERY PERSON IN THE COUNTRY.
THAT CAN TELL YOU WHERE THEY
LIVE AND HOW LONG THEY LIVE
THERE HAD SO IT'S POSSIBLE TO
RECREATE THESE TYPES OF
TRAJECTORIES THROUGH TIME AN
SPACE.
SO YOU CAN GO BACK AND SEE NOT
JUST ARE YOU LIVING CLOSE TO
SOME FACILITY NOW THAT'S HIGHLY
POLLUTING BUT DID YOU LIVE THERE
DURING SOME CRITICAL PERIOD OF
YOUR LIFE.
SO WE NEED TO BUILD TIME AND
SPACE INTO IT.
THE MORE EXTENSIVE THE STUDIES
ARE THE BETTER WE CAN LOOK FOR
ERRORS OR ANOMALIES OR THINGS
THAT DON'T MAKE SENSE.
I THINK THAT WHEN I WAS GROWING
UP MY FAMILY HAD A GENERAL
PRACTITIONER HE CAME TO OUR
HOUSE.
HAD AN EAR INFECTION.
HE CAME TO OUR HOUSE AND TOOK
CARE OF US.
THINK ABOUT WHAT THAT DOES FOR A
PHYSICIAN TO REALLY UNDERSTAND
THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PATIENT,
THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT.
MOST PATIENTS TODAY DON'T DO
THAT.
WHAT IS YOUR SPATIAL BASIS AS
EVIDENCE?
THE EXAMINATION ROOM AND THE
PERSON SITTING IN IT, YOU HAVE
TAKEN THAT PERSON OUT OF
CONTEXT.
FAMILY PRACTITIONERS CAN FIND
OUT A LOT ABOUT THE FAMILY
CONTEXT, THE SORT OF WHAT YOU
THINK OF AS THE ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTEXT ISN'T THE ONLY RELEVANT
CONTEXT.
DO YOU LIVE ALONE, DID YOUR SON
TRY TO COMMIT SUICIDE THREE
MONTHS AGO.
THIS IS GOING TO HAVE AFFECT.
FAMILY PRACTICERS UNDERSTAND
THAT CONTEXT AS WELL.
SO THOSE ARE THE KINDS OF THINGS
THAT I THINK WE NEED TO BE AWARE
OF.
IN THE WORK PATTY IS DOING, AND
AT THE BSSR CONFERENCE OPT
NETWORK SHOP THAT I WAS A
FACILITATOR AT, ACROSS THE BOARD
WHETHER GENE ENVIRONMENT,
WHETHER IT'S CULTURAL
INFLUENCES, EVERYONE WAS SAYING
THE SAME THING, WE HAVE MASSIVE
AMOUNTS OF DATA FROM THE NEW
TECHNOLOGY AND WE DONE KNOW HOW
TO ANALYZE IT TEMPORALLY AND
SPATIALLY.
EVEN A WHOLE SERIES OF BRAIN
IMAGES OR SOMETHING.
SO I THINK IF WE CAN START TO
COME TOGETHER AND TRY TO WORK ON
THESE TEMPORAL AN SPATIAL
ISSUES, WE CAN ADVANCE OUR
UNDERSTANDING OF THINGS.
I HOPE THAT'S SOMEWHAT
RESPONSIVE TO YOUR QUESTION.
LINDA.
(OFF MIC)
>> I THINK MANY INDIVIDUALS WHO
SERVE ON IRBs BECAUSE OF THE
EDUCATION PROBLEM I MENTIONED IN
POINT ONE ARE NOT AS
KNOWLEDGEABLE AS THEY MIGHT BE
ABOUT THESE METHODS.
AND THAT'S WHY I THINK WE REALLY
NEED A MASSIVE EDUCATION EFFORT.
I SPENT -- WHEN I WORKED AT THE
INSTITUTE OR COMMUNITY RESEARCH
WE HAD OWN OWN IRB AND I SPENT
TIME EXPLAINING TO PEOPLE WHAT
WE WANTED TO DO.
I THINK INFORMED CONSENT IS THE
KEY AND I THINK YOU SHOULD BE
LOOKING AT THIS PROSPECTIVELY
GOING FORWARD AND SAYING TO
PEOPLE ONE, PEOPLE NEED TO BE
INFORMED THAT ANY GEOGRAPHIC
DATA YOU'RE COLLECTING ABOUT
THEM, WHERE THEY LIVE OR
WHATEVER IS PART OF THE DATA FOR
THE STUDY.
