Российская Империя: Екатерина II, часть 2. [05/16] [Eng Sub]

Uploaded by TheComradeRussia on 26.04.2012

NTV company presents:
To the 300 anniversary of the Russian Empire
and the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg.
By the plinth of Catherine ll monument in St. Petersburg
they laid Catherine on the floor on the leather mattress from the divan.
there are figures of the most eminent people of the epoch.
Three warlords - the land victories of Russia: Suvorov, Potemkin,Rumjantsev
Then comes science and culture:
Princess Dashkova, the head of the Academy of Sciences,
nearby there is great poet Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin,
then come naval victories of Russia: the two captains -
countOrlov - Chesmensky and admiral Chichigov,
the state wit of Russia - prince Alexander Bezborodko.
Favourit Catherine's secretary and reporter
he controlled the governance.
''ln his fat body Bezborodko hid a very delicate mind'',
lvan Betskoy represents education. He was the head of the Academy
of Arts, the founder of the first lnstitute of Highbread Maiden,
the famous Smolny lnstitute.
The nine figures symbolize diversity of deeds in Catherine's reign.
Such a diversity might seem excessive:
part of the efforts are vain, the goals are unachievable.
Where didn't the time of a young vigorous empire,
take Russian mind, banner and sword?
''Ebullent fermentation and ardent aimless activity
features the youth of all the nations''.
ln Oranienbaum park pending restoration,
there is rusting a masterpiece of architect Rinaldy the Riding Hill.
The traditional sleighing on Shrovetide
has grown up to ensemble of more than half a kilometer long.
Nobody has shuted down the Riding Hill for 200 years already.
The construction was as edifice as frail.
There is still the pavilion left.
Halls of wonderful turquoise, precious collection of china
Perhaps it is too beautiful for just an amusing pavilion,
but the Riding Hill is the first thing
Catherine begin to build becoming the empress.
The authorship is obvious. We built first riding hills.
First were made of ice, then came more complicated constructions.
What was it like to ride down the track at a speed of 60 km/h,
where now this wide alley is?
ln the whole world the salad is 'Russian' whereas in Russia it's ' olivie' .
Likewise the attraction - ''Woh! Breathtaking!''
' Russian Hiils' in the rest of the world, ' American' - in Russia
though the Riding Hill was built 3 years before the USA annunciation.
They ride down in wheeled waggons along the in - cut tracks.
the course for sliding is in the middle, by sides there are hoisters.
Public walked along the covered galleries.
Though Catherine personally watched the building of the attraction,
came to the project, gave out silver rubbles to workers,
there's no evidence she drove down the hill herself,
But it's certain she brought grandson Sasha,
Alexander l to - be, here for a walk.
Catherine was a bad mother. But proved to be an excellent grandmother
She brought up the grandchildren herself. She forgot Paul
being the heirto herthrone, Alexander is meant to be the one.
The nicest baby in Europe is brought up according to the last word in pedagogy.
From his birth Sasha has no craddle but a bed not to be lullabied.
His nursery is full of coolness, the child is not carried in hands,
he is put on the rug for him to crawl more.
For her grandson, the great grandmother writes the ABC - book
composes fairy - tales, and even designs clothes of new fashion.
Catherine in her letter about the suit designed by herself:
' All the parts of the suit are joined togetherto put it on
in one go. He only settles arms and legs and that's it.
This suit is my genius finding''.
On the request of the monarchs - allies
Catherine sends the same suits to the newborn crown - heirs
to Berlin and Stockholm. Out of three first overalls
there left only one, worn by the Swedish crown prince.
Young bored spouse of Grand Prince
Catherine took interest in Walter,
his works will teach her the science of reigning.
Hence her notion of the mission of monarchy,
the monarch's duties and dream about equal laws for all the subjects.
''Mustn't all the people have the same laws,
likewise all the patients get the same bark in hospitals?''
As an empress Catherine starts correspondence with her idols,
French enlighteners.
Her letter intercourse with Walter lasted until his death
and makes many volumes. The empress is the first Wolterist in Russia.
The next century ' walterist' is a synonym of a state criminal,
plotter and revolutionary.
Catherine orders Walter's sculpture and places it in the Hermitage.
The empress's correspondence with the freethinker is not approved by
Orthodox Church, he is an atheist, and this is a great sin.
Catherine answers to Methropolit Platon in the way of her own:
''What may be less innocent, then written intercourse with
an 80 year old elder?'' Catherine places the first monument to Walter
Only then at the suit of the author, sculpture Gudon,
Frenchmen went to the expense of the same monument.
