Российская Империя: Павел I. [06/16] [Eng Sub]


Uploaded by TheComradeRussia on 26.04.2012

Transcript:
NTV company presents:
To the 300th anniversary of the Russian Empire
and to the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg
Out of all the actually ruling Russian emperors Pavel l sat
on the throne less than anyone - 4 years and 4 months.
He appears to be the less popular one too.
What do descendants know him by?
Short, ill - tempered, a snub nose.
'Her Majesty, your motherthe Empress just passed away.
'Yourturn to take over, Your Majesty.
Hardly had empress Catherine the Great breathed her last,
when the elder heirs, Pavel's sons Alexander and Konstantin
put on their old Prussian uniforms.
The young Grand Dukes knew betterthan anyone: from now on
things will stand as theirfather established them in Gatchina.
And they won't be limited with just the braided wigs and
military discipline.
Emperor Peter lll, overthrown by his wife and killed secretly,
was buried 34 years ago in the Alexandro - Nevskaya Church.
Then it was the city outskirts.
Pavel gives orders to exhume the coffin, and rebury
his father in the proper way - in the royal burial - vault.
The coffin was unsealed. All that was left were bones, jack - boots
and gloves. The remains are transported to the Winter Palace
and put right next to the coffin of Catherine ll.
The empress could hardly ever imagine that
she would reunite with her unloved husband.
Peter lll hadn't been crowned, Pavel arranges a posthumous
coronation. The crown is perched on top of the coffin,
and later, when the procession starts forthe Petropavlovskaya
fortress, the crown is entrusted to Alexei Orlov, brother of
Catherine's lover, and the alleged murderer of Peter lll.
Pavel avenges the 30 years of his humiliation.
He, the legal heir and only son of the emperor, didn't inherit
the throne, but had to await the end of his mother's reign.
From the notes of Grand Duke Pavel:
'l am 30 already, but l am not engaged in any activity.
The oldest Russian Czarevich Pavel becomes emperor at 42.
Gatchina, in the outskirts of St. Petersburg, was presented
by Catherine to her unwed husband Grigory Orlov soon after
he helped her overthrow her lawful royal husband.
After Orlov's death the manor was bought out by the treasury,
and the land with the English - style castle,
is presented by Catherine to her son, the heirto the throne.
The gloomy Gatchina manor will be dubbed Russian Elsinore.
Too many obvious parallels with Shakespeare's tragedy:
Here lived the Russian Cladius - Orlov,
the Russian Gertrude Catherine came to visit him,
and finally, here settled the Russian Hamlet, Pavel l.
When he became the owner of the huge manor,
he turned Gatchina into his ideal state.
The idyllic meadow in front of the palace is transformed into
a drill - ground, where drilling goes on every day.
The house is surrounded by a ravine, to resemble a fortress,
they build the barracks, guard - houses, provision depots.
Gatchina begins to look like a small German town.
Farther away in that direction, on the road to Czarskoye Selo,
Catherine's summer residence, they put up night guards.
Pavel is afraid of his mother, he thought of an escape rout in
advance: should anything happen, he will flee with loyal troops.
Catherine in a letter - about her son Pavel and his wife:
'Monsieur and Madame second - rate'.
All his life Pavel was haunted by a maniacal fear of conspiracy,
and for a good reason too.
Only his security measures were no - good.
As any classic Knight's castle
the Gatchina manor had an underground tunnel.
The exit was in the park, 150 m away from the gate.
They dug the tunnel out of romantic ideas,
no - one used it as an escape route.
lf you stand here and shout loudly: 'Who ruled here?',
the echo at the end of the tunnel will answer: 'Pavel'.
Of all the signs of Pavel's reign
the most notorious will be 'Pavel's drill'. Even though it
was the passion for Prussian ways that cost his father his life.
Pavel takes the army of king Friedrich as the model.
Gatchina soldiers are dressed in Prussian jackets and hats.
Powdered curls, wigs and braids - when in other regiments they'd
just introduced the Potemkin - Suvorov uniforms,
simple and comfortable.
'Why in the old uniform? Where are the braids and the curls?
'Don't you know the service regulations?
Count Rostopchin - in a letter to count Vorontsov:
'One can't watch without disgust what the Grand Duke is doing.
He imagines he is the king of Prussia.
With Pavel's ascent to the throne the army undergoes transformation.