I HAVE BEEN IRRITATED IN THE
PAST WHEN LOOKING AT GRANTS AND
PEOPLE HAD CONTACT INFORMATION
AND THEY REALIZE THEY'RE SITTING
ON SPATIAL DATA AND CAN GO BACK
AND GEOCODE IT BUT THOSE
INDIVIDUALS NEVER CONSENTED THAT
THAT ADDRESS INFORMATION WAS
GOING TO BE USED THAT WAY.
SO WE NEED TO RECOGNIZE THE
SPACE IS PART OF THE SCIENCE,
PART OF THE DATA FOR THE STUDY
AND PEOPLE NEED TO HAVE THIS
SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED TO THEM.
THEY NEED TO BE TOLD TOLD ABOUT
THE RISKS TO PRIVACY LIKE IF YOU
MAKE A MAP SHOWING INDIVIDUAL
LOCATIONS, THAT CAN BE REVERSED
GEOCODED AND USED O TO IDENTIFY
PEOPLE.
EXPLAIN THAT BRIEFLY AND YOU CAN
COME UP WITH LANGUAGE FOR THIS.
AND SAY WHAT STEPS YOU TAKE TO
ENSURE YOU'RE NOT GOING TO
PUBLISH THOSE MAPS.
MOST OF THEM DON'T UNDERSTAND IT
EITHER.
AND THIS GOES BEYOND MAPPING.
WITH YOUR GEOENABLED DEVICE, IF
THEY DON'T KNOW ANYTHING AND YOU
THEY CAN TRIANGULATE AND GET
CLOSE TO YOUR HOME LOCATION SO
THAT THE TECHNOLOGY ITSELF IS
MOVING RAPIDLY AWAY.
THE ANSWER TO THAT IS TO SAY YOU
TELL PARTICIPANTS THIS IS GOING
INTO DATA SHARING AND GOING TO
THIS TECHNIQUE, WHATEVER MASKING
AGGREGATION, WHATEVER TECHNIQUE
IT MIGHT BE TO PRESERVE THE
PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY OR
YOU MAY GET SOMEBODY SAYING
OKAY, I DON'T CARE.
SOME PEOPLE DON'T CARE.
OTHER PEOPLE LIKE ME DO.
I'M SENSITIVE TO THIS STUFF IN
MY PERSONAL LIFE. THAT'S WHERE
WE NEED TO BE BUT I DON'T THINK
MOST PEOPLE ON IRBs ARE THERE
YET AND THEIR INCLINATION IS TO
BE CONSERVATIVE, I THINK WISELY,
IF THEY DON'T UNDERSTAND IT AND
THEY THRI'S A THREAT THEY JUST
-- AND THEY THINK THERE'S A
THREAT THEY JUST SAY NO.
BUT IF WE COULD EVEN JUST
GEOCODE COME UP WITH A
GEOREFERENCE OF WHERE THESE
STUDIES WERE TAKING PLACE.
YOU DON'T NEED A GIS TO DO THAT.
GO TO GOOGLE MAPS AN PAN OVER TO
INDIA, YOU CAN FIND THE SCHOOL
ON THE GOOGLE MAPS AND IF YOU
RIGHT CLICK SCROLL DOWN TO
WHAT'S HERE, THE LONGITUDE,
LATITUDE WILL COME UP.
THAT'S ALL SOMEBODY HAS TO DO TO
GIVE YOU A GEOCODE FOR THIS
PLACE WHEN THE STUDY OCCURRED OR
ZOOM OUT TO THE TOWN AND PUT
THAT IN.
THERE'S A GREAT BOOKLY LINDA
HILL CALLED IT'S MORE
COMPLICATED THAN THAT BUT WE
NEED TO PUSH IT IN THIS
DIRECTION.
I DON'T THINK WE'RE THERE YET,
EVEN CLOSE WITH IRBs BUT WE
NEED TO GIVE THIS INFORMATION.
WE NEED THIS WORK.
(OFF MIC)
>> NO, MOST THINGS I LISTED HERE
TO ME TRYING TO BUILD STUFF
YOU'RE DOING ALREADY.
WHAT YOU DO PUBMED, YOU DO KEY
WORDS, WE'RE TRYING TO TWEAK IT.
YOU DO HUMAN SUBJECTS STUFF, WE
JUST NEED TO TWEAK THAT.
I ALSO WANT TO SAY TO PEOPLE WHO
WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT WHICH
MOST OF YOU DO, I WAS AT A
CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY ESRI,
SOFTWARE COMPANIES, 15 YEARS AGO
IN WASHINGTON, A GENTLEMAN STOOD
UP AND SAID I WORK FOR A COMPANY
THAT MANAGES THE PRESCRIPTION
DRUG BENEFIT FOR AN THEM
SOMEBODY SOMEBODY AND WE HAVE A
DATABASE FOR EVERY PRESCRIPTION
WRITTEN BY OUR INSURERS IN THE
UNITED STATES.