Only in St. Petersburg it's a marble original and in Paris - its
plaster copy.ln the pedestal there is an urn with Walter's heart,
The great philosopher was famous not for his kindheartedness but
his acrimony. He spared no poison neitherfor government no for church,
but he was surprisingly indulgent,
when it came to the Russian empress.
even when Catherine was objurgated for killing her husband:
''She is constantly reproached for nothings concerning her spouse,
but l have no intention to be involved in theirfamily business''.
Catherine ignored Russo, the most radical of the enlighteners,
although she admits her ' spoiling Montesquieu' while issuing
the principles of policy.
According to him an enlightened monarch relies on the aristocracy.
the French freethinker speaks out Cartherine's thoughts to Europe,
Via them the crowned image - maker
improves the image of Russia and of herself.
When Walter asked in his letter:
''ls it true that your people are starving and a Russian never
ate chicken?'' Catherine answered:
''lt's because the Russians now preferturkey to chicken''.
Now Walter monument is in the National Library in Paris.
As for Walter's own library
Catherine bought it out right after his death.
ln these bookcases there is the largest part of Walter's library
brought to Russia.
Books were the best of Walter's friends,
Their intercourse is impatient, frank, lacks ceremonies.
There are a lot of marks left on the margins of the originals:
''Presisely'',' Right' but more often ' ldiot' , ' Crazy' ,
' Who told you that?'
ln this book there are marks made of cut playing cards. lt's diamond.
And here perhaps there was nothing at hand,
exept forthe pieces of papers stuck by saliva.
ln St. Petersburg all the books are locked in the shelves.
Pushkin would become its next reader long after Catherine.
He had a special permeation of Nikolay l
Deny Diderot's library Catherine buys
from the author of the first encyclopedia himself.
The books stay at their owner's till his death.
Diderot is said to be Catherine's librarian
and he has got the salary for 50 years ahead.
Besides, Dederot becomes the empress's art agent as well.
He buys nearly 500 pictures in Paris for Hermitage,
founded by Catherine. Among them the greatest pieces of art:
' The Heavenly Family' by Rafael and ' Danaja' by Rembrandt.
Enlargement of the museum collection draws great public attention.
Diderot in his letter:
''Catherine buys pictures and statues at the middle of her war.
Sciences, Arts, Taste and Wisdom are leaving forthe North''.
At last Deny Dederot himself leaves forthe North.
After a long persuasion he goes to St. Petersburg.
Catherine points to her study's door:
''Monsieur Diderot, it's opened foryou dayly from 3 till 5
in the afternoon' .ln fact they meet nearly every day.
60 private talks of the sovereign empress and the great liberal.
Sometimes Diderot takes off his wig in the heat of a dispute,
bangs the table with the fists and seizes Catherine's arms or knees.
Catherine informs one of their common acquaintances,
that now she puts the table between Diderot and herself,
to protect herself from his gestures.
Catherine to Diderot:
''You miss the difference in our positions:
You work with paper that bleeds little,
but poor empress deals with a man skin''.
Hospitality towards Diderot Catherine will show in Paris.
1784. The great philosopher is already dangerously ill,
he could hardly walk,
And Catherine buys a luxurious apartment on the first floor
of this house on Richelieu Street, for him not to climb the staircase.
Diderot moved to his new flat,
but he has no time to enjoy the best lodging in his life.
He would die 12 days later,
having just finnished in St. Petersburg
the longest of their arts projects.
Diderot suggested his friend sculpture of Servsk China Manufactory
Etien Falconet make the monument to Peter l.
The Copper Horseman becomes the most important monument of the empire,
and the one of the most expressive in the world.
lt was placed on the granite rock Thunder - stone of 10 thousand
pounds weight, akin to rampant wave,
Nothing of the kind had ever been done before.
By this laconic sign
Catherine points to her place in Russian history:
''To Peter l from Catherine ll''.
To the first - from the second.
Just like the titles contain not the running numbers of peters
and catherines, but of the great governors.
So Peter was the first and she, Catherine, is the second.
as though there was no Catherine l, Peter ll, Peter lll,
Ana loanovna, Elizaveta Petrovna.
Peter was the first and she, Catherine, goes right after him.
The question is who the biggest serfdomist is,
the empire founder orthe famous continuer of the great deeds,
who has enlarged the boundaries of the empire?
Her interest towards enlighteners reflected heryouth hobbies
and a special like of equal talk.
According to her calculation the state of slaveness in the country,
was censured by less than 20 of her like - minded men - humanists.
she considered her heart being republican,
but it was just an ideal, in fact she remained an autocrat.
Diderot about Catherine on his way back to Paris:
' At last l saw Northern Semiramide, but l nearly freeze my mind''.
There is only one great capital
where the main palace faces the main prison,
Peter - Paul Fortress,
and from the word ' fortress' (krepost) came ' serfdom' (krepostnoe pravo),
which is the characteristic of Russian policy.
To write letters to Europian freethinkers watching the prison.
