Hª de Nuevo México / History of New Mexico: 1535 - 1821


Uploaded by netziur on 12.07.2010

Transcript:
The colors of New Mexico's flag , red and yellow were chosen as symbols to remember the origin and its Spanish past.
With an area of 315 194 km² and just over 2 million people, is the only state where English and Spanish languages are recognized and protected by the Constitution of 1912, but not declared co-official status.
In 1973, to promote the teaching of Spanish in schools, is signed "Bilingual Multicultural Act". The 2000 Census revealed that about 30% of the population speaks Spanish at home.
N.M. as a province of the Spanish Empire (XVIth-1821), came to be extended to other seven States: most parts of Colorado and Arizona and Texas borders, Utah, Oklahoma, Kansas and Wyoming
Mexico was later (1821-1848) the natural heir of these lands. But after signing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico lost Texas, NM and California, and that would lead to the division of new states ...
Already within the U.S. Congress in 1850 included all of New Mexico and Arizona and parts of Colorado, Nevada and Utah.
And demarcation of existing boundaries were drawn in Congress in 1863, but does not become a state in the Union until 1912
Once the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés in 1521 was completed, Spain will continue north territorial expansion.
New Mexico was named by 16th century Spanish explorers who hoped to find gold and wealth equal to Mexico's Aztec treasures
For years, scoured the four corners of the state leaving many signs of these explorations:
turtle carved in rock or drawn on the walls of the mountains, indicate the distance, direction or location of the gold mines or treasures that would be found.
In 1535 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca cross southern NM, now passing near the city of Las Cruces. Cabeza de Vaca wrote in his stories "Wreck" of great cities with great riches that spoken by the Indians.
Later he was sent a large expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (1521-1526), in search of the "Seven Cities of Cibola" and the "Gran Quivira" ..
As described by the monk Fray Marcos de Niza and Esteban the Viceroy Mendoza, exaggerated in their accounts of the wealth he had, with the clear intention of bothering to evangelize Spain early Indian tribes.
In 1604, Oñate set out from San Gabriel with 30 men in search of the South Seas (Pacific Ocean). During his trip, the group saw the Gulf of California found the South Seas. On his return, who was the first governor of New Mexico
wrote in <>, in 1605, one of the oldest and most famous inscriptions in the USA: <>
The first European settlement in the U.S. stable was <>, founded by Don Juan de Onate in 1598. Here ended the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro over 3000 km long that departed from the capital of Mexico ..>>
In 1765, the explorer Juan Maria de Rivera found a new route to Los Angeles from Santa Fe without crossing the Sonoran or Mojave Desert. Over 2,000 km of road now known as "Old Spanish Trail"
In 1598, Juan de Oñate founded the city of <> becomes the capital of NM Capital being the first there would be in the present United States.
In 1998, Española celebrated the 400th anniversary of Spanish settlement and the founding of the first permanent European settlement in the interior of North America.
The Palace of Governors in Santa Fe, built in 1610, is one of the oldest public buildings in America.
In 1610 it was printed the first book in history on a state, in the United States, "History of New Mexico" by Captain Gaspar de Villagra on the founding epic of New Mexico.
1626 Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico.
After the conquest of the Pueblo Indians in 1615 establishing the town of <>. In these pictures we see New Mexicans Spanish descent at a party in Taos.
Governor Diego de Vargas founded the < Lord> on April 21, 1695.
In 1706, it was founded the presidio of Albuquerque.
In some isolated villages, such as Truchas, Chimayó, and Coyote in north-central New Mexico, some descendants of Spanish conquistadors still speak a form of 16th century Spanish used no where else in the world today.
Founded in 1740, still stands the Sanctuary of Chimayo whose construction began in 1816 on a small chapel built in 1810 by Fernando Abeyta
The historic <> was built in colonial times as a stronghold to defend against attacks Comanches.
Rectangular structure with no windows on the outside, born of the experience in Spain during the Reconquista to defend themselves from Muslim invaders. The Crown should give instructions on how cities and towns built in the Spanish Empire to defend their positions.
In 1745, the governor of the Viceroyalty of New Mexico and on behalf of King Ferdinand VI, would grant a "merced communal Juan de Dios Román and eleven other Spanish colonists, as this was done in many other places, coming to be more mercedarias 285 communities in the current state of NM, of which 38 still exist
The "merced communal" Trout is made today by about 350 families. Situated 2500 meters above sea level and almost isolated in the mountains of the Rockies, have remained isolated since the Spanish first settled here, preserving its traditions, its government and its eighteenth-century language.
<> says Max Córdova, president of the mercy of <>, chosen according to their traditional rules: one vote for each of the 317 families of mercenaries and a term of one year.
En este pueblo, Robert Redford dirigió la película <>, una película dulce y poética pero que representa a los colonos españoles mexicanizados para consumo yanqui.
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<>. Los colonos hacen vida sana: plantan trigo, chile y frijoles, crían sus vacas, marranos y gallinas, recogen leña y pescan truchas, casi para autoconsumo.
En 1751, once familias españolas venidas desde Santa Fé fundan <>. Y en 1760, los <> construyen la Iglesia "San José de Gracia".
En N.M. se asentaron numerosas Misiones- hoy algunas en ruinas o desaparecidas- otras conservadas, Presidio, Villas, Pueblos o Ciudades, que asentaran la colonización española en la frontera Norte del Imperio.
The fact that there were over one million full blooded Spaniards in New Spain, plus the fact that the mestizos become more genetically European as they move north, plus the fact that in central and southern Mexico the population is visibly, overwhelmingly and genetically indigenous, plus the fact that true mestizos are concentrated in the south and non existent in the north, plus the fact that the population in Northern New Spain was so small
En 1680 la Corona legisló la conquista y colonización del Imperio mediante la “Recopilacion de leyes de los reinos de las Indias”, que legislaba sobre la "limpieza de sangre": los cristianos puros serían los favorecidos en la colonizaión de las nuevas tierras.
Práctica que fue iniciada por Juan de Frías durante la expedición de Juan de Oñate, excluyendo las mezclas de sangre, justificandose con la "política de segregación" de aquella ley de 1680.
“The Indian base was never as dense as in the South (of Mexico) and in the North many Indian groups were annihilated by wars over the centuries... the white population did not intermarry very much (as I have shown in a couple of publications and as one can still see today in <>)... Racial terms are rarely used, but the markers are readily understood and respected when it comes to selecting marriage partners” (Dr. Robert McCaa, University of Minnesota)
The news of the independence of Mexico from Spain arrived in Santa Fe the 26th of December of 1821. In California, not until early 1822, was the Spanish flag stricken. For 309 years, from 1513 to 1822, the colors of Spain governed the territory above the Rio Grande, also for 257 years (from 1562 to 1822), the Spanish flag waved uninterrupted… How long have other flags waved in the United States?… in what it refers to Mexico, it succeeded Spain in 1821, and disappeared with the signing of the Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty of 1848 (27 years)