I'M HERE TO FINE OUT HOW TO
ANALYZE THESE DATA.
I ALMOST FELL OFF THE PODIUM.
THE MESSAGE, ANOTHER MESSAGE I
WANT TO LEAVE WITH YOU HERE AT
NIH OR IF YOU'RE FROM CDC OR
WHATEVER, BELIEVE ME, THE
PRIVATE SECTOR HAS THIS
INFORMATION ABOUT US, THEY'RE
USING IT BUT THEY'RE USING IT IN
WAYS THAT WE CAN'T SEE BECAUSE
THEY'RE PROPRIETARY INTERKS
INTEREST.
I DON'T KNOW HOW YOU GET O THE
REGULATORY THING AROUND THAT IF
WE'RE IN A SITUATION WHERE LANDS
END BECAUSE IT KNOWS ABOUT WAIST
SIES SIZES AN TROUSERS ORDERED
HAS BETTER BODY MASS INFORMATION
THAN CDC DOES, WE'RE IN TROUBLE.
BECAUSE LAND END ISN'T
NECESSARILY CONCERNED WITH
ADVANCING THE HEALTH OF THE
PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES.
THEY'RE CONCERNED WITH MAKING
MONEY FROM SELLING US PANTS.
SO WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND.
WHEN STUDENTS SAY WHAT GOOD IS
IT TO STUDY SOCIAL SCIENCE.
BELIEVE ME, BUSINESSES USE
SOCIAL SCIENCE ALL THE TIME.
AGAINST US, MAYBE NOT
NECESSARILY ALWAYS TO SERVE OUR
INTEREST, I GOT TO STOP
APPROXIMATE LEAVE TIME FOR MORE
QUESTIONS.
DEB.
(OFF MIC)
>> NO, IT'S NOT.
IF YOU'RE ASKING A QUESTION YOU
DON'T KNOW THE ANSWER TO IT'S
NOT A STUPID QUESTION.
(OFF MIC)
>> THAT'S ANOTHER HUGE PROBLEM.
I HAVE HARANGED THE OTHER SIDE
OF THE TABLE ON THIS.
SOME AREAS ARE BETTER THAN
OTHERS.
IF YOU LOOK AT WEATHER AND
CLIMATE AND SOME KINDS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA, WE DO HAVE
BIG, LONG ARCHIVES OF THAT TYPE
OF DATA.
AT WHATEVER SCALE AND THERE
MAYBE PROBLEMS WITH IT.
IF YOU'RE LOOK AT SOMETHING LIKE
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE P
PUBLIC DRINKING WATER SYSTEM IN
A PARTICULAR PLACE, THESE DATA
HAVE BEEN MANAGED USING GIS
SYSTEMS NOW PROBABLY 15 TO 20
YEARS BY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS
AND STUFF.
THE NEW WATER MAIN THEY UPDATE
THE GIS DATABASE.
THEY'RE NOT SAVING THE OLD STUFF
SO WE HAVE NO WAY, WE'RE NOT
ABLE TO GO BACK, IF WE FIND THAT
THERE WAS A CONTAMINATION EVENT
TEN YEARS AGO WE'RE NOT ABLE TO
GO BACK AND SAY WHAT WAS THE
PUBLIC DRINKING WATER SYSTEM
LIKE TEN YEARS AGO WHEN THE
EVENT OCCURRED SO THAT'S NOT A
STUPID QUESTION AT ALL.
WE -- I THINK THAT I HAVE BAGGED
HOW COME WE HAVE THE 18, 19 MASS
OF YELLOW FEVER HANGING AROUND?
SOMEBODY SAVED IT, SOMEBODY KEPT
TRACK OF META DATA ABOUT IT,
WHERE IT CAME FROM AND SOMEBODY
PUT ANYTIME THE PUBLIC DOMAIN.
IT'S AN IRONY OF THE COMPUTER
AGE THAT MANY OF US ACTUALLY
HAVE LESS ACCESS TO LESS
DETAILED GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION
THAN WE DID IN THE 1970s.
WHEN A LOT OF STUFF WAS PAPER.
THAT'S SOMETHING WE ABSOLUTELY
AS HAVE TO BE WORKING ON.
IT'S NOT JUST THE HEALTH
COMMUNITY.