Alexey Tolstoj in his joky Russian history
about Catherine and the enlighteners:
''Madam, order is flourishing at you reign'', -
Walter and Diderot wrote to her affably.
' Diderot' is transliteration from French,
just the same as ' Renaut' . Oh yes. Walter and Diderot.
' You only need to give freedom to men, to whom you mother are.
Make them free' .
''Monsieur'', - she said - ''you are so kind to me''.
and immediately landed the Ukraines.
That is she imposed Russian serfdom on Ukraine.
Catherine came from Zerbst very young,
neverto leave Russia again.
All hertrips were iside the country.
ln the spirit of Enlightenment the empress meets life in places,
has her people happiness at heart, shows as they say ' mother's merci' .
Travelling in XVlll century is a very expensive and troublesome matter.
lf one took a trip, he took a long trip.
Catherine's inspections are usually very detailed cruises.
ln 1767 in 25 vessels for 2 monthes
Cathrin floated down Volga from Tverto Simbirsk.
Forthe first time, the monarch is accomponied by foreign
ambassadors accredited at the court in hertrip about Russia
Catherine in her letter:
''Volga's banks become betterfrom hourto hour.
Yesterday we past Kimra, which was equal Petergof in beauty
in a distance, but differed greatly when nearer''.
lt is mostly a business trip,
ln Yaroslavl Catherine barges in conflicts of the local trade,
shilves the governor for not doing his job
and just like pilgrims,
they did not miss any of Volga cloisters.
Honoured lpatev Cloister near Kostroma.
Here Mikhail Romanov, the founder of the tsar dynasty,
hid from the Polish interveners.
ln Kostroma the travelers melt
at seeing people happiness.
Catherine says the Volga - river is much betterthan the Neva - river.
The dinner given by the noblemen of Kostroma merits the highest reward.
Perhaps wishing the foreign guests remember
only this overall happiness,
and foreseeing that the further impression well not be the same,
Catherine orders the ambassadors not to accompany her any longer.
She sends them back to St. Petersburg.
The diplomats will not see Middle and Lower Volga.
Nizhny Novgorod, Gorky in future,
already then would become the city, closed forthe foreigners.
Catherine boasted of the admiration of her men bofore the others,
whereas she herself remained indifferent to it. To her secretary's
remark that people ''throng together to watch their monarch'',
she answered: ''they throng together to watch a beartoo''.
Catherine to prince Panin about Nizhny Novgorod:
''This town has wonderful situation but ugly building.
Cheboksary is betterfor me in everything''.
Tver is burned over, in Bolokhna people are starving,
in Simbirsk many houses are pledged. This what Catherine would wrote.
Nevertheless she is satisfied with the journey: bread is cheap,
chernozem is rich, and she never eat such tasty fish.
The next trip about the country Catherine makes 20 years later.
This time - to Crimea, accompanied by the diplomats and
Austrian emperor losif ll. They set off in January in huge skated
carriages. They were a 3 - window houses harnessed by 10 horses.
There was furniture and carpets inside, so one can stand and walk.
The servants go in 160 common sleights.
They come to Crimea only in May on wheels already.
are said to be named after Catherine's stops.
ln the village Chistenkaja the empress took a bath,
''Nice Meeting'', where the empress met Potemkin.
Now everything along the highway is named after Catherine.
''Tavrida Mountains were plugging up to meet us and drop a curtsey''.
lt is not the only thing mountains are able to do.
Demergy - mountain.lt's also called Catherine - Mountain.
lt is considered to be the natural monument to Catherine.
This ledge of its is very much like a sphinx,
First comes a head, then - the famous empress's buxom bust.
The aim of the expedition is to show the world
Crimea now belongs to Russia irrevocably.
And it has been already reclaimed.
Prince Potjomkin - Tavrichesky, who is responsible forthe trips to Tavrija,
is doing his best to show
his success in governing the South of the Empire.
Kathrine refuses Russian guards,
now her cortege is accompanied everywhere by
hundreds of Crimean Tartars armed to the tooth.
The foreign guests are filled with horror. These are Moslems,
They hate Christians and despise women.
But Catherine knows well,
how a benign autocrat should behave in a conquered colony.
And the Tatars are really delighted with this gesture of hers.
They give her all the honors.
From here we can easily see Bakhchisaraj. lt lies in a Clough,
the horses went off at the sharp descent while entering the town
And only the Tartar guards managed to stop the carriage.
ln Bakhchisaraj Catherine lives in the khan palace.
Kathrine wrote from Crimea:
''Everything here is like a fairytale from ''A Hundred And A Night!''
The Crimean trip gave birth to legend about famous ''Potemkin Villages''.
lt was Saxon diplomat Essen
who first mentioned them in his biography of Potemkin,
jet he didn't take part in the trip himself and saw nothing.