The new emperor declares warto Catherine's laxity.
He has a special dislike forthe Guard -
the 'depraved provider of alcove favorites'.
Aftertireless parade drills in the Gatchina drill - ground
Pavel's ceremonial step will outlive centuries.
There was a certain manner of marching - straight leg, toes
stretched out. You beat the toe against the ground hard, then
land the whole foot. This manner was called 'Prussian'.
Then they forgot about the origin and called it
'measured out'.
ln this manner soldiers would march in the Russian, then in
the Soviet army. The Soviet guard of honor was thought the best in
the world, the guard of honor of the GDR being second best.
The East - German army was the direct heirto the Prussian.
On the day of his coronation Pavel takes a most important
decision that could have led to the decline of serfdom.
Before it had the tendency of expanding.
Pavel's decree limits the serfs' working hours with 3 days a week.
Before in some provinces it was as much as 6 days.
According to Christian customs Monday is declared a day off.
From the Decree of emperor Pavel l:
'Everyone must see to it that no one, and under no circumstances
'should force the peasants to work on Sundays.
Howeverthis decision had been instantly sabotaged.
The Senate's interpretation of the Decree doesn't mention the
3 - day limit. Pavel gives out numerous categorical orders
with feverish haste,
but is not able to ensure
their implementation. He is tortured with the thought:
'Too late, l won't have the time to establish order.
Any attempt to impose discipline from the top
usually ends in an absurd petty campaign
with a ridiculous royal - scale idea. The sovereign
personally attended to private matters of his people.
ln the Winter Palace they put up the famous 'yellow box'.
Passers by could put their petitions in the bow through the
window, addressed to His Majesty. An analogue of today's
complaints book. At 6 in the morning Pavel would personally
read the letters. The answers were published in newspapers.
Most scared were the innkeepers - they were much criticized.
ln St. Petersburg taverns they no longer diluted wine with water.
The emperor's direct control over private affairs didn't last long.
They took the box off, because people were throwing in
caricatures and libels on emperor Pavel.
The great French revolution disrupts the world order.
The king and queen are executed, a Republic proclaimed.
Ghosts of liberty, equality and fraternity roam about Europe.
Pavel confronts the event with the Medieval ideal of a
knight on the throne. He is a warrior, a priest and a sovereign
in one person. When a child Pavel imagined himself a member of
the Malta Order. When he ascended the throne he
takes the Malta Order under his patronage.
Afterthe emperor knighthood is conferred upon the heir
Alexander, army commanders Arakcheev and Suvorov.
Convention on establishing the Malta Order in Russia:
'The Emperor of all Russia thinks it a benefit for all
'times to set up the Order in his estate.
General of revolutionary France Napoleon Bonaparte,
on his way to Egypt, conquers Malta.
The Order residence is moved to St. Petersburg.
Pavel is elected the head of the Order, the Grand Magistre.
Thus passes the glory of Rome.
Via Condotti - in the centre of ltaly's capital - the main
street with expensive boutiques, most of the owners are Japanese.
Wealthy buyers wipe out everything.
Among the windows of 'Versache', 'Gucci' and other expensive
brands - stands house No68 with a modest plaque 'The Malta Palace'.
lt is one of the two buildings that constitute the
sovereign state, called the Malta Order.
ln reality the Order's business isn't doing that bad.
But some think that back then, if not forthe Russian
emperor's help, the Order most probably wouldn't have survived.
Today the Malta Order prefers to stay isolated,
it doesn't like to admit strangers, it lets itself
known to the outside world only by its coin and stamps.
Now the Order is ruled by the 78th Grand Magister -
in the almost 1000 - year history of the Order.
Here they view the 72nd Magister - Pavel Romanov -
not as a juridical, but as a factual head of the Order.
lt is a Catholic Order, patronized by the Pope.
Catholic priests take celibacy,
but Pavel is of Orthodox belief and married.
They pronounce Malta a Russian province,
send a contingent of 3000 soldiers to the island,
on the state Emblem they put a white
Malta Cross beneath the St. George.
Since the times of his youth when as the Grand Duke he visited Rome,
Pavel is captured with the idea of uniting all Christians.
January 26, 1782. The heirto the Russian throne joins the mass.
Afterthe end Pavel approaches the Pope
and pays his deepest respects.
Pavel is the first Romanov who met the Pope.