I ALSO WANT TO SAY THIS PROBLEM
IS COMPOUNDED IN A COUNTRY LIKE
THE UNITED STATES BECAUSE WE
HAVE A FEDERAL SYSTEM OF
GOVERNMENT.
EVEN THOUGH PEOPLE LIKE TO THINK
WE HAVE A REALLY STRONG CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT IN THE U.S. COMPARED
TO OTHER COUNTRIES WE REALLY
DON'T.
MOST THINGS HAPPEN AT THE STATE
LEVEL OR LOCAL LEVEL.
LAND USE, LOCAL LEVEL N. DENMARK
I WAS AT THE DANISH EQUIVALENT
OF USGS AND THEY WERE GIVING
TALK AND IT WAS A SMALL GROUP, I
WAS THERE WITH A BUNCH OF MAP
LIBRARIANS AND THEY CAME AND
ROLLED OUT THIS OLE MAP THAT
THEY HAD TAKEN OUT OF THEIR
ARCHIVES AND THEY SAID THE
DANISH -- THIS IS THE MAP OF
LIKE PROPERTY RECORDS, DATES TO
THE 9TH CENTURY, IT CAN GO BACK
TO THE 9TH CENTURY AND FIGURE
OUT WHO OWNS PARCELS OF LAND.
IN CONNECTICUT WE HAVE PARCELS
THAT HAVE NEVER BEEN SURVEYED,
THEY HAD MEATS AND BOUNDS
DESCRIPTIONS HANDED DOWN WITHIN
FAMILIES, THERE IS A DESCRIPTION
LIKE GO TO THE BIG TREE ON THE
CORNER AND -- YOU KNOW, SO FOR
ALL THIS TECHNOLOGY IN MANY
AREAS WE DON'T HAVE GOOD
CONTEXTUAL DATA TO HOOK ON TO
THAT.
YES.
(OFF MIC)
>> THANK YOU.
OTHER QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS?
BILL.
(OFF MIC)
>> THERE IS A LOT OF INTEREST.
I THINK YOU EVEN HOSTED SOME
THINGS HERE AT NIH ON CROWD
SOURCING.
I KNOW WHEN WE HAD SOME OF THE
LATEST INFLUENZA OUTBREAKS,
PEOPLE FELT THE DATA THAT WERE
COMING -- BEING CROWD SOURCED
AND PUT UP WERE MORE CURRENT,
MORE -- CAME OUT FASTER THAN
WHAT THE CDC WAS PUTTING OUT.
SO VOLUNTEER GEOGRAPHIC
INFORMATION ABOUT ALL KINDS OF
THINGS IS A DEFINITE
POSSIBILITY.
EVEN SO WE STILL HAVE TO TAKE
INTO ACCOUNT THESE PRIVACY AND
CONFIDENTIALITY QUESTIONS.
WHILE I THINK THAT'S ALL GREAT,
IN A SENSE YOU CAN LOOK AT THAT
MALARIA ATLAS PROJECT AS KIND OF
CROWD SOURCING.
YOU GOT A BUNCH OF PEOPLING TO
AND SAID GIVE US -- SHARE WITH
US WHAT YOU HAVE GOT.
THE REASON PEOPLE WERE WILLING
TO SHARE IS THEY KNEW THEY WERE
GETTING SOMETHING REALLY GOOD
BACK THAT THEY COULDN'T PRODUCE
ON THEIR OWN.
SO I THINK THAT THAT'S COMING.
BUT AT THE SAME TIME I THINK IF
YOU'RE ABOUT SCIENCE WHICH IS
WHAT NIH IS, YOU ALSO KNOW WE DO
HAVE TO BRING A CERTAIN KIND OF
RIGOR TO THIS.
ASKING SOMEBODY HAVE YOU EVER
HAD LYME DISEASE IS A VERY
DIFFERENT MIND SET FROM HAVING
SOME TYPE OF AGREED-UPON CASE
DEFINITION FOR WHAT LYME DISEASE
S THIS IS A REASON IT'S HUGELY
CONTROVERSIAL.
WE HAVE TO DEAL WITH THAT ISSUE
I THINK, HOW YOU CAN GET GOOD
SCIENCE FROM CROWD SOURCING.
YOU MAY HAVE READ THINGS LIKE ON
GOOGLE NOW PEOPLE ARE BEING PAID
TO SAY A COFFEE SHOP IS CLOSED
WHEN IT ISN'T REALLY CLOSED.
WE REALLY NEED TO THINK THROUGH
AGAIN, WHAT IS THE BASIS OF
EVIDENCE.