This village was the nearest from Catherine's route about Crimea.
Building materials for ''Potemkin Villages''
are sceneries from Simpheropol Musical - Drama Theatre.
lt is believed that Potemkin built a whole settlement in Crimea
consisting of only painted facades facing the road.
Just like these ones.
Though non of the travelers can remembered anything like that.
But no one will be ever able to acquit prince Potemkin.
These villages will foryears remain the highest achievement
of Russian ''window dressing''. Even if they never existed or were different.
Potemkin did his best to vary the long road.
He took great pains to adorn the places of stops
crowds of young people sang folk songs to the travelers,
towns were cleaned,
there float sailing ships in bays to cheerthe sea view,
Hardly Potemkin tried to convinced anybody he did it purposely,
hardly Catherine and the foreign tourists
would believe him.
On the whole, if there were ''Potemkin Villages''
appealing to the eyes of passers - by,
they resemble sceneries
for a present - day city - holiday.
Evrybody knows it's a fiction,
but play as in real.
but this village ''Mazanka''
of Simpheropol district in Crimean region
is a real ''Potemkin Village''
lt was founded right after joining Crimea.
The village used to be called ''St.Petersburg Mazanki''
12 retired solders were sent here
Several surnames are still alive in the village:
Erohiny, Lopatiny, Artemievy, Shchegolkovy, Toropovy.
Their brides were brought from Orlov and Kursk.
The solders were ordered to leave their caps by the road
having chosen the cap, a girl became its owner's wife
What was the purpose of building bogus villages?
according to French ambassador Sigure, who was on that trip,
Crimean population became 4 times as large during the first
years of Potemkin government before Catherine arrived
The title ' All - Russian Empress' made Catherine to decide western question
But why ''All - Russian'', if there was Right - bank Small Russia,
Ukrainee, the part over Dnepr
and the whole Belarussia on the territory of Poland
Nobody considered the Ukranians and the Belorussians as separete nations,
The question was to unite Russian nation, born by Kievan Russia.
Before division Poland was one of the largest European countries
lt was twice as large as the present - day country, which is
not little as well, and perhaps the weakest of all
for being enfeebled by the Polish noblesse. Neighbors wanted
to take the advantages of Poland's decline for a long time.
Catherine to the Russian ambassador in Poland:
''Due to the impermanence of the people, and their malice towards ours
we will not have a harmless neighbor in them
until we make them absolutely impuissance''.
Poland is the victim of Russia - Prussia - Austria intrigue.
Kathrine started with setting Stanislav August Ponjatovsky,
one of herformerfavorites, on Polish elective throne.
Apparently, Catherine born her daughter Anna from Ponjatovsky.
The new king got the order from St.Petersburg
to equal the Catholic and the Orthodox in their rights.
Part of Polish noblesse leagued together
against the king and Russian interference.
Russia, Austria and Prussia begin to act together. They carried on
the first division. Poland lost one third of its territory.
Afterthe division Prussia united with Western Prussia,
whereas before Kenigsberg was parted from Berlin.
Austria gets the most populated South with Krakov and Lvov.
Russia gets Eastern Belorussia: Vitebsk, Gomel, Mogilev.
For 20 years afterthe first division Poland gathers its strength.
Government reform, economic expansion,
Konstitution - one of the world's first. Not all were pleased
with the changes, a confederation against the king was formed
but this time they spoke for Catherine's interference with bringing
in Russian troops. Poland was divided forthe second time
between Russia and Prussia. Poland looses two thirds of its territory.
Prussia gets one of the largest ports - Gdansk, Torun, Poznan.
Russia gets Right - bank Ukraine with Gitomir and Vinita
and makes ahead furtherto Belorussia: Minsk, Pinsk.
Tadeush Kostushko, a Belorussian nobleman, a very sufficient general,
who studied in French academy and fought for United States lndependence,
raises a revolt in Poland. The centre of the revolt
is ancient capital Krakow, on the territory of Austrian occupation,
but the Polish considerthe Russians to be their main enemies.
From Kostushko's manifest:
''Czaritza has chosen Poland to be the victim of her barbarian revenge.
Krakov citizens decided either to die underthe ruins of
theirfatherland orto liberate their native land''.
The first defeat Russians get from Kostushko scythers,
Polish peasants armed with scythes.
The rebellious troops hold victory in Warsaw and Vilno (today's Vilnus).
Kathrine sends Suvorov to masterthe Polish.
He takes Vilno, Kostushko is defeated near Warsaw,
and after Warsaw outskirt of Prague on the other bank of Vistula,
was taken by storm. The capital of Poland gives up.
This is the central street of Warsaw, called Krakow Outskirt.
lt leads to the king palace.
While brinning Russian troops to Warsaw, Suvorov realizes
that he cannot hold the population of the capital from defiant gestures.