The history of top - level contacts is extremely poor:
no one before Pavel, then Pavel, then his son Nicholas l,
and then only Gorbachev and Eltsyn.
Pavel is to become 'the Russian Pope'.
He is the only one in Russia's history,
who will proclaim himself the head of state and church.
Pavel meets with the Pope 3 times in 2 weeks.
ln 15 years Pavel's liberal religious views
will give birth to rumors of a conversion of faith.
ln Pavel's reign forthe first time Russia maintains stable
relations with the Vatican. Pope Pius Vll plans a visit to Russia,
but the Pope never ever visited Russia.
Pavel dreams of a Pope Tiara for himself.
lt was the most significant attempt to overcome the church
dissent in history.
When Napoleon's troops reached Rome,
Pavel suggested that the Pope's residence be moved to Russia.
From the letter of Pastor Grouber:
'Emperor Pavel wishes that
'his church be united with the Holy Roman church.
'But this matter should be considered with great caution.
Pavel's idea wasn't that of converting to Catholicism.
He wanted to become the head of the ecumenical church.
His father abolished patriarch's powers and took control overthe
church. Pavel goes beyond that. Like Jesus Christ he is the holy
ruler who holds earthly power and god's power.
His new Mikhailovsky Palace is named after archangel Mikhail.
Pavel will lead the battle against all evil and oust the
demons. The church at the Mikhailovsky Palace vaguely
reminds of an Orthodox church, it looks more like a Catholic
cathedral. When serving the mass Pavel stands on this balcony.
Not a priest, and married the second time,
the emperorthought himself in his right to serve the liturgy
and to hear out confessions.
Christian unity and integral Europe -
against the invasion of revolutionary antichrist.
The future belongs to missionary Russia. Pavel is the soul of the
anti - French coalition. Maritime allies - England and Turkey -
want admiral Ushakov to command the allied navy.
Austria calls on Pavel to send
Suvorov to Northern ltaly, captured by the French.
But the army commander is retired
and exiled to his manor in the Novgorod province.
ln the winter of 1798 - 99 the field - marshal, who is almost 70,
decides to cloister himself in a monastery.
Emperor Pavel ignores his petition, but in two
months he sends a courier with a proposition to
resume army service and take command overthe Alps campaign.
After an 'on - the - road' prayer, Suvorov borrows 250 Rubles from
his seniorman, and heads for St. Petersburg.
The legendary parting wishes of the emperorto Suvorov:
'Go save the Czars!'
Russia - is the center of European counterrevolution.
The last hope of the restoration of the monarchy,
threatened by the French republic.
Ushakov's squadron wins back the lonian lslands.
They will become Russia's naval base.
Ushakov's troops land in ltaly and take the Apennine peninsula.
ln June of 1799 - Naples, in September - Rome.
Suvorov dislodges the French from Northern ltaly,
seizing Verona, Milan, Turin . The plan is
to move on and seize Paris.
But he receives orders to head to French - occupied Switzerland.
The famous crossing of the Alps by Suvorov.
A strange turn: the Austrians, jealous of Suvorov's
success, insisted on this manoeuvre.
They delay the Russians, are late with supplying
provision, and provide the Russians with inaccurate maps.
Suvorov heads for Zurich to join the corps of Rimsky - Korsakov.
He goes straight across the Saint - Gothard ridge.
The terrain is rugged,
even driving on a good road is difficult.
Up there is a modern highway,
that basically repeats the route of Suvorov's army.
Steep slopes, a curved serpentine - road,
you climb up, then go down again.
Finally here in Saint - Gothard
they punched a tunnel right through the mountain,
the longest mountain tunnel in Switzerland: 17 km.
The road across the ridge is 65 km long.
Year 1799. September. Just like now, 200 year later.
lt was snowing heavily - an early snow season.
The soldiers clear snow - drifts, underneath is ice.
Alongside of Suvorov are his son Arkady,
and emperor Pavel's second son, 20 - year - old Konstantin.
One can imagine how difficult it was to clime the almost vertical
slopes, carrying heavy ammunition and dragging cannons.
When even a drum and banner seem too heavy.
Russian soldiers were plainsmen, not used to
mountain - climbing.
Here stands a monument to soldiers who perished here.
ln late XlX century a part of Swiss land became Russian.
