Fluid and Electrolyte Function - 2/2

Uploaded by eLearningCentralia on 04.03.2010

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>> Elevated blood volume, which would lead
to elevated blood pressure.
Well what about potassium?
Sodium's on the outside of the cell,
potassium's on the inside of the cell.
We know it is a cation intracellular fluid.
It is very important in muscle contractions and nerve impulses.
Here's something unique, it affects a steady heartbeat.
So problems with potassium might show
up with irregularities of the heart.
It is now thought that high potassium intakes may actually
help maintain a lower blood pressure.
In the past we've always thought, high sodium
and high blood pressure.
But now maybe it's because we have low potassium that we have
such a lot of high blood pressure.
Potassium also helps to maintain the acid based balance,
just like sodium does.
So what is the recommended amount of potassium?
It is 4,700 milligrams, or 4.7 grams a day.
We usually eat about 2,700 milligrams.
Where are those sources of potassium?
In our processed foods that's where we get our sodium,
but what about potassium?
Potassium is in fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes,
whole grains, meat and milk are all good sources of potassium.
Really potassium is part of every living cell.
So whether you eat plant or animal,
you're going to get potassium.
But now if you take that plant or animal and salt it,
and salt it, you're going to get a lot more sodium.
So what if you get too much potassium?
Well if you had too much sodium, what was that called again?
Too much sodium was hypernatremia?
Ah, hyperkalemia is getting too much potassium.
A high blood potassium level
from potassium salts or supplements.
It certainly can occur with people with kidney problems.
Too much potassium can alter the normal heart rhythm,
which might bring on a heart attack.
So what about if you don't consume enough potassium?
Well we go back to the name of not enough sodium
with hyponatremia, so not enough potassium's hypokalemia.
That's blood potassium levels are low.
Once again, kidney disease.
What is common for a diabetic is to have kidney problems,
so a diabetic could have this problem.
It can occur when you take certain diuretic medications.
It also shows up with irregular heartbeats, which may;
not having enough potassium may increase blood pressure
and muscle weakness.
It is possible not to get enough potassium when you think about,
where do you get potassium from?
You get it from the fresh foods, both animal and plant.
If you eat a lot of processed, preserved, salted foods,
you aren't gonna get too much potassium.
Now thrown into this problem is the body doesn't really conserve
potassium as well as it does sodium.
So hypokalemia isn't such a far stretch for some people.
Chloride. The chloride is the mate of sodium.
It is an anion in the extra cellular fluid, so sodium
and chloride like to work outside the cell.
Something unique about chloride, it assists the immune system.
And we already know it's a component
of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
What is the recommended intake for chloride?
The AI is 2.3 grams, or 2,300 milligrams a day.
Where can I find it?
Wherever you find sodium, you will find chloride.
And remember that teaspoon, if it's 5 grams, 1 teaspoon.
If it has 2 grams of sodium, then it has 3 grams of chloride.
What if I eat too much chloride?
Then that may lead to hypertension
in salt sensitive individuals.
But there is no DRI set for chloride,
so you don't see it on the food label.
What if you consume not enough chloride?
That's very, very rare.
But heavy sweating, chronic diarrhea, vomiting,
as seen in eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia,
it may occur at that time.
What about phosphorous?
Well the functions
of phosphorous it's the principle intracellular anion.
It is required for fluid balance.
It does play a role in bone formation,
because 85% of the bodies phosphorous is found in bone.
It is part of phospholipids.
Remember phospholipids?
Remember that lecithin was the common phospholipid?
We've also seen it in lipoproteins.
Remember the LDL's and the HDL's?
It also is our friend in ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate.
And wherever you have DNA
and RNA you will always have phosphorous.
How much is recommended?
700 milligrams is the RDA for phosphorous.
Where can I find phosphorous?
It is pretty much in most foods, but there are high amounts
in foods that contain protein.
So you think of meat and milk and eggs.
The meat could be red or white.
You will find protein
and protein you will find phosphorous.
Remember, because DNA, RNA in every cell.
Phosphorous is also found in plants, beans, cereals, nuts.
They contain protein,
but remember they also contain phytic acid.
And phytic acid is a binder of this mineral.
An interesting place to find phosphorous is in soda
or processed foods, soda pop, processed foods.
It has phosphoric acid.
Do you; is it possible to consume too much phosphorous?
Certainly can occur if you have kidney disease
or if you're taking too many vitamin D supplements.
The problem will be muscle spasms and maybe convulsions.
What if you don't consume enough phosphorous?
Deficiencies of phosphorous are very rare when you consider
that you can find phosphorous in most foods.
So we go back to that chart.
You might want to, I know it's an extra credit situation
for you, but you really should draw up your own chart
of the electrolyte minerals.
Maybe you want to put more than just this basic information.
But that's what you want to remember,
so that you have an understanding
of electrolyte minerals.