Russian commanders give the order not to open lower windows,
not to provoke the troops to act backward,
That means the Polish are allowed to treat the Russians as they do.
Very arrogant, no doubt.
But Cossacks' spades will never reach such heights.
Suvuruv's report there are 3 words in Kathrine's answer - 2.
General - unchief Suvorov:
''Hurrey, Warsaw is ours!''
''Hurrey, field marshal!''
The new military rank was accompanied by
a baton with diamonds and 7 thousand predawn serves.
Then there comes the third final division of Poland.
The tree empires, all tree with black eagles on their emblems,
have torn to pieces the white Polish eagle.
For 120 years Poland disappears from the map of the world.
The train goes to the West. The Polish train.
Before Catherine the Western boarder went right after Smolensk.
Now it has been returned to the same place.
But according to the then territorial acquisitions of Russia
it took you the whole day to get to the West by train
from Smolensk along the territory of the present - day Ukraine.
The boarder was greatly.
On the South - West the empire acquired Ukraine to the West from Kiev
but without Golitsia and Lvov,
Galitsko - Volynskoe Principality of Kievan Russia.
When it came to yielding Galitsia to the Austrians,
Kathrine even cried and went on telling
that it was necessary to exchange back Galitsia from the Viennese Emperor.
but these lands, Golitsino and Lvov, would join the empire only
under Stalin. Aside from this the integration of Russian people was
considered to be completed, as it seamed in those days.
Worse was the situation with the land we are passing.
Being Polish they were given without any reason to Austria,
and what was even worth to Prussia,
that became a mighty state, the main in East - country.
To prove the title of ''All Russia'' turned out to be very costy.
Russia made the dangerous German neighbor stronger,
placing it just by its boarder
and for 2 centuries Russia condignly acquired itself the Polish enemy.
Warsaw defeated by the Russians came to Prussia afterthe third
division. The German neighbors would hardly let Russia
to handle the problems with Poland eye to eye. They would not
miss such a booty. There was no excuse for Russian diplomacy gifts.
Grigory Orlov, for example, considered the first Poland division
agreement to be the crime worthy of death penalty.
Historian Kluchevsky:
''Thanks to the Russians Slovenian cemetery obtained one more vast grave.
Mind demanded to protect Western Russia from becoming Polish,
and only the cabinet policy could let Poland to become German''.
Oginsky Street.
The town of Guzov. lt is about 50 kilometers away from Warsaw.
lt is the motherland of prince Kleofas Michail Oginsky,
who usually signed as Michail Oginsky.
Guzov is just one of many other estates.
Magnate Oginsky also put in a claim forthe Polish Crown
together with the Ponjatovskys.
The largest part of his fortune
prince Oginsky spent forthe needs of the rebel army.
Afterthe rebellion was defeated Polish officers and immigrants
became solders of Napoleon's army,
they were called legionaries.
Purhaps it was Oginsky, a gifted amateur composer,
who wrote the legionaries' sing famouse ''Jeszcze Polska nie zginela...'',
which later would become the anthem of Poland.
Paul l would release Kostushko from Peter - Paul fortress,
on the ninth day after Catherine's death.
Amnestied Oginsky would even become a Russian senator.
in St. Petersburg he is called Michail Alexandrovich.
ln the Oginskys' mansion in St. Petersburg in Bolshaja Morskaja
there is the Union of Composers now.
All the big balls started traditionally with polonaise,
the dance of defeated Poland.
The polonaise, composed by Oginsky,
is played for 200 years already
by sensitive soles of the Russian Empire
starting with empress Elizabeth Alekseevna, the wife of Alexander l.
Mi - D - minor, Mi - fa, Mi - do - do, Si - la.
No doubt this is Oginsky's polonaise, because he composed it.
The name of the thing was awkward forthe empire - ''Partying with
the Motherland''. Oginsky wrote it in the year of the final division
The Polish prove be the most hard - bitten people in Russia's way
200 years after division the situation is the same - wars and rebellions.
Though one can find the word ''gid'' in ancient Kievan chronicles,
there were a few Jews in Russia at the end of XVlll century.
afterthe Polish division the Russian empire
had the largest Jewish population in the world.
The Jews got the Russian nationality,
they were accepted to commoner and merchant guild.
The word ''gid'' disappeared from the state acts.
The 19 years passed afterthe first division brought no changes
until Smolensk and Moscow traders began to complain.
The Jew merchants turned out to be more successful than even German ones.
From the complaint against Jews to Moscow commander - in - chief:
''...They sell goods at reduced prices,
which is harmful for local trade''.
After a long break
there again work the burses in Moscow street ''Ochotny rjad''.