The monument is unveiled to mark 100 years since
the crossing of the Alps. The cross is put on Golitsyn's money.
Suvorov writes a manual:
'Rules of warfare in a mountainous country'.
Aflagstaff with a Russian flag, a safety rope -
and we can proudly say that a modern mountain - climber
can repeat Suvorov's route only with safety devices.
From the emperors instructions to Suvorov:
'Carry on with the campaign, and beware of the
'ill intentions and jealousy of Austrian generals.
The Saint - Gothard pass is stormed on September 24
after a 12 - hour battle, at the expense of 1000 lives.
The troops made frequent stopovers on the way.
Nearly in every Swiss village
you will find a 'Suvorov - house'.
'Suvorov - house' is the wealthiest house in Undermatt.
They say the Russians held a staff meeting in this room.
ln the next room - the historic bed, on which Suvorov slept.
Here on the morning of September 25, 1799
Suvorov uttered the famous words:
'We can't fail to cross overthe Devil's bridge.'
The last halt before the crucial charge.
The Devil's bridge is 1 km away from Undermatt.
lt is thrown over a gorge, on the bottom is a river.
lndeed they had to fool the Devil to build that bridge.
A small group of Suvorov's men goes round,
the main forces plunge into a frontal attack.
The Russians attack the French on the other side.
The Devil's bridge. Only then it hung a little lower.
The French deliver mass barrage,
they tear down one span of the bridge.
But there is a wooden shack nearby,
Suvorov orders to take it apart,
and tie wooden logs together with officers' scarves.
At the time the word 'scarf' was applied to belts,
and they were a symbol of the officers' dignity.
To take them off was a violation of rules and ethic,
but in that situation ethic could be ignored.
Those scarves were 3 times longerthan our modern belts.
They were wrapped around the waist in two layers,
then tied behind the back.
They were white, made of silk and very strong.
The silk fabric was reinforced with a silverthread.
Wooden logs are used forfixing the broken bridge.
This was the scene of a bloody bayonet battle.
The Russians charged, and crossed overto the other side.
An exceptional case:
Suvorov didn't set an example for his men.
He didn't take off his own scarf,
later he will give it as a token to his Swiss guide.
The monument to Suvorov and his guide on the Saint - Gothard pass
is the only monument to an army commander in neutral Switzerland.
Suvorov laid the foundation of the country's independence.
On the day of Suvorov's breakthrough
the French defeated the corps of Rimsky - Korsakov.
The two armies didn't join forces.
Sluggishness of the Austrians looks more like betrayal.
Suvorov - to Austrian archduke Karl:
'You can only make a laughing - stock of the old soldier
'once. lt's unwise to try to doublecross me twice.
15 thousand battered grenadiers descend into the valley.
Pavel promotes Suvorov to Generalissimo,
orders the construction of a monument
and recalls the troops back home.
The useless heroic campaign results in breaking relations
with Austria and concluding a union with France.
After all he had to go through Suvorov dies in 1800.
His monument in St. Petersburg will be unveiled a year later.
To honorthe commander Derzhavin writes his poem
'the Bullfinch'. ln 170 years Brodsky will echo it with his
poetic tribute to marshal Zhukov.
Derzhavin - about Suvorov's funeral: 'My little bullfinch,
'in whose honor like a flute you sing the song of war?'
Brodsky - about Zhukov's funeral:
'The warflute whistles loudly, like a little bullfinch'.
Afraid of possible assassination attempts,
Pavel builds his Mikhailovsky palace in St. Petersburg
and reinforces it as a fortress.
Ravines with water, drawbridges, heavy guard and even cannons.
The construction was unfinished when the emperor moved in.
But the Knights' castle turned into a trap.
The emperor is asleep.
The unpredictable Pavel made many enemies,
especially among the nobility.
The putch was masterminded by the governor - general of
St. Petersburg, count Petr Palen. The conspirators want to bring
to the throne the heir Cezarevich Alexander.
Most probably he knew about the conspiracy,
but was guaranteed that his father's life will be spared.
Or else wanted to believe that.
Count Palen's favorite aphorism:
'To cook scrambled eggs you have to break the eggs first.'
On his last night Pavel dines with his family.
A guest at the table is general Kutuzov. Pavel asks his son:
- What's with you today, Milord?
- l'm not feeling very well, Your Majesty.
When Pavel retires to his bedroom he looks into the mirror:
'l see my neck broken'.