WE'RE NOT JUST ABOUT SCIENCE --
TECHNOLOGICAL BELLS AN WHIS LES,
WE'RE ABOUT SCIENCE AND WE NEED
TO MAKE SURE WHATEVER WE'RE
DOING, THE OTHER POINT I WOULD
MAKE ABOUT THE YOUNG PEOPLE IS
ONE REASON SARA AND I WROTE THE
FIRST EDITION OF OUR BOOK TEN
YEARS AGO, WE TAUGHT AND WE KNEW
THAT IF YOU WANTED TO GET THINGS
TAUGHT, THERE HAD TO AT LEAST BE
P ONE TEXTBOOK OR A COUPLE OF
TEXTBOOKS.
SO WE WERE HOPING IF WE WROTE A
TEXTBOOK WE GET MORE TEACHING
THIS IN SCHOOLS OF PUBLIC HEALTH
AND OTHER AREAS.
THERE'S DEFINITELY BEEN A PUSH
BACK COMING.
I WENT BEFORE A TALK I GAVE THIS
SUMMER IN ATLANTA.
I LOOKED ONLINE AT THE RECENT
ACCREDITATION CRITERIA, WHAT
YOU'RE SUPPOSED TO TEACH PEOPLE
GETTING DEGREES IN SCHOOLS OF
PUBLIC HEALTH AND WHAT THE
CURRICULUM SHOULD BE AND
EVERYTHING.
THERE'S NOT A SINGLE MENTION OF
COMMUNITY, THE WORD COMMUNITY,
NEIGHBORHOOD, GIS, GEOGRAPHIC,
NO TIME SPACE ANALYSES.
I UNDERSTAND THERE'S A WHOLE
POLITICS AROUND THIS BUT I THINK
IT'S A REALLY SERIOUS ISSUE IN
THIS COUNTRY, WHAT -- AND IT'S
NOT THAT THE UNIVERSITIES DON'T
HAVE ACCESS TO THE SOFTWARE, AND
PROBABLY MOST SCHOOLS OF PUBLIC
HEALTH HAVE COMPUTER LABS AND
STUFF NOW, BUT THEY'RE NOT
REQUIRED TO TAKE IT.
NOT REQUIRED TO KNOW IT.
HOW MANY GENERATIONS OVER THE
LAST TEN YEARS SINCE WE HAVE HAD
GPS, HOW MANY GENERATIONS, WE
HAVE HAD, WHAT, TEN CLASSES OF
MASTERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
STUDENTS COMING OUT THE LAST TEN
YEARS, MOST WHOM HAD NO EXPOSURE
TO THESE METHODS.
ALSO HAVE NO EXPOSURE TO THE
U.S. CENSUS WHICH IS THE MAIN
SOURCE OF POPULATION DATA IN OUR
COUNTRY, SO ON.
SO THAT'S THE EDUCATIONAL ISSUE.
AND YOU AT NIH CAN SPEND HOWEVER
MUCH MONEY YOU SPEND ON A CAREER
DEVELOPMENT AWARD GETTING
SOMEBODY LIKE ME TO HELP
SOMEBODY LIKE BLAIR OUT FOR
FREE.
I HELP HIM, HE GETS SOMETHING
OUT OF IT.
THAT'S AN INEFFICIENT WAY TO ME
TO EDUCATE PEOPLE.
I CAN SEE WHEN METHODS WERE KNEW
AND PEOPLE COULD NOT HAVE BEEN
EXPECTED TO HAVE BEEN TAUGHT
THIS IN SCHOOL.
WHEN I FIRST WENT TO UCONN OUR
CARTOGRAPHY COURSES WERE HAND
DRAWING AND PHOTO REPRODUCTION
OF MAPS.
THAT WAS IN 1984.
WE HAD TO MAKE A DECISION WHEN
THESE NEW TECHNOLOGIES CAME
ONLINE THAT THEY WERE
REVOLUTIONIZING OUR FIELD AND WE
HAD TO GET RID OF THE DARK ROOM
AND THE SAM RA AND THE DRAWING
TABLES AND THE MYLAR AND PENS
AND HAD TO PUT IN COMPUTERS THAT
COULD DO THE SOFTWARE.
AND I WAS ALREADY OUT, I HAD
NEVER BEEN EDUCATED IN THIS
STUFF WHEN I WAS IN GRADUATE
SCHOOL BUT WE DID IT BECAUSE WE
KNEW WE HAD TO.
AND I THINK WE NEED TO GET THERE
WITH HEALTH EDUCATION.
THANK YOU FOR LETTING ME BE SO
BLUNT.
WE'RE PROBABLY WAY OVER TIME.
(OFF MIC)