This place is traditionally considered to be trading place,
and Moscow merchants from ''Ochotny rjad''
were traditionally thought to be the main professional anti - Semites.
Their dislike of Jews was connected with professional interests.
AJew merchant is a very strong rival.
ln December 1791 Catherine issued the decree
that shielded the merchants from such a rivalry.
Kathrine ll's decree:
''Jews are not allowed to sign into the trade
in inner Russian towns, they are only allowed
to have a right of nationality and a low - middle class in Belorussia''.
That means a Jewish merchant are allowed to take his goods only
as far as Vitebsk. There appeared the Pale - the limit of Jew living.
all the newly obtained western territories would stay beyond that limit.
they are densely populated with Jews. Litwa, Right - bank Ukraine,
especialy Gitomir region with its Vilynsky Jerusalim, Berdichev.
Mestechko is the main place of the Pale.
There's no intention to insult the place, lt's an official notion.
derived from Polish ''mjastechko'', which means ''a town''.
So in present - day official language -
it is a town - like settlement.
ln the Soviet Union such a settlement might become a village,
Likewise in Russia mestechko might loose its rank any moment.
lt was a repressive measure,
As far as Jews were not allowed to live in the country,
by this decree they were elbowed out of their roots, out of ''mestechko''.
This is an ancient Jewish cemetery near Satonov.
From here one can easily see
the confessional hierarchy, which is rigidly observed in the Pole.
The highest of all is the Catholic church,
further right in the centre of the place there is the Orthodox church,
and lower nearthe ravine there is a synagogue,
along the ravine there flows river Zbrutch, there's a watermill there,
which still works. No doubt it belonged to the Jew.
Further on there are the same hills, and places in ravines,
On the nearby cemetery there is buried rabbi Besht, the founder of Chasidism.
The religion of Chassids has grown up here as the Jewish reformation,
Jewdaism was brought to life, and became Jewish all overthe world.
Along the river Zbrutch there went the boarder between Russia and Austria - Hungary.
Boadering the great power in the West and Black Sea in the South,
the empire reaches its natural boundaries under Catherine.
ln the East it stepped even overthem.
The Russians crossed Eastern Siberia up to Pacific Ocean in XVll century.
lt was the trip from Anadyr, the capital of Chukotka,
founded at the reign of Alekey Mikhajlovich, Peter l's father.
The empire comes further.
Under Anna and Elizabeth they squatted Kamchatka and found territories
to the East of it. They did not know before,
if there was a joining between Asia and America.
From lomonosov's ode:
''Russian Columbuses despite bad luck, among the glaciers
will open the way to the East, and the power come to America''.
The new way to the East was found by two expeditions of Vitas Bering,
the Dutchman in the Russian employ.
one of the ships of Bering's expedition
reaches the islands of Alexander Archipelago,
the other examines the coast of the continent itself.
The discovered lands are plotted on the map and named ''Russian America''.
active usage of these territories will begin under Catherine.
The empire lies on three continents. Euroasiamerica.
One of the most popular nowadays phrase about ''this America''
''as Siberia as Alaska, the two coasts''.
''This America'' used to belong to Russia,
forthe Americans it is the very West for us it is the very East.
Bering's expedition headed against the sun,
they look forthe land to the East from Eastern Siberia.
They found lands like Siberia only on the other side of the ocean.
They like to show this gesture here,
the little finger is Alaska Peninsula itself,
the fist is the continental part of Alaska State,
this is the Pacific Coast, wantingly examined by the Russians.
Opposite there is Siberia. Between them there is Pacific ocean.
The two banks.
The phrase ''Don't be a goat, America'' means:
''Do not pretend you differfrom us''.
Then the Americans will come from the continent.
Alaska, sung by Jack London, was Northern and Continental.
the white stillness, icy desert.
As forthe Russians the hardly ever rode a dog - driven sledge
they came from the ocean, and seized the coastland and nearby islands.
This land lies to the South from St. Petersburg in the same latitude as Moscow.
Siberia was conquered because its forests were full of sables.
They moved further in search of peltry.
All the greatest Russian pioneers were hunters.
ln America the Russians had the same peltry interest.
They conquered Alaska because its warters were full of calans,
sea otters, or sea beavers, as they are called in Russia.
Here they are, calans. The whole pod of them.
250 years ago the Russians saw calans here forthe first time,
They laid among the rocks of Alaska seacoast.
now one can see calans here
only when hunt with one of the descendants of the natives.
Only the descendants of the Amerinds
are allowed to shoot calans in piece amounts nowadays
to mountain the traditional calan fishery.
The procedure of gun hunting has not been changed science:
one traces the animal from the boat, and shoots from the rocks.
The Russian colonialists didn't hunt by themselves. They hired the natives.
The first precious pelts were brought to Russia from America
by Bering's companions, who survived.