After midnight two groups of people approach the castle.
One - led by Palen - from the front gate,
the other - led by general Benegsin
and the Zubov brothers - moves in from the side.
Behind the door is a hidden winding staircase
that leads to Pavel's bedroom.
74 steps to the emperor's bedroom.
Not all of them will have the courage to go through with it.
ln the end only 10 will be left.
Even though the initial plan was not to murder Pavel,
but to make him abdicate in favor of Alexander.
Of course that was a lie.
How could they make him abdicate? He was the emperor.
No, these people are about to commit a grave sin - regicide.
According to a popular version, when they rushed into Pavel's
bedroom there was no trace of him.
Then they found him hiding behind the fireplace.
Later all witnesses gave contradicting testimonies.
Benigsen claimed they offered Pavel to abdicate,
but he refused, and they got into a fight.
Supposedly general Benigsen said:
'Keep calm, Your Majesty, your life is at stake!'
'l won't sign anything! l won't sign anything!
They say it was count Zubov who delivered the lethal blow.
A man of huge size and enormous strength.
Clutching a gold snuff - box in his right hand,
he hits the emperor in the left temple.
The legendary snuff - box is kept at the Hermitage.
Most probably Zubov used it as a knuckle - duster,
clutching it in his fist.
lt was too small to be used as a weapon.
But some say this dent was
left precisely by Pavel's head.
lnside are two notes.
One was made on a morocco fabric:
'This piece belonged to count Nikolai Zubov'.
The other one was a note in German,
that said Platon Zubov had the snuff - box with him
on March 11, 1801, - the day emperor Pavel was murdered.
To make sure they smothered Pavel with a scarf. But even
that was not enough, and they battered the already dead body.
At the funeral Pavel's mutilated face
was covered with an officer's hat.
ln the rule of Alexander ll, 50 odd years later,
a family church will be set up in the unfortunate bedroom.
Every year on March 11, on the day of the murder of
his royal grandfather,
the royal grandson will come and pray here.
Exactly in 80 years Alexander ll will be
assassinated on the embankment of Catherine's Canal.
Where now stands the church of the Savior on the Blood.
lf you open this door,
from one church that stands in memory of a regicide
you can see another church in the memory of a regicide.
On the night Pavel was murdered
his loyal troops were lined up in the square.
They are not in a hurry to swear allegiance to the new emperor.
The Preobrazhensky regiment stands in dead silence.
They let several soldiers into the castle and show them the
mutilated corps. A legendary dialogue:
- Have you seen the emperor? ls he really dead?
- Yes sir, very much so.
Empress Maria Fedorovns, barefoot and bear - headed,
runs along the hallway, crying: 'l want to rule the country!'
Why not? Afterthe assassination he was succeeded not by son
infant Pavel, but by his wife Catherine.
Why is it that now the throne
has to pass on to his son, and not his wife?
Grand Duke Alexander is only 23.
lt is unfairthat Maria Fedorovna should swearto him,
and not the other way around.
But her wish was not to come true.
She will share the fate of a widowed empress.
First of all, the conspirators had a different
plan, and then her late husband Pavel issued a decree
on the succession to the throne, according to which
the crown was to be passed on from fatherto son.
And if the emperor had no children - to his brother.
Maria herself contributed to the implementation of that law.
Mother - in - law Catherine ll - to Maria Fedorovna:
'l must say, you're good at producing children!'
The monogram 'P.M' - Pavel - Maria on an armchair at Pavlovsky palace.
lt was a true feat: in 25 years of marriage
Maria Fedorovna gave birth to 10 children.
First 2 sons, then 6 daughters, and another 2 sons.
That was the end of the women's era on the Russian throne.
Maria provided the Romanovs with plenty of healthy boys.
Now her heirs will rule Russia to the end of the monarchy.
At first hertwo sons, then the son, the grandson
and the great - grandson of her second son -
Nikolas l - Maria's 9th child.
The head of the Romanovs association, now living
in Geneva, prince Nikolai Romanov, - is also the successor
of Nikolas l, and, consequently - of Maria Fedorovna.
The mother of all Romanovs,
the grandmother of all Russians,
naturally, she was of German origin. At the time there
were 300 princedoms in Germany, a rich choice of brides.
One of them was the princess of Wurttemberg,
the present Polish Stettin.