There started a peltry - fever on Alaska under Catherine.
By 1790 the price of the shot calans came up to 6 mln rubbles.
ln XVlll calan fur costs 20 times as much as sable fur,
which is the second valuable fur.
One calan pelt costs 100 then rubbles,
the annual wage of a geodesist, a very important member of an expedition
makes only 70 then rubbles.
The serious exploration of Russian America starts with
Grigory Shelechov. The richest merchant of the region, he founds
the first permanent settlements, he invites the Orthodox mission.
the natives are baptized, the children are taught Russian hornbook,
The cleverest Americans are sent to study to the West - to Russia.
Shelekhov organizes expeditions, stakes out a claim on the newly obtained lands.
These iron sheets, made by Shelekhov's order,
the pioneers bury throughout the coast
to find them with a magnet and introduce
as a proof of the Russian priority in case of a debatable land.
There is a cross and a sign: ''The lands of the Russian Empire''.
There is only one sheet left. lt belongs to Alaska Museum.
Shelekhov hailed from Rylsk, a small town in Kursk region.
He was famous for his extensive reading and exquisitism.
To bring the order to the fur - hunting,
he suggests Catherine organizing monopoly
with privileges for 20 years.
He goes to St. Petersburg gains a hearing,
gets from the Empress the name sword and a flat refusal.
The famous Russian - American company was founded after Catherine.
lt would gain the success at the beginning of XlX century.
The first year of French revolution of 1789 did not scare Catherine.
She expected the rebellion in Paris and met it with a kind of gloat.
The next year she read the book
''Journey From Petersburg to Moscow''.
The Empress was indignant not at its revolutionism, but at the appeal
to pull down the regime. lt deserved punishment,
and the flatness of the statement that the situation in Russia is awful.
lt's about the time for Catherine to summarize her reign,
besides she has convinced herself long before her empire flourished.
''My Lord, l wish my people be happy and safe so much!
Radishchev,''Journey From Petersburg to Moscow'':
''l looked around
and my soul was hit by human distress''.
Alexander Radishchev was the chief of the Petersburg custom - house.
90% of the Russian import passed through it.
He nevertook bribes. Then it was also an exception.
He worked out a new customs tariff,
for which Catherine presented him with a ring.
But the post of a minister in future is less then Radishchev dreams about.
His wants to be an empire over the minds of men and the monitor of the power.
What a trip! From Petersburg to Moscow.
Just a night by train and an hour by plane.
Nowadays, to travel at the speed as Radishchev did,
to spend a week on wheels,
one should go by bike,
and of course one should take not modern highway St. Petersburg - Moscow,
which is just about 200 meters away from here,
this one, Radishchev road, which now became a country road.
just by the Chudovo - Novgorod region the road joins the highway
number E95. The master got tired of jogging in the carriage,
he went off and went on walking nearby. He saw a man in the field.
The ploughman has two horses, but he can work for himself
only on Sundays, and 6 days a week he works at his master's.
with this complain of a simple man, told by the nobleman,
the literature of common people starts. And it's not only literature.
Radishchev was the first to notice ''a poet in Russia is more than a poet".
Even those who haven't read the book know thunders against the serfdom.
ln fact there's not a vice of the civilization that he didn't stigmatize.
He wrote the most raging book of Russian Literature.
''Journey From Petersburg to Moscow'' is a very mean piece of literature,
not to mention its barbarian style''.
Radishchev lived in this house. Now the street is named after Marat.
The author just bought a hand press
and published the first edition in his own mention.
On the tenth day of its sale, the book is read by the one
who it was intended for, the empress. lt takes hertime to read
the book and to find the publisher. Meanwhile 26 copies are sold.
The famous Catherine's review: ''He is an anarchist even worst than Pugachev,
The Cossack passed himself off as a tsar and professed monarchism,
and this writer - nobleman intended to enforce republic''.
lt was the only time Lenin agreed with Catherine,
when put Radishchev at the top of the list of those, who deserved
Bolshevik monument. Catherine about Radishchev's radicalism:
''the policy is bad if it tries to change with the laws,
what should be changed by customs''.
kathrine would commutate the death penalty to 10 years of imprisonment
in Siberia. Radishchev was the first sentenced for ''the book''.
that was the beginning of the recusance in Russia.
There are already some places in the South, that are named after Catherine.
Ekatherinodar, today's Krasnodar and Ekatherinoslav, now Dnepropetrovsk.
The latter was intended to become the centre of the region.
On the Black Sea coast Potemkin founded Nikolaev, Kherson, Ochakov,
and Sevastopol, the main base of the navy.
ln 1794 after prince Tavrichesky's death,
Catherine gets a message from vice - admiral Deribas, who seized lzmail.
He points to the advantages of the bay nearthe Turkish fortress Hadgy - bay.
The town would be named afterthe nearby Greek settlement Odisass.
The legendary Catherine's wish:
''Let the name be Hellenic, but feminine''.
Odessa is the most successful town - building project
and the centre of the South of Russia.
There are a lot of pubs in Deribasovskaja Street.
The main street of Odessa is named afterthe founder of the city.
The Neapolitan of Spenish - lrish origin in Russia's employ,
what can be more cosmopolitan?
Don losif Deribas was commonly called Deribas.
They needed to draw more people to this territory
to fix it fast under Russia.
And they open the door unusually wide.
Forthe first time in history anything that wasn't prohibited
was allowed. As a result Odessa became the monument
to superiority of the private initiative overthe official circular.
ln Odessa there is French and ltalian Boulevards,
Greek, Polish, Jewish, Bulgarian, Bolshaja and Malaja Arnautskaja Streets.
Arnauts was the name for Albanians. Besides there is Moldavanka outskirt.
There was the second window to Europe made, facing the South.
The new port has a lot of rivals, caused by laws.
Enviers raised a report,
that self - seeking Deribas got the decree of Odessa by bilking Catherine.
Deribas has really made his fortune thanks to Odessa mirracle, it proves
it's not a fiction. And one hardly can imagine Catherin being insane.
till the end of her days she keeps on working.
though she is very ill. She suffers from ulcers on herfeet.
She became quarrelsome and impatient.
Park in Czarskoye Selo is very inconvenient place for shooting.
There are hills everywhere.
and only the ramps make it possible to move the technique.
At the end of Catherine's life they built the ramp,
leading from the park right to the first floor of the wing,
where the empress lived.
kathrine grows senescent, she can hardly climb the staircase,
and they drive her in the wheel - chair.
this southern wing is also called Zubovsky Corp,
afterthe last empress's favorite, Platon Zubov,
who was accommodated there. He usually walks by the wheel - chair.
Kathrine calls him ''sweety boy Platosha''.
and the court sniped,
that Her Majesty at the end of her life
has found Platonic love at last.
their relation will last for 7 years.
When it started Zubov was 22, and Catherine 60.
Platon Zubov symbolizes the degradation of Catherine's favoritism.
without any reason
the cheeky youth occupies all the posts imaginable,
he commands the navy and artillery. He became the governor - general,
he seats in the Art Academy and in the Board of foreign affaires
he even tries to substitute highly experienced diplomat Bezborodko.
Prince Bezborodko:
''l am a cleaner. l clean what Zubov mess''.
After Catherine'death Paul l would deprive Platosha of 36 posts.
zubov plans the insane Percian campaign
He planed to rich lndia. But they stopped after seizing Derbent and Baku.
The favorite got away with everything.
Another Catherine's passion is the devolution of the throne to
her grandson Alexander, omitting her son Paul.
They were preparing the empress's manifest by Christmas,
but the empress suddenly dies on November 5.
Nothing augured the end. Then they would remember as usually,
that Catherine mourned the diseased queen of Portugal,
spoke a lot about the death of king of Sardinia.
On her last day the empress got up at 7 o'clock as usual,
took a cup of coffee and worked in her bedroom till 9,
than she went to the adjoining lavatory.
The elder lady lived nicely, playing the whore,
Was Walter's best friend, She wrote instructions and burned fleet,
And died when on the vessel.'
Now we can acquit Poshkin of everything
including mentioning the facts of Catherine ll's death.
Considering these circumstances
there was obviously no one at the moment of death.
Servants Zotov and Perekusihina opened the door of the closet,
when they noticed their mistress stayed in the lavatory too long.
They found Kathrine senseless.
When they brought the body back to the bedroom, Platon Zubov was the first notified.
The vessel mentioned by Pushkin became famous before Catherine died.
This commode is believed to be the throne of
Polish kings brought from Varshava afterthe division of Poland
in which they cut the whole.
The last bad of the owner of half a world is also well - known.
She would never recover.
From the joky epitaph Catherine wrote for herself:
''She meant only well
and tried to give her homages happiness, freedom and property''.
Pushkin poem about the death of the empress begins with the words:
''l feel great sorrow forthe great dame''.
English ambassador said at the funeral: ''They burry Russia''.
To be followed by:
The Kingdom of Paul l.
Gatchin Drill. Guard of Honor.
The box of complaints and suggestions.
the three days of the base service. Paul is the Russian Pope.
The Maltese is a peacemaker of the Orthodox and the Catholics.
Suvorov's Crossing Alps. The Great feats are not for Russia.
Empress Maria Fodorovna, German Motherfor Russian Tsars.
Playing cards for needs of charity.
Mikhailovsky Castle.
The night of emperor's murder.
The Zubov snuffbox that as the legend go broke the temple.
The Russian Empire. On NTV.