All emperors' wives were German, all future emperors had German
blood in them. Which will irritate many people.
The Russian monarchs appeared to be not quite Russian.
Maria Fedorovna, princess of Wurttenberg, will not popular
with historians of patriotic orientation.
The small world of a god - forgotten German princedom!
Don't let the huge size of the castle fool you:
Princes of Wurttenberg led a modest live.
At first Maria didn't realize
she drew a lucky lot. She didn't want to marry Pavel,
was afraid of the strange land and strange religion.
Mother princess of Wurttenberg - to her daughter:
'lf god doesn't grace you with a lucky marriage, -
'what shall we do with 11 children?
Pavel liked it that the place was neat and orderly,
on the first date the future spouses discussed geometry
and economics.
When her parents left her alone forthe first time
she was only 9.
Accidentally she broke the cups - of her and her brother.
Showing adult pragmatism, she used her governess's cup.
What could the girl know about the a monarch's destination?
What could a future empress learn here?
What could she pass on to her children,
who were destined to rule Russia for over 50 years?
But herfirst child, future Alexander l, was raised by her
mother - in - law, Catherine ll.
Future Nikolas l was lashed on his mother's instructions.
But to draw a direct link between her lashings and his
future notorious cruelty - would be an interpretation 'ala Freud'.
The new system of throne succession developed
in geometric progression: the share of Russian blood
in Russian sovereigns reduced with each new marriage.
Pavel l, if he was the son of Petr lll, was Russian by 1 8.
Alexander l and Nikolas l had 1 16 of Russian blood in them.
Alexander ll - 1 32. The most Russian
of all Russian Czars Alexander lll, was Russian by 1 64,
Nikolas ll - by 1 128, Czarevich Alexei
Nikolaevich, dubbed 'the golden Russian heart', - by 1 256.
Funny, but the biggest number of adherents of biological
patriotism are among monarchists.
The doorthat leads from the room of Maria Fedorovna
to her own royal garden in Pavlovsk.
Morning strolls in the park, visits to the church,
dinners with guests. But she devotes
most of hertime to charity.
Maria established so many charity organizations,
that after his mother dies Nikolas l
sets up a special Fourth department of the
Royal Office - to embrace all of them.
But most importantly, Maria set a model of behavior
forthe next generations of Russian empresses, especially
the widowed ones, who didn't have much to do.
To help the poor and the needy. But no one was as good as she was.
With German thoroughness
Maria deposited 1.5 mln Rubles on a bank account
to have a sure and stable interest.
For her charity organizations she established a
monopoly on the production of playing cards,
with a ban on imports from abroad.
ln Pavlovsk alone the widowed empress set up a shelterfor
poor pregnant women, a school for the deaf - and - dumb - the first
ln the 1812 war Maria takes patronage over 5 thousand wounded.
She will outlive her husband, 3 daughters and her elder son,
survive the Decembrists riot, and will patronize
hospitals and houses forthe elderly for as long as she lives.
She dies only when son Nikolas firmly sits on the throne.
Nikolas l forgives the police chief,
and in justification of his drinking the latter writes:
'Who will now be the widowed empress?'
ln a way she will prolong the XVlll century,
and with it the short reign of Pavel.
Windows of the rooms of heir Alexander Pavlovich
in Mikhailovsky palace were overlooking the Fontanka River.
When the conspirators enter and inform him of the
death of emperor Pavel, he bursts into tears.
He never gave a direct consent to his father's murder.
ln answerto that count Palen allegedly said:
'Stop being childish, you have to take over!'
'Yourfather Pavel Petrovich died of apoplexy.
Alexander goes to the Winter Palace.
Mikhailovsky palace will no longer be the royal residence.
ln the Winter Palace Alexander takes the oath of his retinue
and summons his mother. Maria Fedorovna is forced to obey.
All she was able to do is oust Pavel's killers from court.
The case of the emperor's death was never opened.
Until the Manifesto of 1905 declared freedom of speech
the official cause of death was named apoplexy.
The official version echoes the explanation of the
death of Peter lll.
Ajoke popular in court:
'The emperor died of a stroke...
'with a snuff - box in his temple.
On the next morning St. Petersburg is celebrating
its deliverance. People are rejoicing in the streets.
Officially it was declared a day of mourning, but by nightfall
not a bottle of Champagne was left in the entire city.